About one year ago, with the encouragement of the Editor-in-Chief, a short paper appeared in this Journal entitled “Schizophrenia; A New Approach” (18). In this paper it was noted that mescaline and adrenaline have a similar biochemical structure. It was suggested that one of the aetiological agents in schizophrenia might be a substance or substances lying between these two; with the psychological properties of mescaline but effective in concentrations nearer those of adrenaline. Dr. Harley Mason elaborated this suggestion from the biochemical standpoint. For convenience these hypothetical substances were called, collectively, M substance. If M substance occurred in the body, it would account for the group of illnesses usually referred to as schizophrenia better than any hypothesis so far advanced. It has been the good fortune of the co-authors of that first paper (J. R. S. and H. O.) to be able to join forces with the third author of this paper (A. H.) to test the hypothsis. It is with the efforts of the last year that this paper is concerned.
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