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Physiology and Pathology of the Sympathetic System of Nerves

  • A. Eulenburg (a1) and P. Guttmann (a2)

The disease described by Heberden (1768) as Angina Pectoris, which is sometimes also termed Stenocardia, is not an anatomically definable cardiac affection, but rather a group of symptoms, originating in very different and for the most part unknown conditions. Although, therefore, we include a short account of it in this essay, we do not wish to indicate it as our belief that it is caused exclusively by changes in the sympathetic system, but that it seems to us that the latter, inasmuch as it takes the principal part in the formation of the cardiac plexus—which is almost certainly the starting point of angina pectoris—is undoubtedly in some way connected with the occurrence of the phenomena under consideration.

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* It should be stated that it was for this Essay that the Astley Cooper Prize for 1877 was originally awarded to Dre. Eulenburg and Guttmann—a decision, however, which was subsequently overthrown on the technical ground that the paper was the work of two authors, and not of one only—as the terras of Sir A. Cooper's will eeem to require. This essay having been handed in in October, 1876, there are no references to any papers on the subject written since then.

“Lancet,” 1867, July 27, p. 97. t See Stokes, “Lehrbuch der Herzkrankheiten,” p. 398. t “Würzburger med. Zeitschrift,” 1863, Band iy.f p. 249.

Virchow'e “Archiv,” 1868, 26th Band, p. 1.

“Greifswalder modicinische Beiträge,” ii. Band, 1861, p. 161-177. t” Centraiblatt für die med. Wissenschaften/ 1867. Ko. 23.

“Müller's Archiv für Physiologie,” J841, p. 236.

“Archives générales de Méd.,“1863, Vol. ii., p. 564-570, and p. 696-698. t” Correspondenzblatt für Psychiatrie,” 1866.

“Angina pectoris vasomotoria,””Arohiv für klinische Medicin/' 1867, Band iii., p. 309.

“De l'altération de l'aorte et da piezas cardiaque dans l'angine de poitrine,” Gaz. méd., 1864, p. 432.

Cordes, “Deutsches Archiv für klin. Med.,“1874, Bd. xiv., p. 141. y. Hübner, also, has got the most favourable results from galvanising the sympathetic in one case of angina pectoris.” Archiv für klin. Med.,” 1873, Bd. zii.

Martini, “Comptes rendus/' 1856,” Tome xliii., p. 1052. Kent Spender, 11 British Med. Journal,“11 Septr., 1858. Stedmann,” Guy's Hosp. Reports,” viii., 1868, p. 1.

“Comptes rendus,” 1856, Tome xliii., p. 422 and 904 j u Comptes rendue,“1857, Tome xliv., ρ. 2Φ6; and Tome xlv., p. 1036. X u Comptes rendus,” 1856, T. xliii., p. 468.

* Comptes rendus,” 1856, T. xliii, p. 964 and 1155; T. xliv., p. 396.

“Canstatt's Jahresbericht,” 1857, iv., p. 265.

“British and Foreign Hed. Chir. Review,“1858, vol. xxi., p. 204 and 498. $”De la peau bronzée, ou Maladie d*Addison,“Thèse, Strassboarg, 1859. II” Union Médicale de Paris,” 1863, No. 61, p. 346.

«« Comptes rendus,“1856, Tome xiii., p. 664; and Tome xlv., 1857, p. 340. *·”Archiv für Path Anat.,“1857, Bd. xii., p. 481. ff”Archiv für Path. Anat.,“1866, Bd. xxxi., p. 64. XX” Die krankhaften Geschwülste,“Bd. ii., p. G95. § § See Yirchow,” Die krankhaften Geschuülste,“Bd. ii., p. 695. H H See” Schmidt's Jahrbücher der Medicin,“Bd. cxxvi., p. 239. ^”Yirchow s Archiv,” 1857, Band. xii.,p. 483.

* “Lancet,” 1875, Yol. i., p. 327, 861, 395,429, 463, 632.

The particolare of this case are not given in any of the books or publica, tions to which we have had access.

Monro, “Assoc. Med. Jonr.” 1856, p. 848.

§ Washington Lovegrove, “Med. Times and Gaz.,” 1858, 17th July.

F. J. J. Schmidt, “Archiv für die holländischen Beitrage,” Bd. ii., ρ. 16θ.

van Andel, “Nederl. Tijdschr. v. Geneesk,” vi., p. 200 (April, 1862).

“Med. Times and Gaz.,” 1863, 24 Jany.

§ Habershon, “Lancet,” 1864, δ March, p. 269. II v. Kecklinghaneen, “DeutEche Klinik,” 1864, No. 8, p. 78.

Virchow, “Die krankhaften Geschwülste,” Bd. iL, p. 697.

Greenhow,” Path. Transact./' xvii., p. 307.

Meinhardt, “Wiener med. Presse,” 1866, No. 1-4 and 7-9.

§ Bartsch, “De Morbo Addieonii,” Inaugural Dissertation, Königsberg, 1867. II Sanderson,” Med. Times and Gaz.,” 1868, Oct. 31.

* M. Wolff, “Berliner klinische Wochenschrift,” 1869, Bd. 17, 18. t Kahlmann,” Berliner klin. Wochenschrift, ' 1869, No. 45.

* Α. Frankel, “Ein Fall von Addison'scher Krankheit,” Inang. Dissert., Berlin, 1870.

Burresi, “Lo Sperimentale,” xxv., 6.) (Anno, xxii., 1870), p. 521.

Southey, Pathological Society of London. Sitting of 19 Decbr., 1871.

§ Tuckwell, “St. Barthol. Hosp. Rep.,“vii. (1871), p. 78. II Trübiger,” Archiv der Heilkunde,” 1874, Bd. xv., p. 417.

Martinean, “De la Maladie d'Addison,” Paris, 1864.

Child, “Lancet,” 18 Feby., 1866, p. 176.

Williame, “Brit. Med. Journal,” 9th February, 1867.

§ Chatin, “Gaz. méd de Lyon,” 1867, p. 257.

Van den Corput, “Journ. de Bruxelles,” xvii., p. 573. Dsch, 1868. % Heslop, “Lancet,” 1870, No.23.

·· Schüppel, “Archiv der Heilkunde,” 1870, xi., p. 87.

Eossbach, Yirchow's “Archiv,” 1870, Bd. 1., p. 566, and Bd. li., p. 100.

H. Wolff, “Ein Fall von Broncekrankheit,” Inaug. Dissert., Berlin, 1872, p. 25.

Krause, “Sitzungsberichte des Vereins der Aerzte in Steiermark,” ix., p. 22 (1871-72).

§ Eppinger,” Böhmisches ärztliches Correspondenzblatt,'* 1875, No. 29, p. 259

Pye Smith, Virchow's “Archiv,” 1875, 65th Band., p. 602.

Braun, “Löhrbach der Balneotherapie” (Berlin, 1868), p. 343.

“Tageblatt der Naturforscher-Versammhung zu Innsbruck,“1869, p. 113« t Willie,11 Op. omn.,” ed. Geney., T. ii., p. 323.

Tanquerel dee Planches,” Traité des maladies de plomb on saturnines.'* Parie, 1889. The following quotation is from a German translation, published by Frankenberger in 1842, p. 208. Tanquerel holds that the seat of lead colio is not exclusively in the mesenteric plexus, but acoording as certain plexuses are specially involved the colic appears as epigastric, umbilical, hypogastric, renal, originating in the cceliao, mesenteric, hypogastric, or renal plexus, t L. c., p. 200.

Andrai, “Clinique médicale,” 3 ed., Tome ii., p. 229.

Tanquerel, L. c., p. 201.

% Amongst his 49 cases Tanquerel found “balling” of the intestines 16 times, apparently accompanied by contraction; hypertrophy of Brunner'e glands seven times; slight swelling of Foyer's patches three times; thick layers of exuded mucus on the mucous membrane four times; deep-seated softening five times; a completely normal state of the canal 20 times. Other good observers (Andrai, Copland, Louis, Stokes, Ac.) could find no pathological changes in the intestine.

§ Kussmaul and Maier, “Deutsches Arohiv für klinische Medicin,” 1872, ix., p. 283.

Ségond, “Essai sur la neuralgic du grand sympathique, maladie connue Boas lee nome de colique végétale, de Poitou,” &©. Paris, 1837.

Bomberg, “Lehrbuch der Nervenkrankheiten,” 2te Aufl., 1651, Bd. i., p. 14, p. 141-170. t Ibidem, p. 142.

Borsieri, “Instit. med. praot.,” vol. i., p. 285.

Henoch, “Klinik der Unterleibekrankheiten,” Berlin, 1854, Bd. ii., p. 184.186.

v. Bamberger, “Krankheiten des chylopoëtischen Systems,” Erlangen, 1855. Virchow's “Spec. Path, nnd Ther.,” Bd. vi., Ite Abtheilung, p. 168.

% Wittmaack, “Pathologie und Therapie der Sensibilitätsneurosen.” Leip-sig, 1861, p. 842.

Valleix, “Observations on the Structure and diseases of the Testis.” London, 1880, p. 49.

Chaussier, “Table Synoptique de la Neuralgie suivant la Nomenclature Méthod. de l'Anat.” 1803.—Valleix, “Traité des Neuralgies ou Affections doni, des Nerfs.” Paris, 184L—See also Neucourt,”Archiv Gen./' July and August, 1858.

Leubuscher, “Krankheiten des Nervensystems,” Lpz. 1860, p. 83.

§ Hasse : “Krankheiten der Norvensystems” (Virchows “spec. Path, and Th.,” Band IV., Abthl. 1), 2te. Aufl; Erlangen, 1868, p. 82.

Gooch, “Account of Some of the most Important Die eases Peculiar to Women.” London, 1831, p. 299. t Cahen, “Des Névroses Vasomotrices.” Arch. Gen., 1863, T. ii.

Willis, in explanation of this, draws attention to the anatomioal connection between the sympathetic and the nerves of the extremities. “Nervi enim mesenterii non tantum cum intestinis, stomaoho, jecorealiisque visceribus communicant, sed etiam cum lumborum aliarumque partium nervis, et conse-quenter cum artaum.” (De anima brutorum qu œ hominis vitalis et sensitiva est; Op. Omn. Genev., 1680.)

Whytt, “Observations on the nature, causes, and cure of the disorders which are oommonly called nervous, hypochrondriar, or hysteric, Ac.” Edinburgh, 1765.

Proohaeka,” Institutionum phy Biologi» human»/' vol. i. et. ii. Wien, 1806.

§ Romberg, L. o., p. 165.

Combaire, “Dissert, sur l'extirpation des reine.” Paris, 1803.

Romberg. “Lehrbuch der Nervenkrankheiten,” 3 Aufl., 1855, p. 913.

Brown-Séquard, “Lectures on the diagnosis and treatment of the principal forms of paralysis of the lower extremities.” Philadelphia, 1861, p. 24. His results were negatived by those obtained by Gull; “Guy's Hosp. Rep.,” vii., 1861.

Graves, “Leçons de clinique médicale,” traduites par Jaccoud, 2 Ed. Paris, 1868.

Stanley, “On irritation of the spinal cord and its nerves in connection with disease of the kidneys”—“Med. Chir. Transactions,” xviii., 1833.

§ Jaccoud, “Les paraplégies et l'ataxie du mouvement.” Paris, 1864, p. 353. Jaccoud, following up his “exhaustion” theory, called the reflex paralysis newro-paralytic 'paralysis.

Lewisson, α Uber Hemmung der Thatigkeit der motorischen Nervencentra durch Reizung sensibler Nerven.“Richert*s und du Bois-Reymond's” Archiv,” 1869, p. 255.266.

% Leyden, “Uber Reflexlähmungen,” in Volkmann's “Sammlung klinischer Vorträge.” Leipzig, 1870, No. 2.

** Feinberg, “Ueber Reflexlähmungen,” Berliner klin. Wochenschrift, 1871, No. 44-46.

* “Berliner klin. Wochenschrift,” 1864., No. 21-23.

Remale, “Beri. klin. Wochenschrift,“1865, No. 13. t Remale,” Beri. klin. Wochenschrift,” 1865, No. 25.

* Duchenne, “Recherches cliniques sur l'état pathologique du grand Sympathique dans 1'Ataxie Locomotrice Progressive.” Gaz. ïïebd., 1864, Nos. 8 and 10.

Duchenne, “Sitzung der Acad, des Sciences, vom 18 Jan., 1864. j Carré,” Nouvelles Recherches sur 1'Ataxie Locomotrice Progressive.“Paris, 1865.” Gaz. des Hôp,.“1865, No. 73. $ Westphal,” VirchoVs Archiv,” Band 39, p. 114.

Weetphal, “Virchow's Archiv,” Band 39, p. 865.

Vulpian,” Archives de Physiologie Normale et Pathologiqne, 1869, ii., p. 221.

Remak, “Nene Beiträge zur Lehre von der Tabes.” “Beri. klin. Wochenschrift,” 1864, No. 41.

Ì Remak, ibidem, p. 897.

Benedikt, “Zur Lehre von der Localisation der Epilepsie.” Allgemeine Wiener med. Zeitung, 1870, Noe. 35 and 36.

* Petrow, “Die Veränderungen des Sympatischen Nervensysteme bei Con· Btitutioneller Syphilis.” VirohoVe “Archiv,” 1873, Bd. 67, p. 121.

* Pio Foà, “Süll' Anatomia del gran Simpatico.” Bologna, 1S74. t De Giovanni, “Annali nniv. Tebbr,” 1875, p. 246. I Köster, “Berliner klinische Wochenschrift,” 1875, No. 34.

It should be stated that it was for this Essay that the Astley Cooper Prize for 1877 was originally awarded to Drs. Eulenburg and Guttmann—a decision, however, which was subsequently overthrown on the technical ground that the paper was the work of two authors, and not of one only—as the terms of Sir A. Cooper's will seem to require. This essay having been handed in in October, 1876, there are no references to any papers on the subject written since then.

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Physiology and Pathology of the Sympathetic System of Nerves

  • A. Eulenburg (a1) and P. Guttmann (a2)
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