Skip to main content Accesibility Help

Non-GPS Navigation for Security Personnel and First Responders

  • Lauro Ojeda (a1) and Johann Borenstein (a1)

This paper introduces a “Personal Dead-reckoning” (PDR) navigation system for walking persons. The system is useful for monitoring the position of emergency responders inside buildings, where GPS is unavailable. The PDR system uses a six-axes Inertial Measurement Unit attached to the user's boot. The system's strength lies in the use of a technique known as Zero Velocity Update (ZUPT) that virtually eliminates the ill-effects of drift in the accelerometers. It works very well with different gaits, as well as on stairs, slopes, and generally on 3-dimensional terrain. The paper explains the PDR and presents extensive experimental results, which illustrate the utility and practicality of the system. Parts of this paper were presented at the 2006 International Joint Topical Meeting: “Sharing Solutions for Emergencies and Hazardous Environments,” February 12–15, 2006, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.

Corresponding author
Hide All
Aoki, H., Schiele, B. and Pentland, A. (1999). “Realtime Personal Positioning System for Wearable Computers.” Proceedings of the International Symposium on Wearable Computers, 3743.
Ayyappa, E. (1997). “Normal Human Locomotion, Part 1: Basic Concepts and Terminology.Journal of Prosthetics & Orthotics, 9, 1, 1017.
Brand, T. And Phillips, R. (2003). “Foot-to-Foot Range Measurement as an Aid to Personal Navigation.” 59th Institute of Navigation Annual Meeting. Albuquerque, NM.
Butz, A., Baus, J. And Kruger, A. (2000). “Augmenting buildings with infrared information.” Proceedings of the International Symposium on Augmented Reality, IEEE Computer Society Press, 9396.
Cho, S. Y. and Park, C. G. (2006). “MEMS Based Pedestrian Navigation System.The Journal of Navigation 59, 135153.
Galindo, C. et al. (2005). “Vision SLAM in the measurement subspace.” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Barcelona, Spain, pp. 3035.
Grejner-Brzezinska, D. A., Yi, Y, and Toth, C. K. (2001). “Bridging GPS Gaps in Urban Canyons: Benefits of ZUPT”, Navigation Journal, 48, 4, 217225.
Huddle, J. (1998). “Trends in inertial systems technology for high accuracy AUV navigation.” Proceedings of the 1998 Workshop on Autonomous Underwater Vehicles. AUV'98. 6373.
Kourogi, M. and Kurata, T. (2003). “Personal positioning based on walking locomotion analysis with self-contained sensors and a wearable camera.Proceedings of the Second IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality, 103112.
Ledroz, A. et al. (2005). “FOG-based navigation in downhole environment during horizontal drilling utilizing a complete inertial measurement unit: directional measurement-while-drilling surveying.IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 54, 5, 19972006.
Liu, Y., Wang, Y., Dayuan, Y. And Zhou, Y. (2004). “DPSD algorithm for AC magnetic tracking system.” IEEE Symposium on Virtual Environments, Human-Computer Interfaces and Measurement Systems, 101106.
Newman, J., Ingram, D. and Hopper, A. (2001). “Augmented reality in a wide area sentient environment.” Proceedings of the IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Augmented Reality, 7786.
Ojeda, L., Chung, H., and Borenstein, J. (2000). “Precision Calibration of Fiber-optics Gyroscopes for Mobile Robot Navigation.” Proceedings of the 2000 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, San Francisco, CA, 20642069.
PointResearch/Honeywell, (2006),, last accessed: 10/2006.
Saarinen, J., Suomela, J., Heikkila, , Elomaa, M., and Halme, A. (2004). “Personal navigation system.Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, 1, 212217.
Savage, P. (1998a). “Strapdown Inertial Navigation Integration Algorithm Design. Part 1: Attitude Algorithms”, Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, 21, 1.
Savage, P. (1998b). “Strapdown Inertial Navigation Integration Algorithm Design Part 2: Velocity and Position Algorithms”. Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, 21, 2, 208221.
Titerton, D. and Westaon, J. (2004). “Strapdown Inertial Navigation Technology, 2nd Edition.” Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics Series, Published by AIAA.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The Journal of Navigation
  • ISSN: 0373-4633
  • EISSN: 1469-7785
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-navigation
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed