Hostname: page-component-5d59c44645-jqctd Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-02-25T04:58:46.062Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Networks of Foundations as Norm Entrepreneurs: Between Politics and Policies in EU Decision-making

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  03 July 2009

Abstract

The European Commission has taken significant steps towards the recognition of political party foundations at EU level. Firstly, it has agreed to recognize them as actors of European development policies. Secondly, it has proposed the creation of political foundations at EU level, linked to the European political parties. This article analyses the reasons, modalities and potential impact of this process, which signifies a breakthrough in comparison with the Commission's previous attitude towards party affiliated organisations. For the foundations, network-building turns out to have been a crucial means to attain legitimacy and access to the European institutions: firstly, through the mobilisation of political entrepreneurs in the European Parliament lobbying the Commission and Council representatives; and secondly, by linking the future role of non-state actors such as political foundations to the reconsideration of the EU's communication policy.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2009

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Abélès, M. and Bellier, I. (1996) La Commission européenne: du compromis culturel à la culture politique du compromis, Revue française de science politique, 46, 3, 431456.Google Scholar
Aldrin, P. and Utard, J-M. (2008), The ambivalent politicisation of European communication. Genesis of the controversies and institutional frictions surrounding the 2006 White Paper. GSPE Working Papers, 10/28/2008, http://workingpapers.gspe.eu.Google Scholar
Bartsch, S. (1998) Politische Stiftungen: Grenzgänger zwischen Staaten- und Gesellschaftswelt, in: Eberwein, W.-D. and Kaiser, K. (eds.), Deutschlands Neue Außenpolitik. Munich: Oldenburg, 185198.Google Scholar
Borrás, S. (2007) The European Commission as Network Broker, European Integration online Papers (EIoP) 11, 1, http://eiop.or.at/eiop/texte/2007-001a.htmGoogle Scholar
Bourdieu, P. (1981) La représentation politique. Eléments pour une théorie du champ politique, Actes de la Recherche en Sciences Sociales, 36–37, 324.Google Scholar
Bouwen, P. (2002) Corporate Lobbying in the European Union: the Logic of Access, Journal of European Public Policy, 9, 3, 365390.Google Scholar
Coen, D. (2007) Empirical and Theoretical Studies in EU Lobbying, Journal of European Public Policy, 14, 3, 333345.Google Scholar
Dakowska, D. (2005a) Die Arbeit der Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung in Polen zwischen 1971 und der friedlichen Revolution, Archiv für Sozialgeschichte, 45, 325352.Google Scholar
Dakowska, D. (2005b) German Political Foundations: Transnational Party Go-betweens in the Process of EU Enlargement. In Kaiser, W. and Starie, P. (eds.), Transnational European Union. Towards a Common Political Space. London: Routledge, 150169.Google Scholar
Dakowska, D. (2009) Networking of Political Foundations: The Catalytic Effects of Transition and the European Union's Eastern Enlargement. In Kaiser, W., Gehler, M. and Leucht, B. (eds.), Networks in European Multi-Level Governance. From 1945 to the Present. Vienna: Böhlau.Google Scholar
De Waele, J-M. and Delwit, P. (eds.) (1998) La Démocratisation en Europe centrale. La coopération paneuropéenne des partis politiques. Paris: L'Harmattan.Google Scholar
Delwit, P., Külahci, E. and Van de Walle, C. (eds.) (2001) Les fédérations européennes des partis. Organisation et influence. Bruxelles: Editions de l'ULB.Google Scholar
DiMaggio, P. and Powell, W. W. (eds.) (1991) The New Institutionalism in Organizational Analysis. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Dolowitz, D. and Marsh, D. (2000), Who learns from whom. A Review of the Policy Transfer Literature, Political Studies, 44, 343357.Google Scholar
Dolowitz, D. and Marsh, D. (2000) Learning from Abroad: The Role of Policy Transfer in Contemporary Policy Making, Governance, 13, 1, 524.Google Scholar
Dür, A. and De Bièvre, D. (2007) Inclusion without Influence? NGOs in European Trade Policy, Journal of Public Policy, 27, 1, 79101.Google Scholar
Eising, R. (2007) The access of business interests to EU institutions: towards élite pluralism?, Journal of European Public Policy, 14, 3, 384403.Google Scholar
European Network of Political Foundations (April 2008), About ENoP. Unpublished document.Google Scholar
European Commission, (27. 6. 2007a), COM (2007) 364 final, 2007/0130 (COD). Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Regulation (EC) No 2004/2003 on the regulations governing political parties at European level and the rules regarding their funding (presented by the Commission).Google Scholar
European Commission (27. 6. 2007b) press release IP/07/949, Strengthening European Democracy, political debate and voter participation in elections to the European Parliament. Brussels, http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=IP/07/949&format=HTML&aged=1&language=EN&guiLanguage=en (accessed 1 October 2008)Google Scholar
European Parliament, Committee on Constitutional Affairs, (2007), Draft report on the proposal for a regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Regulation (EC) No 2004/2003 on the regulations governing political parties at European level and the rules regarding their funding (COM(2007)0364 – C6-0202/2007 – 2007/0130(COD)), 24.7.2007, Rapporteur: Jo Leinen.Google Scholar
French, D., von Meijenfeldt, R. R. and Youngs, R (2007) A European Foundation for Democracy. Enhancing the European Profile of Democracy Assistance, March 2007 (updated version, unpublished paper).Google Scholar
Green Cowles, M. (1996) The EU Committee of Am Cham: the powerful voice of American firms in Brussels, Journal of European Public Policy, 3, 3, 339358.Google Scholar
Greenwood, J. (2007) Interest Representation in the European Union. 2nd ed., London: Palgrave.Google Scholar
Hass, P. M. (1992) Introduction: epistemic communities and international policy coordination, International Organization, 46, 1, 135.Google Scholar
(The) Hague Statement on Enhancing the European profile of democracy assistance (2004), The Hague.Google Scholar
Hall, P. and Taylor, R. (1996) Political Science and the Three New Institutionalisms, Political Studies, 44, 5, 936957.Google Scholar
Hix, S. (1995) Parties at the European Level and the Legitimacy of EU Socio-Economic Policy, Journal of Common Market Studies, 33, 4, 527554.Google Scholar
Hix, S. and Lord, C. (1997) Political parties in the European Union. Basingstoke: Macmillan.Google Scholar
Hix, S. (2008) What's Wrong With the European Union and How to Fix It?. London: Polity Press.Google Scholar
Joana, J. and Smith, A. (2002) Les commissaires européens. Technocrates, diplomates ou politiques? Paris: Presses de Sciences Po.Google Scholar
Johansson, K. M. (1997) Transnational Party Alliances. Analysing the Hard-Won Alliance between Conservatives and Christian-Democrats in the European Parliament. Lund: Lund University Press.Google Scholar
Johansson, K. M. and Raunio, T. (2005) Regulating Europarties: Cross-Party Coalitions Capitalizing on Incomplete Contracts. Party Politics, 11, 5, 515534.Google Scholar
Kohler-Koch, B. and Eising, R. (eds.) (1999) The Transformation of Governance in the European Union. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Mayntz, R. (1993) Policy-Netzwerke und die Logik von Verhandlungssystemen, Politische Vierteljahresschrift, 24, 3956.Google Scholar
Mayntz, R. and Scharpf, F. W. (2001) L'institutionnalisme centré sur les acteurs, Politix, 14, 55, 95123.Google Scholar
Mazey, S. and Richardson, J. J. (1993) Lobbying in the European Community. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Ortuño Anaya, P. (2002) European Socialists and Spain: the Transition to Democracy. Basingstoke: Palgrave.Google Scholar
Pappi, F. U. and Henning, H. C. A. (1998) Policy Networks: More than a Metaphor?, Journal of Theoretical Politics, 10, 4, 553575.Google Scholar
Phillips, A. L. (1999) Exporting Democracy: German Political Foundations in Central-East Europe, Democratization 6, 2, 7098.Google Scholar
Pinto-Duschinsky, M. (1996) International Political Finance: The Konrad Adenauer Foundation and Latin America. In: Whitehead, L. (ed.), The International Dimension of Democratization. Europe and the Americas. Oxford: OUP, 227255.Google Scholar
Radaelli, C. (2000) Policy Transfer in the European Union: Institutional Isomorphism as a Source of Legitimacy, Governance, 13, 1, 2543.Google Scholar
Radaelli, C. (2005) Diffusion without convergence: how political context shapes the adoption of regulatory impact assessment, Journal of European Public Policy, 12, 5, 924943.Google Scholar
Regulation (EC) No 1524/2007 of the European Parliament and of the Council (18 December 2007) amending Regulation (EC) No 2004/2003 on the regulations governing political parties at European level and the rules regarding their funding.Google Scholar
Rhodes, R. A. W. (2003) Putting People Back into Networks, Australian Journal of Political Science, 37, 3, 399416.Google Scholar
Rhodes, R. A. W. (2007) Understanding Governance: Ten Years On, Organization Studies, 28, 8, 12431264.Google Scholar
Rose, R. (1991) What is Lesson-Drawing?, Journal of Public Policy, 11, 1, 330.Google Scholar
Rose, R. (1993) Lesson-Drawing in Public Policy. Chatham, NJ: Chatham House.Google Scholar
Sabatier, P. A. (1998) The Advocacy Coalition Framework. Revisions and Relevance for Europe, Journal of European Public Policy, 5, 1, 98130.Google Scholar
Saurugger, S. (2001) A fragmented environment: interest groups and the Commission's bureaucratic sectorisation, Politique européenne, 5, 4569.Google Scholar
Smith, A. (ed.) (2004) Politics and the European Commission. Actors, Interdependence, Legitimacy. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Stone, D. (2000) Non-governmental Policy Transfer: The strategies of Independent Policy Institutes, Governance, 13, 1, 4562.Google Scholar
van Doorn, M. and von Meijenfeldt, R. (eds.) (2007) Democracy, Europe's Core Value? On the European Profile in World-wide Democracy Assistance. Delft: Eburon.Google Scholar
Wagner, C. (1994) Die offiziöse Außen- und Entwicklungspolitik der deutschen politischen Stiftungen in Lateinamerika. In: Mols, M. and Wagner, C. (eds.), Deutschland – Lateinamerika. Geschichte, Gegenwart und Perspektiven. Frankfurt a.M.: Verwuert Verlag.Google Scholar
Weisbein, J. (2003) Sociogenèse de la « société civile européenne », Raisons politiques, 5–7, 10, 125137.Google Scholar