Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Does Sexism Affect Thai Women's Psychological and Behavioural Responses? The Stereotype Threat-Buffering Effect of Mindfulness

  • Prapimpa Jarunratanakul (a1) and Kamonkan Jinchang (a1)
  • Please note a correction has been issued for this article.
Abstract

Few studies have examined the linkage of perceived sexism with stereotype threat and psychological responses in a work setting and moderators that may buffer this negative effect. In Study 1, the relationships among perceived sexism, stereotype threat, and psychological responses were explored among Thai female employees (N = 296) in a self-report questionnaire study. The aim of Study 2 was to investigate whether mindfulness can mitigate the disastrous effect of sexism on performance, using an experimental design. In Study 1, the standard error of measurement (SEM) results observed a partial mediation effect of stereotype threat for the sexism-disidentification relationship, and sexism only had a significant direct effect on career aspirations. In Study 2, the interaction effect of sexism × mindfulness on the female participants’ reasoning test scores was significant, indicating that those with mindfulness practice performed better when being exposed to sexist behaviours. The current research provides additional information on understanding the impact of sexism on disengagement and decreased career aspirations among Thai female employees in male-dominated industries. In practice, Thai organisations should be concerned about the impact of sexism on disengagement and the protective factor of performance decrements by encouraging anti-sexist norms and fostering the cultivation of mindfulness through practice.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Does Sexism Affect Thai Women's Psychological and Behavioural Responses? The Stereotype Threat-Buffering Effect of Mindfulness
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Does Sexism Affect Thai Women's Psychological and Behavioural Responses? The Stereotype Threat-Buffering Effect of Mindfulness
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Does Sexism Affect Thai Women's Psychological and Behavioural Responses? The Stereotype Threat-Buffering Effect of Mindfulness
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is unaltered and is properly cited. The written permission of Cambridge University Press must be obtained for commercial re-use or in order to create a derivative work.
Corresponding author
Address for correspondence: Prapimpa Jarunratanakul, Faculty of Psychology, Chulalongkorn University, 7th Fl. Borommaratchachonnanisrisattapat Bldg., Rama 1 Rd. Pathumwan, Bangkok, 10330 Thailand. Email: prapimpa.j@chula.ac.th
References
Hide All
Adams, G., Garcia, D.M., Purdie-Vaughns, V., & Steele, C.M. (2006). The detrimental effects of a suggestion of sexism in an instruction situation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 42, 602615.
Ambady, N., Shih, M., Kim, A., & Pittinsky, T.L. (2001). Stereotype susceptibility in children: Effects of identity activation on quantitative performance. Psychological Science, 12, 385390.
Aronson, J., & Inzlicht, M. (2004). The ups and downs of attributional ambiguity: Stereotype vulnerability and the academic self-knowledge of African American college students. Psychological Science, 15, 829836.
Beaton, A., Tougas, F., Rinfret, N., Huard, N., & Delisle, M.-N. (2007). Strength in numbers? Women and mathematics. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 22, 291306.
Beilock, S.L., Rydell, R.J., & McConnell, A.R. (2007). Stereotype threat and working memory: Mechanisms, alleviation, and spillover. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 136, 256276.
Benokraitis, N.V., & Feagin, J.R. (1995). Modern sexism: Blatant, subtle, and covert discrimination. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Bergeron, D.M., Block, C.J., & Echtenkamp, A. (2006). Disabling the able: Stereotype threat and women's work performance. Human Performance, 19, 133158.
Blascovich, J., Spencer, S.J., Quinn, D., & Steele, C. (2001). African Americans and high blood pressure: The role of stereotype threat. Psychological Science, 12, 225229.
Bradley-Geist, J.C., Rivera, I., & Geringer, S.D. (2015). The collateral damage of ambient sexism: Observing sexism impacts bystander self-esteem and career aspirations. Sex Roles, 73, 2942.
Brislin, R.W. (1986). The wording and translation of research instruments. In Lonner, W.J. & Berry, J. (Eds.), Field methods in cross-cultural research) pp. 136164). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Brown, K.W., & Ryan, R.M. (2003). The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 822848.
Brown, K.W., Ryan, R.M., & Creswell, J.D. (2007). Mindfulness: Theoretical foundations and evidence for its salutary effects. Psychological Inquiry, 18, 211237.
Brown, L.M., & Dobbins, H. (2004). Students of color and European American students’ stigma-relevant perceptions of university instructors. Journal of Social Issues, 60, 157174.
Bui, M.-T.T., & Permpoonwiwat, C.K. (2015). Gender wage inequality in Thailand: A sectoral perspective. International Journal of Behavioral Science, 10, 1936.
Byrne, B.M. (2013). Structural equation modeling with AMOS: Basic concepts, applications, and programming. New York, NY: Routledge.
Chan, D., & Woollacott, M. (2007). Effects of level of meditation experience on attentional focus: Is the efficiency of executive or orientation networks improved? Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 13, 651657.
Croizet, J.-C., Després, G., Gauzins, M.-E., Huguet, P., Leyens, J.-P., & Méot, A. (2004). Stereotype threat undermines intellectual performance by triggering a disruptive mental load. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30, 721731.
Daneman, M., & Carpenter, P.A. (1980). Individual differences in working memory and reading. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 19, 450466.
Davies, P.G., Spencer, S.J., Quinn, D.M., & Gerhardstein, R. (2002). Consuming images: How television commercials that elicit stereotype threat can restrain women academically and professionally. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 16151628.
Davies, P.G., Spencer, S.J., & Steele, C.M. (2005). Clearing the air: Identity safety moderates the effects of stereotype threat on women's leadership aspirations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88, 276287.
Davis, C., Aronson, J., & Salinas, M. (2006). Shades of threat: Racial identity as a moderator of stereotype threat. Journal of Black Psychology, 32, 399417.
Duval, S., & Wicklund, R.A. (1972). A theory of objective self awareness. New York, NY: Academic Press.
Fagenson, E.A. (1990). Perceived masculine and feminine attributes examined as a function of individuals’ sex and level in the organizational power hierarchy: A test of four theoretical perspectives. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75, 204211.
Fassinger, R.E. (1990). Causal models of career choice in two samples of college women. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 36, 225248.
Frantz, C.M., Cuddy, A.J.C., Burnett, M., Ray, H., & Hart, A. (2004). A threat in the computer: The race implicit association test as a stereotype threat experience. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30, 16111624.
Fritz, C., & van Knippenberg, D. (2017). Gender and leadership aspiration: The impact of organizational identification. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 38, 10181037.
Glick, P., & Fiske, S.T. (2001). An ambivalent alliance: Hostile and benevolent sexism as complementary justifications for gender inequality. American Psychologist, 56, 109118.
Good, C., Rattan, A., & Dweck, C.S. (2012). Why do women opt out? Sense of belonging and women's representation in mathematics. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 102, 700717.
Gray, M.P., & O'Brien, K.M. (2007). Advancing the assessment of women's career choices: The career aspiration scale. Journal of Career Assessment, 15, 317337.
Hansatit, P. (2014). A study on gender inequality in Thailand: Career experience of Thai female managers (Doctoral dissertation, Southern Cross University, Lismore, Australia).
Hölzel, B.K., Lazar, S.W., Gard, T., Schuman-Olivier, Z., Vago, D.R., & Ott, U. (2011). How does mindfulness meditation work? Proposing mechanisms of action from a conceptual and neural perspective. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6, 537559.
Hong, P.Y., Lishner, D.A., & Han, K.H. (2014). Mindfulness and eating: An experiment examining the effect of mindful raisin eating on the enjoyment of sampled food. Mindfulness, 5, 8087.
Hyde, J.S., & Kling, K.C. (2001). Women, motivation, and achievement. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 25, 364378.
Jackson, P.R., Wall, T.D., Martin, R., & Davids, K. (1993). New measures of job control, cognitive demand, and production responsibility. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 753762.
Jha, A.P., Krompinger, J., & Baime, M.J. (2007). Mindfulness training modifies subsystems of attention. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 7, 109119.
Kabat-Zinn, J. (2003). Mindfulness-based interventions in context: Past, present, and future. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10, 144156.
Kelloway, E.K. (1998). Using LISREL for structural equation modeling: A researcher's guide. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.
Kim, Y.H., O'Brien, K.M., & Kim, H. (2016). Measuring career aspirations across cultures. Journal of Career Assessment, 24, 573585.
Kline, R.B. (2010). Promise and pitfalls of structural equation modeling in gifted research. In Thompson, B. & Subotnik, R.F. (Eds.), Methodologies for conducting research of giftedness (pp. 147169). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Klonoff, E.A., & Landrine, H. (1995). The schedule of sexist events: A measure of lifetime and recent sexist discrimination in women's lives. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 19, 439472.
Koch, S.C., Konigorski, S., & Sieverding, M. (2014). Sexist behavior undermines women's performance in a job application situation. Sex Roles, 70, 7987.
Leaper, C., & Brown, C.S. (2008). Perceived experiences with sexism among adolescent girls. Child Development, 79, 685704.
Leary, M.R., & Baumeister, R.F. (2000). The nature and function of self-esteem: Sociometer theory. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 32, 162.
Little, T.D., Cunningham, W.A., Shahar, G., & Widaman, K.F. (2002). To parcel or not to parcel: Exploring the question, weighing the merits. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 9, 151173.
Lockwood, P. (2006). ‘Someone like me can be successful’: Do college students need same-gender role models? Psychology of Women Quarterly, 30, 3646.
Logel, C., Walton, G.M., Spencer, S.J., Iserman, E.C., von Hippel, W., & Bell, A.E. (2009). Interacting with sexist men triggers social identity threat among female engineers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96, 10891103.
Lynn, R., & Irwing, P. (2004). Sex differences on the progressive matrices: A meta-analysis. Intelligence, 32, 481498.
Mackintosh, N.J., & Bennett, E.S. (2005). What do Raven's Matrices measure? An analysis in terms of sex differences. Intelligence, 33, 663674.
Marx, D.M., & Goff, P.A. (2005). Clearing the air: The effect of experimenter race on target's test performance and subjective experience. British Journal of Social Psychology, 44, 645657.
Marx, D.M., Stapel, D.A., & Muller, D. (2005). We can do it: The interplay of construal orientation and social comparisons under threat. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88, 432446.
Moore, A., & Malinowski, P. (2009). Meditation, mindfulness and cognitive flexibility. Consciousness and Cognition, 18, 176186.
Moore, L. (1979). From manpower planning to human resource planning through career development. Personnel, 56, 916.
Mrazek, M.D., Franklin, M.S., Phillips, D.T., Baird, B., & Schooler, J.W. (2013). Mindfulness training improves working memory capacity and GRE performance while reducing mind wandering. Psychological Science, 24, 776781.
Napasri, T., & Yukongdi, V. (2015). A study of Thai female executives: Perceived barriers to career advancement. Review of Integrative Business and Economics Research, 4, 108120.
O'Brien, K.M. (1996). The influence of psychological separation and parental attachment on the career development of adolescent women. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 48, 257274.
Quinn, D., & Spencer, S. (2001). The interference of stereotype threat with women's generation of mathematical problem-solving strategies. Journal of Social Issues, 57, 5571.
Pronin, E., Steele, C.M., & Ross, L. (2004). Identity bifurcation in response to stereotype threat: Women and mathematics. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 40, 152168.
Rashid, S., & Rashid, U. (2012). Work motivation differences between public and private sector. American International Journal of Social Science, 1, 2433.
Raven, J., Raven, J.C., & Court, J.H. (1998). Manual for Raven's progressive matrices and vocabulary scales. Section 4: The advanced progressive matrices. San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Assessment.
Roeser, R.W., & Pinela, C. (2014). Mindfulness and compassion training in adolescence: A developmental contemplative science perspective. New Directions for Youth Development, 2014(142), 930.
Salmon, P., Hanneman, S., & Harwood, B. (2010). Associative/dissociative cognitive strategies in sustained physical activity: Literature review and proposal for a mindfulness-based conceptual model. The Sport Psychologist, 24, 127156.
Schmader, T., Johns, M., & Forbes, C. (2008). An integrated process model of stereotype threat effects on performance. Psychological Review, 115, 336356.
Schumacker, R.E., & Lomax, R.G. (2004). A beginner's guide to structural equation modeling. New York, NY: Psychology Press.
Settles, I.H. (2004). When multiple identities interfere: The role of identity centrality. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30, 487500.
Shapiro, J.R., & Neuberg, S.L. (2007). From stereotype threat to stereotype threats: Implications of a multi-threat framework for causes, moderators, mediators, consequences, and interventions. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 11, 107130.
Sherman, D.K., & Cohen, G.L. (2002). Accepting threatening information: Self-affirmation and the reduction of defensive biases. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11, 119123.
Steele, C.M. (1997). A threat in the air: How stereotypes shape intellectual identity and performance. American Psychologist, 52, 613629.
Steele, C.M., & Aronson, J. (1995). Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African Americans. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 797811.
Steele, C.M., Spencer, S.J., & Aronson, J. (2002). Contending with group image: The psychology of stereotype and social identity threat. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 34, 379440.
Stout, J.G., Dasgupta, N., Hunsinger, M., & McManus, M.A. (2011). STEMing the tide: Using ingroup experts to inoculate women's self-concept in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) STEM). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100, 255270.
Süß, H.-M., Oberauer, K., Wittmann, W.W., Wilhelm, O., & Schulze, R. (2002). Working memory capacity explains reasoning ability and a little bit more. Intelligence, 30, 261288.
Swim, J.K., Aikin, K.J., Hall, W.S., & Hunter, B.A. (1995). Sexism and racism: Old-fashioned and modern prejudices. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68, 199214.
Swim, J.K., & Cohen, L.L. (1997). Overt, covert, and subtle sexism. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 21, 103118.
Swim, J.K., Hyers, L.L., Cohen, L.L., & Ferguson, M.J. (2001). Everyday sexism: Evidence for its incidence, nature, and psychological impact from three daily diary studies. Journal of Social Issues, 57, 3153.
Tabachnick, B.G., & Fidell, L.S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics. Boston, MA: Pearson Education.
Tajfel, H., & Turner, J.C. (1986). The social identity theory of inter-group behaviour. In Worchel, S. & Austin, W.G. (Eds.), Psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 724). Chicago, IL: Nelson-Hall.
Tharenou, P. (2001). Going up? Do traits and informal social processes predict advancing in management? Academy of Management Journal, 44, 10051017.
Uhlmann, E., & Cohen, G.L. (2005). Constructed criteria: Redefining merit to justify discrimination. Psychological Science, 16, 474480.
Vichit-Vadakan, J., Jaturongkachoke, K., Tansanguanwong, P., Björkman, H., & Stalker, P. (2006). Women’s right to a political voice in Thailand. Bangkok, Thailand: United Nations Development Programme.
von Hippel, C., Issa, M., Ma, R., & Stokes, A. (2011). Stereotype threat: Antecedents and consequences for working women. European Journal of Social Psychology, 41, 151161.
Walton, G.M., & Cohen, G.L. (2007). A question of belonging: Race, social fit, and achievement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92, 8296.
Weger, U.W., Hooper, N., Meier, B.P., & Hopthrow, T. (2011). Mindful maths: Reducing the impact of stereotype threat through a mindfulness exercise. Consciousness and Cognition, 21, 471475.
Zimmerman, B.J. (2002). Becoming a self-regulated learner: An overview. Theory into Practice, 41, 6470.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Pacific Rim Psychology
  • ISSN: -
  • EISSN: 1834-4909
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-pacific-rim-psychology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 12
Total number of PDF views: 60 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 325 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 19th June 2018 - 18th August 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.