Hostname: page-component-cd4964975-8cclj Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-04-02T02:25:26.632Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

A Novel Un-differenced PPP-RTK Concept

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  14 October 2011

Baocheng Zhang*
(Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China)
Peter J.G. Teunissen*
(GNSS Research Centre, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Australia) (Delft Institute of Earth Observation and Space Systems, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands)
Dennis Odijk
(GNSS Research Centre, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Australia)


In this contribution, a novel un-differenced (UD) (PPP-RTK) concept, i.e. a synthesis of Precise Point Positioning and Network-based Real-Time Kinematic concept, is introduced. In the first step of our PPP-RTK approach, the UD GNSS observations from a regional reference network are processed based upon re-parameterised observation equations, corrections for satellite clocks, phase biases and (interpolated) atmospheric delays are calculated and provided to users. In the second step, these network-based corrections are used at the user site to restore the integer nature of his UD phase ambiguities, which makes rapid and high accuracy user positioning possible. The proposed PPP-RTK approach was tested using two GPS CORS networks with inter-station distances ranging from 60 to 100 km. The first test network is the northern China CORS network and the second is the Australian Perth CORS network. In the test of the first network, a dual-frequency PPP-RTK user receiver was used, while in the test of the second network, a low-cost, single-frequency PPP-RTK user receiver was used. The performance of fast ambiguity resolution and the high accuracy positioning of the PPP-RTK results are demonstrated.

Research Article
Copyright © The Royal Institute of Navigation 2011

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)



Bree, R. J. P., Tiberius, C. C. J. M. and Hauschild, A. (2009). Real time satellite clocks in single frequency precise point positioning. Proceedings of the ION GNSS 2009, Savannah, Georgia, USA.Google Scholar
Ciraolo, L., Azpilicueta, F. J., Brunini, C., Meza, A. and Radicella, S. M. (2007). Calibration errors on experimental slant total electron content (TEC) determined with GPS. Journal of Geodesy, 81, 111120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
De Jonge, P. J. (1998). A processing strategy for the application of the GPS in networks. Netherlands Geodetic Commission.Google Scholar
Geng, J., Teferle, F. N., Meng, X. and Dodson, A. H. (2010). Towards PPP-RTK: Ambiguity resolution in real-time precise point positioning. Advances in space research, doi:10.1016/j.asr.2010.03.030.Google Scholar
Jarlemark, P. O. J. and Emardson, T. R. (1998). Strategies for spatial and temporal extrapolation and interpolation of wet delay. Journal of Geodesy, 72, 350355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kouba, J. and Heroux, H. (2001). Precise point positioning using IGS orbit and clock products. GPS Solutions, 5, 1228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Li, X., Zhang, X. and Ge, M. (2010). Regional reference network augmented precise point positioning for instantaneous ambiguity resolution. Journal of Geodesy, 85, 151158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Odijk, D., Verhagen, S., Teunissen, P. J. G., Hernandez-Pajares, M., Juan, M. J., Sanz, J., Samson, J. and Tossaint, M. (2010). LAMBDA-Based Ambiguity Resolution for Next-Generation GNSS Wide Area RTK. Proceedings of the 2010 International Technical Meeting of the Institute of Navigation, San Diego, California, USA.Google Scholar
Sardon, E. and Zarraoa, N. (1997). Estimation of total electron-content using GPS data: how stable are the differential satellite and receiver instrumental biases? Radio Science, 32, 18991910.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Teunissen, P. J. G. (1995). The least squares ambiguity decorrelation adjustment: a method for fast GPS integer ambiguity estimation. Journal of Geodesy, 70, 6582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Teunissen, P. J. G. and Kleusberg, A. (1998). GPS for Geodesy, 2nd edition. Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Teunissen, P. J. G. and Verhagen, S. (2009). The GNSS ambiguity ratio-test revisited. Survey Review, 41, 138151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Teunissen, P. J. G., De Jonge, P. J. and Tiberius, C. C. J. M. (1996). Volume of the GPS ambiguity search space and its relevance for integer ambiguity resolution. Proceedings of the 1996 9th International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of the Institute of Navigation, ION GPS-96. Part 1 (of 2), Kansas City, MO, USA.Google Scholar
Teunissen, P. J. G., Odijk, D. and Zhang, B. C. (2010). PPP-RTK: results of CORS network-based PPP with integer ambiguity resolution. Journal of Aeronautics, Astronautics and Aviation, 42, 223230.Google Scholar
Vollath, U., Deking, A., Landau, H., Pagels, C. and Wagner, B. (2000). Multi-base RTK positioning using Virtual Reference Stations. Proceedings of the ION GPS 2000, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.Google Scholar
Wu, S. Q., Zhang, K. F. and Silcock, D. (2008). An Investigation of Performance Difference of Regional Atmospheric Models for Network RTK – A Case Study in Victoria. Proceedings of International Symposium on GPS/GNSS 2008, Tokyo, Japan.Google Scholar
Wuebbena, G., Schmitz, M. and Bagge, A. (2005). PPP-RTK: Precise Point Positioning using state-space representation in RTK networks. Proceedings of the ION GNSS 2005, Long Beach, California, USA.Google Scholar
Yuan, Y. B. and Ou, J. K. (2001). An improvement on ionospheric delay correction for single frequency GPS user-the APR-I scheme. Journal of Geodesy, 75, 331336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yuan, Y. B., Huo, X. L., Ou, J. K., Zhang, K. F., Chai, Y. J., Wen, D. B. and Grenfell, R. (2008a). Refining the Klobuchar ionospheric coefficients based on GPS observation. IEEE transactions on aerospace and electronic systems, 44, 14981510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yuan, Y. B., Tscherning, C. C., Knudsen, P., Xu, G. C. and Ou, J. K. (2008b). The ionospheric eclipse factor method (IEFM) and its application to determining the ionospheric delay for GPS. Journal of Geodesy, 82, 18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhang, K., Wu, F., Wu, S., Rizos, C., Roberts, C., Ge, L., Yan, T., Gordini, C., Kealy, A., Hale, M., Ramm, P., Asmussen, H., Kinlyside, D. and Harcombe, P. (2006). Sparse or dense: Challenges of Australian network RTK. Proceedings of International Global Navigation Satellite Systems Society IGNSS Symposium 2006, Queensland, Australia.Google Scholar
Zumberge, J., Heflin, M., Jefferson, D., Watkins, M. M. and Webb, F. H. (1997). Precise point positioning for the efficient and robust analysis of GPS data from large networks. Journal of Geophysical Research, 102, 50055017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar