Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

A Novel Un-differenced PPP-RTK Concept

  • Baocheng Zhang (a1), Peter J.G. Teunissen (a2) (a3) and Dennis Odijk (a2)

In this contribution, a novel un-differenced (UD) (PPP-RTK) concept, i.e. a synthesis of Precise Point Positioning and Network-based Real-Time Kinematic concept, is introduced. In the first step of our PPP-RTK approach, the UD GNSS observations from a regional reference network are processed based upon re-parameterised observation equations, corrections for satellite clocks, phase biases and (interpolated) atmospheric delays are calculated and provided to users. In the second step, these network-based corrections are used at the user site to restore the integer nature of his UD phase ambiguities, which makes rapid and high accuracy user positioning possible. The proposed PPP-RTK approach was tested using two GPS CORS networks with inter-station distances ranging from 60 to 100 km. The first test network is the northern China CORS network and the second is the Australian Perth CORS network. In the test of the first network, a dual-frequency PPP-RTK user receiver was used, while in the test of the second network, a low-cost, single-frequency PPP-RTK user receiver was used. The performance of fast ambiguity resolution and the high accuracy positioning of the PPP-RTK results are demonstrated.

Corresponding author
Hide All
Bree R. J. P., Tiberius C. C. J. M. and Hauschild A. (2009). Real time satellite clocks in single frequency precise point positioning. Proceedings of the ION GNSS 2009, Savannah, Georgia, USA.
Ciraolo L., Azpilicueta F. J., Brunini C., Meza A. and Radicella S. M. (2007). Calibration errors on experimental slant total electron content (TEC) determined with GPS. Journal of Geodesy, 81, 111120.
De Jonge P. J. (1998). A processing strategy for the application of the GPS in networks. Netherlands Geodetic Commission.
Geng J., Teferle F. N., Meng X. and Dodson A. H. (2010). Towards PPP-RTK: Ambiguity resolution in real-time precise point positioning. Advances in space research, doi:10.1016/j.asr.2010.03.030.
Jarlemark P. O. J. and Emardson T. R. (1998). Strategies for spatial and temporal extrapolation and interpolation of wet delay. Journal of Geodesy, 72, 350355.
Kouba J. and Heroux H. (2001). Precise point positioning using IGS orbit and clock products. GPS Solutions, 5, 1228.
Li X., Zhang X. and Ge M. (2010). Regional reference network augmented precise point positioning for instantaneous ambiguity resolution. Journal of Geodesy, 85, 151158.
Odijk D., Verhagen S., Teunissen P. J. G., Hernandez-Pajares M., Juan M. J., Sanz J., Samson J. and Tossaint M. (2010). LAMBDA-Based Ambiguity Resolution for Next-Generation GNSS Wide Area RTK. Proceedings of the 2010 International Technical Meeting of the Institute of Navigation, San Diego, California, USA.
Sardon E. and Zarraoa N. (1997). Estimation of total electron-content using GPS data: how stable are the differential satellite and receiver instrumental biases? Radio Science, 32, 18991910.
Teunissen P. J. G. (1995). The least squares ambiguity decorrelation adjustment: a method for fast GPS integer ambiguity estimation. Journal of Geodesy, 70, 6582.
Teunissen P. J. G. and Kleusberg A. (1998). GPS for Geodesy, 2nd edition. Springer-Verlag.
Teunissen P. J. G. and Verhagen S. (2009). The GNSS ambiguity ratio-test revisited. Survey Review, 41, 138151.
Teunissen P. J. G., De Jonge P. J. and Tiberius C. C. J. M. (1996). Volume of the GPS ambiguity search space and its relevance for integer ambiguity resolution. Proceedings of the 1996 9th International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of the Institute of Navigation, ION GPS-96. Part 1 (of 2), Kansas City, MO, USA.
Teunissen P. J. G., Odijk D. and Zhang B. C. (2010). PPP-RTK: results of CORS network-based PPP with integer ambiguity resolution. Journal of Aeronautics, Astronautics and Aviation, 42, 223230.
Vollath U., Deking A., Landau H., Pagels C. and Wagner B. (2000). Multi-base RTK positioning using Virtual Reference Stations. Proceedings of the ION GPS 2000, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.
Wu S. Q., Zhang K. F. and Silcock D. (2008). An Investigation of Performance Difference of Regional Atmospheric Models for Network RTK – A Case Study in Victoria. Proceedings of International Symposium on GPS/GNSS 2008, Tokyo, Japan.
Wuebbena G., Schmitz M. and Bagge A. (2005). PPP-RTK: Precise Point Positioning using state-space representation in RTK networks. Proceedings of the ION GNSS 2005, Long Beach, California, USA.
Yuan Y. B. and Ou J. K. (2001). An improvement on ionospheric delay correction for single frequency GPS user-the APR-I scheme. Journal of Geodesy, 75, 331336.
Yuan Y. B., Huo X. L., Ou J. K., Zhang K. F., Chai Y. J., Wen D. B. and Grenfell R. (2008a). Refining the Klobuchar ionospheric coefficients based on GPS observation. IEEE transactions on aerospace and electronic systems, 44, 14981510.
Yuan Y. B., Tscherning C. C., Knudsen P., Xu G. C. and Ou J. K. (2008b). The ionospheric eclipse factor method (IEFM) and its application to determining the ionospheric delay for GPS. Journal of Geodesy, 82, 18.
Zhang K., Wu F., Wu S., Rizos C., Roberts C., Ge L., Yan T., Gordini C., Kealy A., Hale M., Ramm P., Asmussen H., Kinlyside D. and Harcombe P. (2006). Sparse or dense: Challenges of Australian network RTK. Proceedings of International Global Navigation Satellite Systems Society IGNSS Symposium 2006, Queensland, Australia.
Zumberge J., Heflin M., Jefferson D., Watkins M. M. and Webb F. H. (1997). Precise point positioning for the efficient and robust analysis of GPS data from large networks. Journal of Geophysical Research, 102, 50055017.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The Journal of Navigation
  • ISSN: 0373-4633
  • EISSN: 1469-7785
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-navigation
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 2
Total number of PDF views: 26 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 136 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 23rd October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.