Esquirol, Des maladies mentales, 1838, tome i, pp. 159, 191, 192, 201.
Dagonet, Traite des maladies mentales, 1894, p. 63.
Ball, Leçons sur les maladies mentales, pp. in and 112.
Tumburini, Revue scientifique, 1881.
Kandinsky, Kritische und klinische Betrachtungen im Gebiete der Sinnestäuschungen, 1885, p. 148.
Max Simon defines hallucination thus :—“A sensory perception without an external object to give it birth” (compare Ball, “A perception without an object,” Leçonsur les maladies mentales, deux, éd., p. 62; and Bianchi, “A subjective perception,” Trattato di Psichiatria, p. 200). In another place Simon asks, “What is an hallucination in point of fact?” and answers, “A sensation which runs along a sensory nerve ina direction the reverse of normal impressions” (Le monde des réves,deux, éd., pp. 72, 93, 103). Simon does not claim originality for this view, which he says was entertained by Morel, who again followed Buchez. I have not been able to verify the reference to Morel, which is rather vague; but elsewhere that author says, “I reject none of the definitions of hallucination; I give my adhesion to none” (Maladies mentales, deux, tome, p. 472).
Maury, Le sommeil et les réves, quatrième éd., p. 78, cf. Bail, Maladies mentales, p. 64.
Séglas, “Les hallucinations unilatèrales,"Annales mèdico-psychologiques8,me sèrieto,me 6me, p. 230.
Baillarger, Des hallucinations, etc., 1846, pp. 385 et seq.
Sèglas,Leçonscliniques sur les maladies mentales, 1895, pp. 13 et seq. ; Troubles du langage chez les aliènè1s8,92, pp. HT et seq.; and several earlier papers referred to in these works. Sèglasrefers to the fact that Fournie and Max Simon (see the work above quoted, p. 103) had regarded these conditions as disturbances of the function of language, and that Lèluthad already suspected this connection.
Lugaro, “Sulle Pseudo allucinazioni (Allucinazioni Psichiche di Baillarger),” Riv. di Pat. Nerv, e Mentale, Genn. e Febb., 1903.
Lugaro, op. cit., “It is probable that this fundamental disturbance depends on an elective and systematic lesion of special cortical neurons. The system engaged cannot be either sensory or motor, because the sensibility and the motor capacity are intact ; nor can it be a system set apart for the association of images, because the memory and ideation are preserved ; the lesion must therefore engage a system of neurons set apart for the supreme co-ordination between representations, the corresponding emotions, and the execution of acts.”
Cramer, “Ueber Sinnestäuschungen bei Geisteskranken Taubstummen,” Archiv, f. Psych., Band xxviii, s. 875.
Exemplified in a case at present under my care, in which a female patient who suffers from auditory hallucinations hears in her right ear the voice of her priest comforting her, and in her left the voice of the devil tempting her and suggesting suicide and despair.