Nearly twenty years have elapsed since Mr. Shand published in Mind an article entitled “Character and Emotions”; in this he formulated the hypothesis that the sentiments are complex derivatives of the primitive emotions. Thus, in the analysis of love and hatred he showed that “the same four emotional dispositions of fear, anger, joy, and sorrow, which are essential to the system of love, are present also in the system of hate.” Many eminent psychologists have adopted, or partially adopted, his views, among whom may be mentioned Professors Stout, McDougall, Westermarck, Sully, Caldecott, and Boyce Gibson. A great feature of this interesting work is its literary merit, and the infinite care and skill displayed by the author in his study of the emotions and tempers by an analysis of the characters portrayed by the great dramatists, poets, and novelists. Mr. Shand recognises the fact that the success of the dramatist and novelist depends upon the study of individual characters, and he gives numerous examples which we shall refer to later, but we will first call attention to two quotations which appear opposite the title page. “And this subject of the different characters of dispositions is one of those things wherein the common discourse of man is wiser than books, a thing which seldom happens. Wherefore, out of these materials (which are surely rich and abundant) let a full and careful treatise be constructed, so that an artificial and accurate dissection may be made of men's minds and natures, and the secret disposition of each particular man laid open, that from a knowledge of the whole the precepts concerning the cures of the mind may be more rightly formed. and not only the characters of dispositions impressed by nature should be received into this treatise, but age, country, state of health, make of body, etc. And, again, those which proceed from fortune, as in princes, nobles, common people, the rich, the poor, magistrates, the ignorant, the happy, the miserable,” etc. —Francis Bacon, De Augmentis Scientiarum, B. vii, Ch. iii.
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