Aldrich, JH and McKelvey, RD (1977) A Method of Scaling with Applications to the 1968 and 1972 Presidential Elections. American Political Science Review 71(1): 111–130.
Asmussen, N (2011) Female and Minority Judicial Nominees: President’s Delight and Senators’ Dismay? Legislative Studies Quarterly 36(4): 591–619.
Bailey, MA (2007) Comparable Preference Estimates across Time and Institutions for the Court, Congress, and Presidency. American Journal of Political Science 51(3): 433–448.
Bailey, MA and Chang, KH (2001) Comparing Presidents, Senators, and Justices: Interinstitutional Preference Estimation. Journal of Law, Economics, & Organization 17(2): 477–506.
Bendor, J and Meirowitz, A (2004) Spatial Models of Delegation. American Political Science Review 98(2): 293–310.
Bertelli, AM and Feldmann, SE (2007) Strategic Appointments. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 17(1): 19–38.
Bertelli, AM and Grose, CR (2009) Secretaries of Pork? A New Theory of Distributive Public Policy. Journal of Politics 71(3): 926–945.
Blackwell, M, Honaker, J and King, G (2017) A Unified Approach to Measurement Error and Missing Data Overview and Applications. Sociological Methods & Research 46(3): 342–369.
Bonica, A (2018) Are Donation Based Measures of Ideology Valid Predictors of Individual-Level Policy Preferences? Journal of Politics https://doi.org/10.1086/700722
Bonica, A (2013) Ideology and Interests in the Political Marketplace. American Journal of Political Science 57(2): 294–311.
Bonica, A (2014) Mapping the Ideological Marketplace. American Journal of Political Science 58(2): 367–386.
Bonica, A, Chen, J and Johnson, T (2015) Senate Gate-Keeping, Presidential Staffing of ‘Inferior Offices,’ and the Ideological Composition of Appointments to the Public Bureaucracy. Quarterly Journal of Political Science 10(1): 5–40.
Chang, KH (2001) The President Versus the Senate: Appointments in the American System of Separated Powers and the Federal Reserve. Journal of Law, Economics, & Organization 17(2): 319–355.
Chen, J and Johnson, T (2015) Federal Employee Unionization and Presidential Control of the Bureaucracy: Estimating and Explaining Ideological Change in Executive Agencies. Journal of Theoretical Politics 27(1): 151–174.
Chen, J and Johnson, T (2016) Political Ideology in the Bureaucracy. In Farzamand A (ed.), Global Encyclopedia of Public Administration, Public Policy, and Governance. Basel, Switzerland: Springer International.
Chiou, F-Y and Rothenberg, LS (2014) Executive Appointments: Duration, Ideology, and Hierarchy. Journal of Theoretical Politics 26(3): 496–517.
Clinton, JD, Bertelli, AM, Grose, C, Lewis, DE and Nixon, DC (2012) Separated Powers in the United States: The Ideology of Agencies, Presidents, and Congress. American Journal of Political Science 56(2): 341–354.
Clinton, JD, Jackman, S and Rivers, D (2004) The Statistical Analysis of Roll Call Data. American Political Science Review 98(2): 355–370.
Clinton, JD and Lewis, DE (2008) Expert Opinion, Agency Characteristics, and Agency Preferences. Political Analysis 16(1): 3–20.
Dewan, T and Myatt, DP (2010) The Declining Talent Pool of Government. American Journal of Political Science 54(2): 267–286.
Epstein, D and O’Halloran, S (1999) Delegating Powers: A Transaction Cost Politics Approach to Policy Making under Separate Powers. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Epstein, L, Martin, AD, Segal, JA and Westerland, C (2007) The Judicial Common Space. Journal of Law, Economics, & Organization 23(2): 303–325.
Gailmard, S (2002) Expertise, Subversion, and Bureaucratic Discretion. Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization 18(2): 536–555.
Glassman, ME and Wilhelm, AH (2017) Congressional Careers: Service Tenure and Patterns of Member Service, 1789-2015.” CRS Report for Congress, R41545. https://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R41545.pdf (accessed 1 March 2018).
Groseclose, T and McCarty, N (2001) The Politics of Blame: Bargaining before an Audience. American Journal of Political Science 45(1): 100–119.
Haglund, E and Lewis, DE (2013) “Politicization and Compliance with the Law: The Case of the Federal Vacancies Reform Act of 1998.” Paper prepared for presentation at the 2013 Annual Meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, Chicago, April 11–14.
Heckman, JJ (1979) Sample Selection Bias as a Specification Error. Econometrica 47(1): 153–161.
Hill, SJ and Huber, GA (2017) Representativeness and Motivations of the Contemporary Donorate: Results from Merged Survey and Administrative Records. Political Behavior 39(1): 3–29.
Hollibaugh, GE Jr (2015a) Naïve Cronyism and Neutral Competence: Patronage, Performance, and Policy Agreement in Executive Appointments. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 25(2): 341–372.
Hollibaugh, GE Jr (2015b) Vacancies, Vetting, and Votes: A Unified Dynamic Model of the Appointments Process. Journal of Theoretical Politics 27(2): 206–236.
Hollibaugh, GE Jr (2017) The Incompetence Trap: The (Conditional) Irrelevance of Agency Expertise. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 27(2): 217–235.
Hollibaugh, GE Jr (2018) Patronage Appointments and Agency Independence. Journal of Politics 80(4): 1411–1416.
Hollibaugh, GE Jr, Horton, G and Lewis, DE (2014) Presidents and Patronage. American Journal of Political Science 58(4): 1024–1042.
Hollibaugh, GE Jr and Rothenberg, LS (2017) The When and Why of Nominations: Determinants of Presidential Appointments. American Politics Research 45(2): 280–303.
Hollibaugh, GE Jr and Rothenberg, LS (2018) The Who, When, and Where of Executive Nominations: Integrating Agency Independence and Appointee Ideology. American Journal of Political Science 62(2): 296–311.
Jo, J (2017) Now or Later? A Dynamic Analysis of Judicial Appointments. Journal of Theoretical Politics 29(1): 149–164.
Jo, J, Primo, DM and Sekiya, Y (2017) Policy Dynamics and Electoral Uncertainty in the Appointments Process. Journal of Theoretical Politics 29(1): 124–148.
Jo, J and Rothenberg, LS (2014) The Importance of Bureaucratic Hierarchy: Conflicting Preferences, Incomplete Control, and Policy Outcomes. Economics & Politics 26(1): 157–183.
Kousser, T and Phillips, JH (2009) Who Blinks First? Legislative Patience and Bargaining with Governors. Legislative Studies Quarterly 34(1): 55–86.
Krause, GA and O’Connell, AJ (2016) Experiential Learning and Presidential Management of the U.S. Federal Bureaucracy: Logic and Evidence from Agency Leadership Appointments. American Journal of Political Science 60(4): 914–931.
Krehbiel, K (1998) Pivotal Politics: A Theory of U.S. Lawmaking. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Krutz, GS, Fleisher, R and Bond, JR (1998) From Abe Fortas to Zöe Baird: Why Some Presidential Nominations Fail in the Senate. American Political Science Review 92(4): 871–881.
Martin, AD and Quinn, KM (2002) Dynamic Ideal Point Estimation via Markov Chain Monte Carlo for the U.S. Supreme Court, 1953-1999. Political Analysis 10(2): 134–153.
Martinek, WL, Kemper, M and Van Winkle, SR (2002) To Advise and Consent: The Senate and Lower Federal Court Nominations, 1977-1998. Journal of Politics 64(2): 337–361.
McCarty, N and Razaghian, R (1999) Advice and Consent: Senate Responses to Executive Branch Nominations 1885-1996. American Journal of Political Science 43(4): 1122–1143.
Nixon, DC (2001) Appointment Delay for Vacancies on the Federal Communications Commission. Public Administration Review 61(4): 483–492.
Nixon, DC (2004) Separation of Powers and Appointee Ideology. Journal of Law, Economics, & Organization 20(2): 438–457.
O’Connell, AJ (2009) Vacant Offices: Delays in Staffing Top Agency Positions. Southern California Law Review 82, 913–1000.
Ostrander, I (2016) The Logic of Collective Inaction: Senatorial Delay in Executive Nominations. American Journal of Political Science 60(4): 1063–1076.
Poole, KT and Rosenthal, H (1997) Congress: A Political-Economic History of Roll Call Voting. New York: Oxford University Press.
Raftery, AE (1995) Bayesian Model Selection in Social Research. Sociological Methodology 25, 111–163.
Rubinstein, A (1982) Perfect Equilibrium in a Bargaining Model. Econometrica 50(1): 97–109.
Segal, JA and Cover, AD (1989) Ideological Values and the Votes of U.S. Supreme Court Justices. American Political Science Review 83(2): 558–565.
Selin, JL (2015) What Makes an Agency Independent?”. American Journal of Political Science 59(4): 971–987.
Shipan, CR and Shannon, ML (2003) Delaying Justice(s): A Duration Analysis of Supreme Court Confirmations. American Journal of Political Science 47(4): 654–668.
Smith, S (2014) The Senate Syndrome: The Evolution of Procedural Warfare in the Modern U.S. Senate. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.
Sullivan, T (2009) Reducing the Adversarial Burden on Presidential Appointees: Feasible Strategies for Fixing the Presidential Appointments Process. Public Administration Review 69(6): 1124–1135.
United States General Accounting Office (2001) Presidential Appointments: Agencies’ Compliance with Provisions of the Federal Vacancies Reform Act of 1998 (GAO Publication No. 01-701). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.