Skip to main content
×
×
Home

GNSS Jamming Resilience for Close to Shore Navigation in the Northern Sea

  • Oeystein Glomsvoll (a1) and Lukasz K Bonenberg (a2)
Abstract

Navigational error accounts for half of the accidents and serious incidents in close to shore maritime transport in Norway predominantly due to the rapidly changing weather conditions and the dangerous nature of the narrow inshore waters found along the Norwegian coast. This creates a dependence on Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) use and any disruption to this service can lead to an increased accident rate. The aim of this paper is to research the jamming vulnerability of existing maritime receivers and to understand if an upgrade to a multi-constellation or multi-frequency receiver would improve system resilience. The novelty of this work is a comparison of jamming resilience between different combinations of multiple constellations (GPS and Globalnaya Navigatsionnaya Sputnikovaya Sistema (GLONASS)) and multi-frequency Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals. This paper presents results from GNSS jamming trials conducted in the northern part of Norway, confirming previous research and indicating that typical maritime GPS receivers are easy to jam and may produce erroneous positional information. Results demonstrate that the single frequency multi-constellation receivers offer better jamming resilience than multi-frequency (L1 + L2) GPS receivers. Further, the GLONASS constellation demonstrated a better resilience than GPS. Results demonstrate a known correlation between GPS L1 and L2 frequencies, as well as a probable over-dependence on GPS for signal acquisition, meaning that no signal can be received without GPS L1 present. With these limitations in mind, the authors suggest that the most economic update to the single frequency GPS receivers, currently used for maritime applications, should be multi-constellation GPS + GLONASS receivers. This solution is cheaper and it also offer better jamming resistance for close to shore navigation than dual frequency receivers.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      GNSS Jamming Resilience for Close to Shore Navigation in the Northern Sea
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      GNSS Jamming Resilience for Close to Shore Navigation in the Northern Sea
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      GNSS Jamming Resilience for Close to Shore Navigation in the Northern Sea
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
(E-mail: oglomsvoll@sksk.mil.no)
References
Hide All
Bauernfeind, R., Kraus, T, Dötterböck, D., and Eisfeller, B. (2011). Car Jammers: Interference Analysis. GPS World, October 2011, 28–35.
Boyes, H.A. (2013). Maritime Cyber Security - Securing the Digital Seaways, Resilience, Security & Risk in Transport, Sector Publications, 56–63.
Borio, D., O'Driscoll, C. and Fortuny, J. (2013). Jammer impact on Galileo and GPS receivers. International Conference on Localization and GNSS (ICL-GNSS), 25–27 June 2013, 1–6.
CCICADA (Command, Control, and Interoperability Center for Advanced Data Analysis) (2015). Cyber Attacks on Ports and Ships Could be Catastrophic, Symposium Speakers Say. [online] available: www.ccicada.org/2015/03/10/cyber-attacks-on-ports-and-ships-could-be-catastrophic-symposium-speakers-say/ [20.06.2015]
DNV (2013). DNV-GL merger: increased safety focus. Nor-Shipping press conference, 2013·06·03, [online] available: www.dnv.com/binaries/DNV%20presentation%20%202013%2006%2003_tcm4-552517_tcm4-552517.pdf [retrieved 20.06.2015]
Glomsvoll, O. (2014). Jamming of GPS & GLONASS signals - a study of GPS performance in maritime environments under jamming conditions, and benefits of applying GLONASS in Northern areas under such conditions, Master Thesis, University of Nottingham.
Grant, A., Williams, P. and Basker, S. (2010). GPS Jamming and its impact on maritime safety. Port Technology International, 46, 3941.
Hofmann-Wellenhof, B. (2008). GNSS—global navigation satellite systems: GPS, GLONASS, Galileo and more. Wien and New York: Springer.
Jones, M. (2011): The Civilian Battlefield. Protecting GNSS Receivers from Interference and Jamming. InsideGNSS March/April 2011, 40–49.
Kaplan, E. and Hegarty, C. (2006). Understanding GPS. Principles and applications. Norwood, MA: Artech House.
Kuusniemi, H., Airos, E., Bhuiyan, M. and Kröger, T. (2012). GNSS Jammers: how vulnerable are Consumer grade Satellite Navigation Receivers? European Journal of Navigation, 10(2), 1421.
Mitch, R., Dougherty, R., Psiaki, M., Powell, S., O`Hanlon, B., Bhatti, J. and Humphreys, T. (2011). Signal characteristics of Civil GPS Jammers. Proceedings of ION GNSS 2011, 2023.
Naevestad, T.O., Caspersen, E., Hovi, I.B., Bjoernskau, T. and Steinsland, C. (2014). Ulykkesrisikoen til norskopererte godsskip i norske farvann [The risk of accidents of Norwegian operated ships in Norwegian waters]. Institute of Transport Economics, Norwegian Centre for Transport Research, Report no. 1333/2014, [online] available: https://www.toi.no/getfile.php/Publikasjoner/T%C3%98I%20rapporter/2014/1333-2014/1333-2014-sam.pdf [retreived 22.06.2015]
Niekerk, A. and Combrinck, L. (2012). The use of civilian type GPS receivers by the military and their vulnerability to jamming. South African Journal of Science, 108(5/6), 14
Subirana, J.S., Juan Zornoza, J.M. and Hernandez-Pajares, M. (2011) GNSS signal [Online] Retrieved from:http://www.navipedia.net/index.php/GNSS_signal [retrieved 21.09.14]
The Norwegian Coastal Administration. (2014). Radio Navigation (DGPS). [online] available: www.kystverket.no/en/EN_Maritime-Services/Reporting-and-Information-Services/Radio-Navigation-DGPS/ [retrieved 22.06.2015]
The Norwegian Coastal Administration. (2016). Compulsory pilotage. [online] available: www.kystverket.no/en/EN_Maritime-Services/Pilot-Services/Compulsory-pilotage/ [retrieved 01.03.2016]
Vladislav, V., Demyanov, Y., Yasyukevich, V. and Jin, S. (2013). Effects of Solar Radio Emission and Ionospheric Irregularities on GPS/GLONASS Performance. in. Jin, Shuanggen (ed.): Geodetic Sciences - Observations, Modeling and Applications. DOI: 10.5772/54568. [Online] Retrieved from:www.intechopen.com/books/geodetic-sciences-observations-modeling-and-applications/effects-of-solar-radio-emission-and-ionospheric-irregularities-on-gps-GLONASS-performance [retrieved 21.09.14]
Volpe, J. (2001). Vulnerability assessment of the transportation infrastructure relying on the global positioning system. National Transportation Systems Center, Final report.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The Journal of Navigation
  • ISSN: 0373-4633
  • EISSN: 1469-7785
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-navigation
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed