Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-p2v8j Total loading time: 0.001 Render date: 2024-05-23T07:49:59.043Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Review of Experiences within Ice and Iceberg Management

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  02 October 2008

Kenneth Eik*
(Norwegian University of Science and Technology)


A review of existing knowledge regarding how to manage ice during offshore work in cold waters has been carried out. The objective has been to contribute to increased safety and efficiency in future projects by learning from world-wide experiences. It was found that offshore drilling has been carried out in a wide range of ice conditions and at water depths spanning from five metres to more than a thousand metres. Icebergs in open waters have been handled safely over several years and the possibility of detecting icebergs is considered good. With respect to icebergs frozen in sea ice, both detection and deflection is considered difficult and the technology for doing so is not proven. Good ice management systems are considered to represent the main factors for operating successfully in the covered waters. Future work should focus on how to include the effect of ice management statistically in a design process.

Research Article
Copyright © The Royal Institute of Navigation 2008

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)



Advanced Production and Loading (2007). Christian Mosgren, personal communicationGoogle Scholar
Arpiainen, M., Backstrøm, M., Juurmaa, K., Wilkman, G. and Veldman, K. (1999). Development of the new icebreaking supply vessel for Northern Caspian Sea, Proceedings of the 15th International conference on Port and Ocean Engineering under Arctic Conditions (POAC) , Helsinki, Finland, pp. 545551.Google Scholar
Crocker, G., Wright, B., Thistle, S. and Bruneau, S. (1998). An assessment of Current Iceberg Management Capabilities. Report submitted to National Research Council Canada, Prepared by C-CORE and B. Wright abd Associates Ltd., C-CORE Publication 98-C26.Google Scholar
Evers, K.U. and Kuehnlein, W.L. (2001). Drilling Exploration in the North Caspian Sea. HSVA Newswave, The Hamburg Ship Model Basin, Newsletter. Hamburg, Germany, 2001, 67.Google Scholar
Hibernia, (2007). About Hibernia – Hibernia Ice management. Website: [cited 1 September 2007]Google Scholar
Hnatiuk, J. (1983). Exploration Methods in the Canadian Arctic. Journal of Cold Regions Science and Technology 7, 181193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Keinonen, A. (2006): Personal communication.Google Scholar
Keinonen, A., Evan, M., Neville, M. and Gudmestad, O. T. (2007): Operability of an Arctic Drill Ship in Ice With and Without Ice Management, Proceedings of the 19th annual Deep Offshore Technology International Conference & Exhibition (DOT), Stavanger 2007.Google Scholar
McClintock, J., Bullock, T., McKenna, R., Ralph, F. and Brown, R. (2002). Greenland Iceberg Management: Implications for Grand Banks Management Systems . PERD/CHC Report 20–65, Report prepared by AMEC Earth & Environmental, St. John's, NL, and C-Core, St. Johns, NL., 84Google Scholar
McClintock, J., McKenna, R. and Woodworth-Lynas, C. (2007). Grand Banks Iceberg Management. PERD/CHC Report 20–84, Report prepared by AMEC Earth & Environmental, St. John's, NL, R.F. McKenna & Associates, Wakefield, QC, and PETRA International Ltd., Cupids, NL.Google Scholar
Moran, K., Backman, J. and Farell, J.W. (2006). Deepwater Drilling in the Arctic Ocean's permanent Sea ice . In Backman, J.Moran, K., McInroy, D.B.Mayer, L.A. and the Expedition 302 Scientists, Proc. IODP, 302; Edinburgh (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Management International, Inc.). doi:10.2204/iodp.proc.302.106.2006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mosbech, A., Anthonsen, K.L., Blyth, A., Boertmann, D., Buch, E., Cake, D., Grøndahl, L., Hansen, K.Q., Kapel, H., Nielsen, N., Von Platen, F., Potter, S. and Rasch, M. (2000). Environmental Oil Spill Sensitivity Atlas for the West Greenland Coastal Zone. Ministry of Environment and Energy, The Danish Energy Agency, ISBN 87-7844-183-8, URL Scholar
Offshore E-news (2001). ABS brings experience, flexibility to Sakhalin II project offshore Russia. Publication of the ABS Project Development Team, Houston, USA, May 2001, Website: [cited 1 September 2007]Google Scholar
Rudkin, P., Boldrick, C. and Barron, P. Jr. (2005). PERD Iceberg Management Database. PERD/CHC Report 20–72, Report prepared by Provincial Aerospace Environmental Services (PAL), St. John's, NLGoogle Scholar
Wagenborg, (2007). Website: [cited 1 September 2007]Google Scholar
Wright, B. (1999). Evaluation of Full Scale Data for Moored Vessel Stationkeeping in Pack Ice. PERD/CHC Report 26-200, report prepared by B. Wright & Associates Ltd.Google Scholar
Wright, B. (2000). Full Scale Experience with Kulluk Stationkeeping Operations in Pack Ice. PERD/CHC Report 25-44 prepared by B. Wright & Associates Ltd.Google Scholar
Wright, B. (2005). Ice-related R&D Requirements for Beaufort Sea Production Systems. PERD/CHC Report 35-60 prepared by B. Wright & Associates Ltd.Google Scholar