Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Multiple streams in member state implementation: politics, problem construction and policy paths in Swiss asylum policy

  • Fritz Sager (a1) and Eva Thomann (a2)

Abstract

This article applies the multiple streams approach to a multilevel implementation setting to analyse why Swiss member states enabled the labour market integration of asylum seekers between 2000 and 2003. It argues for integrating the social construction of target groups into the problem stream, and complementing the policy stream with inherited policy paths. A fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis reveals that institutionalised policy paths trump politics in explaining the enabling of labour market integration of asylum seekers. Conversely, a weak political left combined with negative problem constructions aces out policy paths in explaining restrictions of labour market integration. The results illustrate how social constructions influence problem framing. Historical institutionalism theory helps us understand how inherited policy logics feed back with actors’ problem perceptions. Because of the parallels in their multilevel systems, political contexts and problem pressures, this historical case offers salient lessons for the refugee crisis in the European Union today.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Ackrill, R., Kay, A. and Zahariadis, O. (2013) Ambiguity, Multiple Streams, and EU Policy. Journal of European Public Policy 20(6): 871887.
Battaglini, M. and Giraud, O. (2003) Policy Styles and the Swiss Executive Federalism: Comparing Diverging Styles of Cantonal Implementation of the Federal Law on Unemployment. Swiss Political Science Review 9(1): 285308.
Boräng, F. (2015) Large‐Scale Solidarity? Effects of Welfare State Institutions on the Admission of Forced Migrants. European Journal of Political Research 54(2): 216231.
Börzel, T. A. and Hosli, M. O. (2003) Brussels Between Bern and Berlin: Comparative Federalism Meets the European Union. Governance 16(2): 179202.
Castles, F. G. (2000) Comparative Public Policy: Patterns of Post-War Transformation. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Christin, T., Hug, S. and Sciarini, P. (2002) La mobilisation des clivages lors des votations populaires. In Hug S. and Sciarini P. (eds.), Changements de valeurs et nouveaux clivages politiques en Suisse. Paris: L’Harmattan, 237267.
Duşa, A. and Thiem, A. (2014) QCA: A Package for Qualitative Comparative Analysis. R Package Version 1.1-4, http://cran.r-project.org/package=QCA (accessed 5 May 2015).
Ehrler, F. and Sager, A. (2011) Marketisation in a Federal System. New Modes of Governance in Unemployment Insurance and Social Assistance in Switzerland. In Van Berkel R., De Graaf W. and Sirovatka T. (eds.), The Governance of Active Welfare States in Europe. Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave, 153172.
Emmenegger, P. (2011) How good are your counterfactuals? Assessing quantitative macro-comparative welfare state research with qualitative criteria. Journal of European Social Policy 21(4): 365380.
Freitag, M. and Rapp, C. (2013) Intolerance Toward Immigrants in Switzerland: Diminished Threat Through Social Contacts? Swiss Political Science Review 19(4): 425446.
Goertz, G. (2006) Social Science Concepts. A User’s Guide. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Hagelund, A. and Kavli, H. (2009) If Work is Out of Sight. Activation and Citizenship for New Refugees. Journal of European Social Policy 19(3): 259270.
Hall, P. A. and Taylor, R. (1996) Political Science and the Three New Institutionalisms. Political Studies 44(5): 936957.
Hatton, T. J. (2009) The rise and fall of asylum: What happened and why? The Economic Journal 119(535): F183F213.
Herweg, N., Huß, C. and Zohlnhöfer, R. (2015) Straightening the Three Streams: Theorising Extensions of the Multiple Streams Framework. European Journal of Political Research 54(3): 435449.
Holzer, T., Schneider, G. and Widmer, T. (2000) Discriminating Decentralization: Federalism and the Handling of Asylum Applications in Switzerland, 1988–1996. Journal of Conflict Resolution 44(2): 250276.
Howlett, M., McConnell, A. and Perl, A. (2015) Streams and Stages: Reconciling Kingdon and Policy Process Theory. European Journal of Political Research 54(3): 419434.
Keogh, G. (2013) Modelling Asylum Migration Pull-Force Factors in the EU-15. The Economic and Social Review 44(3): 371399.
Kingdon, J. W. (1984) Agendas, Alternatives and Public Policy. New York: Harper Collins.
Knaggård, Å. (2015) The Multiple Streams Framework and the Problem Broker. European Journal of Political Research 54(3): 450465.
Lavenex, S. (2004) Whither the Liberal Democratic Model? Immigration Politics in Switzerland and Japan. Swiss Political Science Review 10(3): 179209.
Lavenex, S. (2007) Policies of Immigration, Asylum and Integration. In Klöti U., Knoepfel P., Kriesi H., Linder W., Papadopoulos Y. and Sciarini P. (eds.), Handbook of Swiss Politics, 2nd revised ed. Zurich: NZZ, 621644.
Lenschow, A., Liefferink, D. and Veenman, S. (2005) When the Birds Sing. A Framework for Analysing Domestic Factors Behind Policy Convergence. Journal of European Public Policy 12(5): 797816.
Manatschal, A. (2015) Switzerland – Really Europe’s Heart of Darkness? Swiss Political Science Review 21(1): 2335.
Mudde, C. (2013) Three Decades of Populist Radical Right Parties in Western Europe: So What? European Journal of Political Research 52(1): 119.
Olsen, J. O. (2001) Garbage Cans, New Institutionalism, and the Study of Politics. American Political Science Review 95(1): 191198.
Piguet, E. and Misteli, R. (1996) L’intégration des requérants d’asile et des réfugiés sur le marché de travail. Neuchâtel: Université de Neuchâtel/Forum Suisse pour l’étude des migrations (FSM).
Quaranta, M. (2013) SetMethods: A Package Companion to “Set-Theoretic Methods for the Social Sciences”. R Package Version 1.0, http://cran.r-project.org/package=SetMethods (accessed 5 May 2015).
Ragin, C. (2000) Fuzzy-Set Social Science. Chicago, IL and London: University of Chicago Press.
Ragin, C. (2008) Qualitative Comparative Analysis Using Fuzzy Sets (FsQCA). In Rihoux B. and Ragin C. (eds.), Configurational Comparative Methods. Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) and Related Techniques. Thousand Oaks, CT and London: Sage, 87121.
Ridde, V. (2009) Policy Implementation in an African State: An Extension of Kingdon’s Multiple-Streams Approach. Public Administration 87(4): 938954.
Rihoux, B. and Ragin, C. (2009) Configurational Comparative Methods. Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) and Related Techniques. Thousand Oaks, CA and London: Sage.
Sager, F. (2003) Kompensationsmöglichkeiten föderaler Vollzugsdefizite. Das Beispiel der kantonalen Alkoholpräventionspolitiken. Swiss Political Science Review 9(1): 309333.
Sager, F. (2005) Metropolitan Institutions and Policy Coordination. The Integration of Land Use and Transport Policies in Swiss Urban Areas. Governance. An International Journal of Policy, Administration, and Institutions 18(2): 227256.
Sager, F. (2007a) Habermas’ Models of Decisionism, Technocracy, and Pragmatism in Times of Governance. The Relationship of Public Administration, Politics, and Science in the Alcohol Prevention Policies of the Swiss Member States. Public Administration 85(2): 429447.
Sager, F. (2007b) Making Transport Policy Work: Polity, Policy, Politics, and Systematic Review. Policy & Politics 35(2): 269288.
Sager, F. (2009) Governance and Coercion. Political Studies 57(3): 537558.
Sager, F. and Rielle, Y. (2013) Sorting Through the Garbage Can. Under What Conditions Do Governments Adopt Policy Programs? Policy Sciences 46(1): 121.
Sager, F., Thomann, E., Zollinger, C. and Mavrot, C. (2014) Confronting Theories of European Integration: A Comparative Congruence Analysis of Veterinary Drugs Regulations in Five Countries. Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis: Research and Practice 16(5): 457474.
Sager, F. and Zollinger, C. (2011) The Swiss Political System in a Comparative Perspective. In Trampusch C. and Mach A. (eds.), Switzerland in Europe. London and New York: Routledge, 2742.
Schenkel, R. (2005) Kantonale Vollzugsstrategien der Asylpolitik im Vergleich. Eine Analyse anhand der Aspekte der Rückführung und der arbeistmarktlichen Bestimmungen für Asylsuchende. Bern: Lizentiatsarbeit, Universität Bern.
Schmidt, S. (2014) Die Asylpolitik spaltet den Aargau. Basler Zeitung, http://bazonline.ch/schweiz/standard/Die-Asylpolitik-spaltet-den-Aargau/story/19896889 (accessed 12 January 2015).
Schneider, A. and Ingram, H. (1993) Social Construction of Target Populations: Implications for Politics and Policy. American Political Science Review 87(2): 334347.
Schneider, C. Q. and Rohlfing, I. (2013) Combining QCA and Process Tracing in Set-Theoretic Multi-Method Research. Sociological Methods & Research 42(4): 559597.
Schneider, C. Q. and Wagemann, C. (2012) Set-Theoretic Methods for the Social Sciences. A Guide to Qualitative Comparative Analysis. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Skaaning, S. (2011) Assessing the Robustness of Crisp-Set and Fuzzy-Set QCA Results. Sociological Methods & Research 40(2): 391408.
Spohr, F. (2016) Path-Departing Labour-Market Reforms in the United Kingdom and Sweden: An Analysis Combining the Multiple-Streams Framework and Historical Institutionalism. In Reimut Zohlnhöfer and Friedbert W. Rüb (eds.), Decision-Making Under Ambiguity and Time Constraints Assessing the Multiple-Streams Framework. Colchester: ECPR, 251269.
Spörndli, M., Holzer, T. and Schneider, G. (1998) Diener dreier Herren? Kantonalbehörden und die Vollzugsvielfalt der arbeitsmarktlichen Bestimmungen im schweizerischen Asylrecht. Swiss Political Science Review 4(3): 5377.
Steinacker, A. (2006) Externalities, Prospect Theory, and Social Construction: When Will Government Act, What Will Government Do? Social Science Quarterly 87(3): 459476.
Thielemann, E. and Hobolth, M. (2016) Trading Numbers Vs. Rights? Accounting for Liberal and Restrictive Dynamics in the Evolution of Asylum and Refugee Policies. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 42(4): 643664.
Thomann, E. (2015) Customizing Europe: Transposition as Bottom-Up Implementation. Journal of European Public Policy 22(10): 13681387.
Thomann, E. and Manatschal, A. (2015) Identifying Context and Cause in Small-N Settings: A Comparative Multilevel Analysis. Policy Sciences. doi:10.1007/s11077-015-9233-x.
Toshkov, D. and de Haan, L. (2013) The Europeanization of Asylum Policy: An Assessment of the EU Impact on Asylum Applications and Recognitions Rates. Journal of European Public Policy 20(5): 661683.
Zahariadis, N. (1995) Markets, States and Public Policy: Privatization in Britain and France. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
Zahariadis, N. (2007) The Multiple Streams Framework. In Sabatier P. (ed.), Theories of the Policy Process. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 65128.
Zahariadis, N. (2014) Ambiguity and Multiple Streams. In Sabatier P. and Weible C. M. (eds.), Theories of the Policy Process, 3rd ed. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2558.
Zahariadis, N. and Allen, C. S. (1995) Ideas, Networks and Policy Streams: Privatization in Britain and Germany. Policy Studies Review 14(1–2): 7198.
Zahariadis, N. and Exadaktylos, T. (2016) Policies that Succeed and Programs that Fail: Ambiguity, Conflict, and Crisis in Greek Higher Education. Policy Studies Journal 44(1): 5982.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Public Policy
  • ISSN: 0143-814X
  • EISSN: 1469-7815
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-public-policy
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

Sager and Thomann supplementary material
Online Appendix A-D

 Word (266 KB)
266 KB

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed