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Length of working life and pension income: empirical evidence on gender and socioeconomic differences from Finland

  • SUSAN KUIVALAINEN (a1), SATU NIVALAINEN (a1), NOORA JÄRNEFELT (a1) and KATI KUITTO (a1)
Abstract

In this paper, we analyze gender and socioeconomic differences in the length of working lives and pension income in Finland. Based on internationally unique data covering 50 years of recorded information on individual employment histories and first-year old-age pension income of a cohort retiring in 2011, we trace life-time work histories and their relation to pension income with greater precision than previous studies. While gender and socioeconomic income differences in the lengths of working lives are modest, differences in pension income are more pronounced. The residence-based national pension targeted at those with no or only low earning-related pension accrual plays an important role in cushioning old-age income differences. The results suggest that unequal life-time earnings and occupational segregation remain main challenges for equalizing pension income in old age.

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This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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Journal of Pension Economics & Finance
  • ISSN: 1474-7472
  • EISSN: 1475-3022
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-pension-economics-and-finance
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