The problem of indoor navigation is investigated using a Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS) pseudolite system. The system is operated in synchronous and asynchronous mode. It is shown that, when the system is operated in synchronous mode, it is unsuitable for deep indoor operations: in complex propagation environments, the synchronisation required for metre level navigation is difficult to achieve and different solutions have to be adopted. Two asynchronous approaches are thus considered and indoor navigation with metre level accuracy is demonstrated using C/N0 measurements. The approaches use a modified Receiver Signal Strength (RSS) navigation algorithm and a weighted centroid technique, respectively. In both cases, a pre-filtering stage has been adopted to enhance the quality of C/N0 measurements. The two methods have been compared under different operating conditions and the advantages and drawbacks of the two techniques have been analysed. The experiments demonstrate that metre level accuracy can be achieved using asynchronous pseudolites. These results are particularly encouraging since they were obtained without exploiting map constraints and prior knowledge of the user position.
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