Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Give Them Fish or Teach Them to Fish? The Effects of Stability of Social Stratification and Forms of Help on Higher Socioeconomic Status Group Members’ Attitudes Towards Anti-Poverty Programs

  • Austin Jay P. Ferolino (a1)
Abstract

Building on social identity approach and intergroup helping as status relations model, the current research examined the explored effects of stability of social stratification and forms of help on higher socioeconomic status (SES) members’ attitudes towards anti-poverty programs. Two studies were conducted in a 2 (social stratification stability) × 2 (forms of help) design on willingness to support anti-poverty programs. Study 1 examined the conditions of unstable and stable social stratification that might pattern differences in support of hypothetical anti-poverty programs construed as dependency-oriented or autonomy-oriented help. Study 2 replicated and extended study 1 by examining higher SES (subjective) participants’ attitudes towards the cash transfer programs (conditional vs. unconditional, which were determined by their perceptions of the stability of social stratification). Overall, the results of the two studies confirmed that attitudes towards anti-poverty programs could be construed as specific forms of help (dependency-oriented and/or autonomy-oriented help) depending on the nature of the intergroup relations (stability of the social stratification). Finally, the theoretical contribution of the current research is discussed.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Give Them Fish or Teach Them to Fish? The Effects of Stability of Social Stratification and Forms of Help on Higher Socioeconomic Status Group Members’ Attitudes Towards Anti-Poverty Programs
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Give Them Fish or Teach Them to Fish? The Effects of Stability of Social Stratification and Forms of Help on Higher Socioeconomic Status Group Members’ Attitudes Towards Anti-Poverty Programs
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Give Them Fish or Teach Them to Fish? The Effects of Stability of Social Stratification and Forms of Help on Higher Socioeconomic Status Group Members’ Attitudes Towards Anti-Poverty Programs
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Corresponding author
Address for correspondence: Austin P. Ferolino, Department of Psychology, University of San Carlos — Talamban Campus, Nasipit Road, Cebu City, Cebu 6000. Philippines. Email: aferolino@usc.edu.ph
References
Hide All
Abad-Merino, S., Newheiser, A., Dovidio, J.F., Tabernero, C., & González, I. (2013). The dynamics of intergroup helping: The case of subtle bias against Latinos. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 19, 445452. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0032658
Adler, N.E., Epel, E.S., Castellazzo, G., & Ickovics, J.R. (2000). Relationship of subjective and objective social status with psychological and physiological functioning: Preliminary data in healthy, White women. Health Psychology, 19, 586592. https://doi.org/10.1037//0278-6133.19.6.586
Alzua, M.L., Cruces, G., & Ripani, L. (2013). Welfare programs and labor supply in developing countries: Experimental evidence from Latin America. Journal of Population Economics, 26, 12551284. https://doi.org/10.2139
Bernardo, A.B.I. (2013). Social dominance orientation and attitudes towards the poor: Contrasting lower and higher socioeconomic groups in the Philippines. Philippine Journal of Psychology, 46, 3969.
Bernardo, A.B.I. (2015). Poverty, privilege, and prejudice: Social psychological dimensions of socioeconomic inequalities in the Philippines. Silliman Journal, 56, 179203.
Brown-Iannuzzi, J.L., Lundberg, K.B., Kay, A.C., & Payne, B.K. (2014). Subjective status shapes political preferences. Psychological Science, 26, 1526. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797614553947
Bullock, H.E., & Waugh, I.M. (2005). Beliefs about poverty and opportunity among Mexican immigrant farm workers. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 35, 11321149. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.2005.tb02163.x
Carr, S.C. (2013). Poverty. International and Cultural Psychology Anti-Poverty Psychology, 3–14. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-6303-0_1
Cozzarelli, C., Wilkinson, A.V., & Tagler, M.J. (2001). Attitudes toward the poor and attributions for poverty. Journal of Social Issues, 57, 207227. https://doi.org/10.1111/0022-4537.00209
Cunningham, E., & Platow, M.J. (2007). On helping lower status out-groups: The nature of the help and the stability of the intergroup status hierarchy. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 10, 258264. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-839x.2007.00234.x
Diener, E., & Biswas-Diener, R. (2009). Will money increase subjective well-being?: A literature review and guide to needed research. Social Indicators Research Series: The Science of Well-Being, 119–154. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-2350-6_6
Dovidio, J.F., Piliavin, J.A., Schroeder, D.A., & Penner, L.A. (2006). The social psychology of prosocial behavior. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Ellemers, N., Spears, R., & Doosje, B. (1997). Sticking together of falling apart: In-group identification as a psychological determinant of group commitment versus individual mobility. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 617626. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-3514.72.3.617
Ellemers, N., Spears, R., & Doosje, B. (2000). Social identity context, commitment, content. Oxford: Blackwell.
Ellemers, N., Wilke, H., & Knippenberg, A.V. (1993). Effects of the legitimacy of low group or individual status on individual and collective status-enhancement strategies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 766778. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-3514.64.5.766
Gaarder, M. (2012). Conditional versus unconditional cash: A commentary. Journal of Development Effectiveness, 4, 130133. https://doi.org/10.1080/19439342.2012.658635
Gaertner, S.L., & Dovidio, J.F. (2014). Reducing intergroup bias: the common ingroup identity model. New York, NY: Routledge.
Goodman, E., Huang, B., Schafer-Kalkhoff, T., & Adler, N.E. (2007). Perceived socioeconomic status: A new type of identity that influences adolescents’ self-rated health. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41, 479487. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2007.05.020
Halabi, S., Dovidio, J.F., & Nadler, A. (2008). When and how do high status group members offer help: Effects of social dominance orientation and status threat. Political Psychology, 29, 841858. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9221.2008.00669.x
Halabi, S., Dovidio, J.F., & Nadler, A. (2012). Responses to intergroup helping: Effects of perceived stability and legitimacy of intergroup relations on Israeli Arabs’ reactions to assistance by Israeli Jews. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 36, 295301. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2011.12.002
Halabi, S., & Nadler, A. (2017). The intergroup status as helping relations model: Giving, seeking and receiving help as tools to maintain or challenge social inequality. Intergroup Helping, 205–221. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-53026-0_10
Halloran, M., & Chambers, G. (2011). The effects of a common in-group prime on intentions to help indigenous and homeless australians. Australian Psychologist, 46, 163170. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-9544.2010.00004.x
Harth, N.S., Kessler, T., & Leach, C.W. (2008). Advantaged groups emotional reactions to intergroup inequality: The dynamics of pride, guilt, and sympathy. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34, 115129. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167207309193
Harvey, P., & Lind, J. (2005). Dependency and humanitarian relief: A critical analysis. PHG Report 19. London: Humanitarian Policy Group, Overseas Development Institute.
Harvey, S., & Bourhis, R.Y. (2011). Discrimination in wealth and power intergroup structures. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 15, 2138. https://doi.org/10.1177/1368430211408364
Harvey, S., & Bourhis, R.Y. (2013). Discrimination between the rich and the poor under contrasting conditions of wealth stratification. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 43. https://doi.org/10.1111/jasp.12041
Haushofer, J., & Shapiro, J. (2017). Erratum to ‘The short-term impact of unconditional cash transfers to the poor: Experimental evidence from Kenya’. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 132, 20572060. https://doi.org/10.1093/qje/qjx039
Islam, M.R., & Hewstone, M. (1993). Dimensions of contact as predictors of intergroup anxiety, perceived out-group variability, and out-group attitude: An integrative model. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 19, 700710. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167293196005
Jackson, L.M., & Esses, V.M. (2000). Effects of perceived economic competition on people's willingness to help empower immigrants. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 3, 419435. https://doi.org/10.1177/1368430200003004006
Jetten, J., Spears, R., & Manstead, A.S. (1999) Group distinctiveness and intergroup discrimination. In Ellemers, N., Spears, R. & Doosje, B. (Eds.), Social identity: Context, commitment, content (pp. 7126). Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
Jetten, J., Wang, Z., Steffens, N.K., Mols, F., Peters, K., & Verkuyten, M. (2017). A social identity analysis of responses to economic inequality. Current Opinion in Psychology, 18, 15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copsyc.2017.05.011
Kluegel, J.R., & Smith, E.R. (1986). Beliefs about inequality: Americans’ views of what is and what ought to be. Hawthorne, NY: Aldine de Gruyter.
LeMieux, A.F., & Pratto, F. (2003). Poverty and prejudice. In Carr, S.C. & Sloan, T.S. (Eds.), Poverty and psychology: From global perspective to local practice (pp. 147162). New York, NY: Springer.
Meleady, R., & Seger, C.R. (2016). Imagined contact encourages prosocial behavior towards outgroup members. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 20, 447464. https://doi.org/10.1177/1368430215612225
Mols, F., & Jetten, J. (2017). The wealth paradox: Economic prosperity and the hardening of attitudes. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Moscatelli, S., Albarello, F., Prati, F., & Rubini, M. (2014). Badly off or better off than them? The impact of relative deprivation and relative gratification on intergroup discrimination. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 107, 248264. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0036704
Mullainathan, S., & Sharif, E. (2013). Scarcity: why having too little means so much. London, UK: Allen Lane.
Mummendey, A., Kessler, T., Klink, A., & Mielke, R. (1999). Strategies to cope with negative social identity: Predictions by social identity theory and relative deprivation theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 229245. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-3514.76.2.229
Nadler, A. (1997). Autonomous and dependent help-seeking: Personality characteristics and the seeking of help. In Sarason, B., Sarason, I., & Pierce, R. G. (Eds.), Handbook of personality and social support (pp. 258302). New York, NY: Plenum Press.
Nadler, A. (1998). Relationship, esteem, and achievement perspectives on autonomous and dependent help-seeking. In Karabenick, S.A. (Ed.), Strategic help seeking: Implications for learning and teaching (pp. 6195). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Nadler, A. (2002). Inter-group helping relations as power relations: Maintaining or challenging social dominance between groups through helping. Journal of Social Issues, 58, 487502. https://doi.org/10.1111/1540-4560.00272
Nadler, A. (2015). The other side of the help giving paradigm: Seeking and receiving help. In Schroeder, D.A. & Graziano, W.G. (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Prosocial Behavior (pp. 307329). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Nadler, A., & Chernyak-Hai, L. (2014). Helping them stay where they are: Status effects on dependency/autonomy-oriented helping. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 106, 5872. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0034152
Nadler, A., Harpaz-Gorodeisky, G., & Ben-David, Y. (2009). Defensive helping: Threat to group identity, ingroup identification, status stability, and common group identity as determinants of intergroup help-giving. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97, 823834. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0015968
Orbeta, A.C., & Paqueo, V.B. (2016). Pantawid pamilya Pilipino program: Boon or bane? PIDS Discussion Paper No. 2016–56. Quezon City, Philippines: Philippine Institute for Development Studies.
Philippine Statistics Authority. (2014). Annual Report. Quezon City, Philippines: National Statistics Office of the Philippines. Retrieved from https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/2014%20PSA%20annual%20report.pdf
Philippine Statistics Authority. (2016). 2015 first semester official poverty statistics. Quezon City, Philippines: National Statistics Office of the Philippines. Retrieved from https://psa.gov.ph/content/poverty-incidence-among-filipinos-registered-263-first-semester-2015-psa
Prati, F., Crisp, R.J., Meleady, R., & Rubini, M. (2016). Humanizing outgroups through multiple categorization. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 42, 526539. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167216636624
Pratto, F., Sidanius, J., & Levin, S. (2006). Social dominance theory and the dynamics of intergroup relations: Taking stock and looking forward. European Review of Social Psychology, 17, 271320. https://doi.org/10.1080/10463280601055772
Pratto, F., Tatar, D.G., & Conway-Lanz, S. (1999). Who gets what and why: Determinants of social allocations. Political Psychology, 20, 127150. https://doi.org/10.1111/0162-895x.00139
Renfro, C.L., Duran, A., Stephan, W.G., & Clason, D.L. (2006). The role of threat in attitudes toward affirmative action and its beneficiaries. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 36, 4174. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0021-9029.2006.00003.x
Rosenthal, L., Levy, S.R., & Moyer, A. (2011). Protestant work ethics relation to intergroup and policy attitudes: A meta-analytic review. European Journal of Social Psychology, 41, 874885. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.832
Sherif, M., Harvey, O.J., White, B.J., Hood, W.R. & Sherif, C. (1961). Intergroup conflict and cooperation: The Robber's cave experiment. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
Spears, R., Greenwood, R.M., de Lemus, S., & Sweetman, J. (2010). Legitimacy, social identity, and power. In Guinote, A. & Vescio, T.K. (Eds.), The social psychology of power (pp. 251283). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
Swidler, A., & Watkins, S.C. (2009). ‘Teach a man to fish’: The sustainability doctrine and its social consequences. World Development, 37, 11821196. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2008.11.002
Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. (1986). The social identity theory of intergroup behavior. In Worchel, S. & Austin, W.G. (Eds.), Psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 724). Chicago, IL: Nelson.
Turner, J.C., & Oakes, P.J. (1989). Self-categorization theory and social influence. In Paulus, P.B. (Ed.), The psychology of group influence (2nd ed., pp. 233275). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Turner, J.C., & Reynolds, K.J. (2001). The social identity perspective in inter-group relations: Theories, themes and controversies. In Brown, R. & Gaertner, S. (Eds.), Intergroup process (pp. 133153). Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
van Leeuwen, E., & Täuber, S. (2010). The strategic side of out-group helping. In Stürmer, S. & Snyder, M. (Eds.), The psychology of prosocial behavior: Group processes, intergroup relations, and helping (pp. 8199). Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
van Leeuwen, E., & Täuber, S. (2011). Demonstrating knowledge: The effects of group status on outgroup helping. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 47, 147156. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2010.09.008
World Bank Group. (2017). Philippines economic update April 2017. Retrieved February 7, 2018, from http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2017/05/04/philippines-economic-update-april-2017
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Pacific Rim Psychology
  • ISSN: -
  • EISSN: 1834-4909
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-pacific-rim-psychology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 13
Total number of PDF views: 144 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 189 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 23rd March 2018 - 19th September 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.