Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

The neuroanatomical correlates of individual differences in delay discounting: A voxel-based morphometry study

  • Xueting Li (a1), Ping Hu (a1) and Jia Liu (a2)

Abstract

Delay discounting refers to the reduction in the present value of a future reward as the delay to that reward increases, which is related to various problematic behaviors, such as substance abuse. In this study, we explored the neuroanatomical correlates of delay discounting by employing voxel-based morphometry and the individual difference approach. We found that participants’ delay discounting, measured by the Monetary Choice Questionnaire, was correlated with the gray matter volume (GMV) of two cortical regions. On the one hand, individuals with a larger GMV of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) were likely to discount future values less steeply and choose large but delayed rewards. On the other hand, individuals with a larger GMV of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) are likely to discount the future value more steeply and prefer small but immediate rewards. Our study revealed the neuroanatomical correlates of delay discounting across the whole brain, and may help to understand the delay discounting in the frame of the hot versus cool system, which demonstrates the dynamics of resisting present temptation for future rewards.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      The neuroanatomical correlates of individual differences in delay discounting: A voxel-based morphometry study
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      The neuroanatomical correlates of individual differences in delay discounting: A voxel-based morphometry study
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      The neuroanatomical correlates of individual differences in delay discounting: A voxel-based morphometry study
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: Xueting Li, Email: liujia@bnu.edu.cn

References

Hide All
Alessi, S. and Petry, N. (2003). Pathological gambling severity is associated with impulsivity in a delay discounting procedure. Behavioural Processes, 64, 345354.
Allen, T.J., Moeller, F.G., Rhoades, H.M. and Cherek, D.R. (1998). Impulsivity and history of drug dependence. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 50, 137145.
Ashburner, J. (2007). A fast diffeomorphic image registration algorithm. Neuroimage, 38, 95113.
Ashburner, J. and Friston, K.J. (2000). Voxel-based morphometry — The methods. Neuroimage, 11, 805821.
Ashburner, J. and Friston, K.J. (2005). Unified segmentation. Neuroimage, 26, 839851.
Ballard, K. and Knutson, B. (2009). Dissociable neural representations of future reward magnitude and delay during temporal discounting. Neuroimage, 45, 143150.
Bar, M. (2009). The proactive brain: Memory for predictions. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 364, 12351243.
Berlin, H., Rolls, E. and Kischka, U. (2004). Impulsivity, time perception, emotion and reinforcement sensitivity in patients with orbitofrontal cortex lesions. Brain, 127, 11081126.
Bickel, W.K. and Marsch, L.A. (2001). Toward a behavioral economic understanding of drug dependence: Delay discounting processes. Addiction, 96, 7386.
Bickel, W.K., Odum, A.L. and Madden, G.J. (1999). Impulsivity and cigarette smoking: Delay discounting in current, never, and ex-smokers. Psychopharmacology, 146, 447454.
Bjork, J.M., Momenan, R. and Hommer, D.W. (2009). Delay discounting correlates with proportional lateral frontal cortex volumes. Biological Psychiatry, 65, 710713.
Boettiger, C.A., Mitchell, J.M., Tavares, V.C., Robertson, M., Joslyn, G., D’Esposito, M. and Fields, H.L. (2007). Immediate reward bias in humans: Fronto-parietal networks and a role for the catechol-O-methyltransferase 158Val/Val genotype. The Journal of Neuroscience, 27, 1438314391.
Cardinal, R.N., Pennicott, D.R., Lakmali, C., Robbins, T.W. and Everitt, B.J. (2001). Impulsive choice induced in rats by lesions of the nucleus accumbens core. Science, 292, 24992501.
Casey, B., Somerville, L.H., Gotlib, I.H., Ayduk, O., Franklin, N.T., Askren, M.K.Teslovich, T. (2011). Behavioral and neural correlates of delay of gratification 40 years later. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108, 1499815003.
Chib, V.S., Rangel, A., Shimojo, S. and O’Doherty, J.P. (2009). Evidence for a common representation of decision values for dissimilar goods in human ventromedial prefrontal cortex. The Journal of Neuroscience, 29, 1231512320.
Cho, S.S., Pellecchia, G., Aminian, K., Ray, N., Segura, B., Obeso, I. and Strafella, A.P. (2013). Morphometric correlation of impulsivity in medial prefrontal cortex. Brain Topography, 26, 479487.
Christakou, A., Brammer, M. and Rubia, K. (2011). Maturation of limbic corticostriatal activation and connectivity associated with developmental changes in temporal discounting. Neuroimage, 54, 13441354.
Crean, J.P., de Wit, H. and Richards, J.B. (2000). Reward discounting as a measure of impulsive behavior in a psychiatric outpatient population. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 8, 155162.
Faul, F., Erdfelder, E., Buchner, A. and Lang, A.-G. (2009). Statistical power analyses using G*Power 3.1: Tests for correlation and regression analyses. Behavior Research Methods, 41, 11491160.
Good, C.D., Johnsrude, I., Ashburner, J., Henson, R.N., Friston, K.J. and Frackowiak, R.S. (2001). Cerebral asymmetry and the effects of sex and handedness on brain structure: A voxel-based morphometric analysis of 465 normal adult human brains. Neuroimage, 14, 685700.
Gregorios-Pippas, L., Tobler, P.N. and Schultz, W. (2009). Short-term temporal discounting of reward value in human ventral striatum. Journal of Neurophysiology, 101, 1507.
Haines, D.E. and Ard, M.D. (2006). Fundamental neuroscience for basic and clinical applications. Philadelphia, PA: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.
Hirsh, J.B., Guindon, A., Morisano, D. and Peterson, J.B. (2010). Positive mood effects on delay discounting. Emotion, 10, 717.
Hoffman, W.F., Schwartz, D.L., Huckans, M.S., McFarland, B.H., Meiri, G., Stevens, A.A. and Mitchell, S.H. (2008). Cortical activation during delay discounting in abstinent methamphetamine dependent individuals. Psychopharmacology, 201, 183193.
Kable, J.W. and Glimcher, P.W. (2007). The neural correlates of subjective value during intertemporal choice. Nature Neuroscience, 10, 16251633.
Kable, J.W. and Glimcher, P.W. (2009). The neurobiology of decision: Consensus and controversy. Neuron, 63, 733745.
Kalenscher, T., Windmann, S., Diekamp, B., Rose, J. and Colombo, M. (2005). Single units in the pigeon brain integrate reward amount and time-to-reward in an impulsive choice task. Current Biology, 15, 594602.
Kirby, K.N. (2009). One-year temporal stability of delay-discount rates. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 16, 457462.
Kirby, K.N. and Maraković, N.N. (1995). Modeling myopic decisions: Evidence for hyperbolic delay-discounting within subjects and amounts. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 64, 2230.
Kirby, K.N., Petry, N.M. and Bickel, W.K. (1999). Heroin addicts have higher discount rates for delayed rewards than non-drug-using controls. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 128, 7887.
Kringelbach, M.L. and Rolls, E.T. (2004). The functional neuroanatomy of the human orbitofrontal cortex: evidence from neuroimaging and neuropsychology. Progress in Neurobiology, 72, 341372.
Leon, M.I. and Shadlen, M.N. (1999). Effect of expected reward magnitude on the response of neurons in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of the macaque. Neuron, 24, 415425.
Li, X.T., De Beuckelaer, A., Guo, J.H., Ma, F.L., Xu, M. and Liu, J. (2014). The gray matter volume of the amygdala is correlated with the perception of melodic intervals: A voxel-based morphometry study. PloS One, 9, e99889.
Luders, E., Gaser, C., Narr, K.L. and Toga, A.W. (2009). Why sex matters: Brain size independent differences in gray matter distributions between men and women. Journal of Neuroscience, 29, 1426514270.
Luhmann, C.C., Chun, M.M., Yi, D.-J., Lee, D. and Wang, X.-J. (2008). Neural dissociation of delay and uncertainty in intertemporal choice. The Journal of Neuroscience, 28, 1445914466.
Madden, G.J., Petry, N.M., Badger, G.J. and Bickel, W.K. (1997). Impulsive and self-control choices in opioid-dependent patients and non-drug-using control patients: Drug and monetary rewards. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 5, 256262.
Marco-Pallarés, J., Mohammadi, B., Samii, A. and Münte, T.F. (2010). Brain activations reflect individual discount rates in intertemporal choice. Brain Research, 1320, 123129.
Marcoulides, G.A. and Hershberger, S.L. (1997). Multivariate statistical methods: A first course. New York: Psychology Press.
McClure, S.M., Ericson, K.M., Laibson, D.I., Loewenstein, G. and Cohen, J.D. (2007). Time discounting for primary rewards. The Journal of Neuroscience, 27, 57965804.
McClure, S.M., Laibson, D.I., Loewenstein, G. and Cohen, J.D. (2004). Separate neural systems value immediate and delayed monetary rewards. Science, 306, 503507.
Metcalfe, J. and Mischel, W. (1999). A hot/cool-system analysis of delay of gratification: dynamics of willpower. Psychological Review, 106, 319.
Mischel, W., Shoda, Y. and Rodriguez, M.I. (1989). Delay of gratification in children. Science, 244, 933938.
Mobini, S., Body, S., Ho, M.-Y., Bradshaw, C., Szabadi, E., Deakin, J. and Anderson, I. (2002). Effects of lesions of the orbitofrontal cortex on sensitivity to delayed and probabilistic reinforcement. Psychophar macology, 160, 290298.
Montague, P.R. and Berns, G.S. (2002). Neural economics and the biological substrates of valuation. Neuron, 36, 265284.
Myerson, J., Green, L., Scott Hanson, J., Holt, D.D. and Estle, S.J. (2003). Discounting delayed and probabilistic rewards: Processes and traits. Journal of Economic Psychology, 24, 619635.
Peters, J. and Büchel, C. (2009). Overlapping and distinct neural systems code for subjective value during intertemporal and risky decision making. The Journal of Neuroscience, 29, 1572715734.
Peters, J. and Büchel, C. (2010). Neural representations of subjective reward value. Behavioural brain research, 213, 135141.
Peters, J. and Büchel, C. (2011). The neural mechanisms of inter-temporal decision-making: understanding variability. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 15, 227239.
Petry, N.M. (2002). Discounting of delayed rewards in substance abusers: relationship to antisocial personality disorder. Psychopharmacology, 162, 425432.
Petry, N.M. (2003). Discounting of money, health, and freedom in substance abusers and controls. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 71, 133141.
Petry, N.M. and Casarella, T. (1999). Excessive discounting of delayed rewards in substance abusers with gambling problems. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 56, 2532.
Pine, A., Seymour, B., Roiser, J.P., Bossaerts, P., Friston, K.J., Curran, H.V. and Dolan, R.J. (2009). Encoding of marginal utility across time in the human brain. The Journal of Neuroscience, 29, 95759581.
Richards, J.B., Zhang, L., Mitchell, S.H. and Wit, H. (1999). Delay or probability discounting in a model of impulsive behavior: effect of alcohol. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 71, 121143.
Roesch, M.R. and Olson, C.R. (2003). Impact of expected reward on neuronal activity in prefrontal cortex, frontal and supplementary eye fields and premotor cortex. Journal of Neurophysiology, 90, 17661789.
Roesch, M.R., Taylor, A.R. and Schoenbaum, G. (2006). Encoding of time-discounted rewards in orbitofrontal cortex is independent of value representation. Neuron, 51, 509520.
Rudebeck, P.H., Walton, M.E., Smyth, A.N., Bannerman, D.M. and Rushworth, M.F. (2006). Separate neural pathways process different decision costs. Nature Neuroscience, 9, 11611168.
Schultz, W., Tremblay, L. and Hollerman, J.R. (2000). Reward processing in primate orbitofrontal cortex and basal ganglia. Cerebral Cortex, 10, 272283.
Sellitto, M., Ciaramelli, E. and di Pellegrino, G. (2010). Myopic discounting of future rewards after medial orbitofrontal damage in humans. The Journal of Neuroscience, 30, 1642916436.
Shamosh, N.A., DeYoung, C.G., Green, A.E., Reis, D.L., Johnson, M.R., Conway, A.R.Gray, J.R. (2008). Individual differences in delay discounting relation to intelligence, working memory, and anterior prefrontal cortex. Psychological Science, 19, 904911.
Tanaka, S.C., Doya, K., Okada, G., Ueda, K., Okamoto, Y. and Yamawaki, S. (2004). Prediction of immediate and future rewards differentially recruits cortico-basal ganglia loops. Nature Neuroscience, 7, 887893.
Tsujimoto, S. and Sawaguchi, T. (2005). Neuronal activity representing temporal prediction of reward in the primate prefrontal cortex. Cortex, 93, 36873692.
van der Meer, M.A., Johnson, A., Schmitzer-Torbert, N.C. and Redish, A.D. (2010). Triple dissociation of information processing in dorsal striatum, ventral striatum, and hippocampus on a learned spatial decision task. Neuron, 67, 2532.
Vuchinich, R.E. and Simpson, C.A. (1998). Hyperbolic temporal discounting in social drinkers and problem drinkers. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 6, 292.
Wallis, J.D. and Miller, E.K. (2003). Neuronal activity in primate dorsolateral and orbital prefrontal cortex during performance of a reward preference task. European Journal of Neuroscience, 18, 20692081.
Ward, B.D. (2000). Simultaneous inference for fMRI data. AFNI 3dDeconvolve documentation. Medical College of Wisconsin. Retrieved from http://afni.nimh.nih.gov/pub/dist/doc/manual/AlphaSim.pdf.
Weber, B.J. and Huettel, S.A. (2008). The neural substrates of probabilistic and intertemporal decision making. Brain Research, 1234, 104115.
Wittmann, M., Leland, D.S. and Paulus, M.P. (2007). Time and decision making: differential contribution of the posterior insular cortex and the striatum during a delay discounting task. Experimental Brain Research, 179, 643653.
Yu, R. (2012). Regional white matter volumes correlate with delay discounting. PloS One, 7, e32595.

Keywords

The neuroanatomical correlates of individual differences in delay discounting: A voxel-based morphometry study

  • Xueting Li (a1), Ping Hu (a1) and Jia Liu (a2)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed