Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Swift, brokered and broad-based information exchange: how network structure facilitates stakeholders monitoring EU policy implementation

  • Reini Schrama (a1)
Abstract

Monitoring the implementation process in domestic settings of multi-level policies like the EU gender directives is dependent on interactions among a diverse set of policy stakeholders. However, there is no clear understanding of which factors determine the structure of these monitoring networks and what benefits effective exchange. Drawing on insights from social network theory, literature on information politics in transnational networks and policy network analysis, this study analyses what drives information exchange among actors in the monitoring network of women’s groups in the Netherlands. Using Exponential Random Graph Models, the analysis reveals distinctive structural features facilitating efficient information exchange and significant brokerage in the monitoring network. Moreover, the results demonstrate that interactions that serve the purpose of monitoring EU policy implementation occur among a diverse set of actors in a multi-level structure. These findings indicate that effective monitoring requires resourceful and broad-based information exchange to increase transparency in the implementation process.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author. Email: reini.schrama@ifs.ku.dk
Footnotes
Hide All

Cite this article: Schrama R. 2018. Swift, brokered and broad-based information exchange: how network structure facilitates stakeholders monitoring EU policy implementation. Journal of Public Policy page 1 of 20, doi:10.1017/S0143814X1800017X

Footnotes
References
Hide All
Ammer, M, Crowley, N, Liegl, B, Holzleithner, E, Wladasch, K Yesilkagit, K (2010) Study on Equality Bodies set up under Directives 2000/43/EC, 2004/113/EC and 2006/54/EC. Human European Consultancy in Partnership with the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Human Rights.
Ansell, C Gash, A (2008) Collaborative Governance in Theory and Practice. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 18(4): 543571.
Bala, V Goyal, S (2000) A Noncooperative Model of Network Formation. Econometrica 68(5): 11811229.
Beetham, G Popovic, N (2009) Putting Policy into Practice: Monitoring the Implementation of UN Security Council Resolutions on Women, Peace and Security. A FOKUS and UN-INSTRAW Conference Background Paper, Oslo.
Berardo, R Scholz, JT (2010) Self‐Organizing Policy Networks: Risk, Partner Selection, and Cooperation in Estuaries. American Journal of Political Science 54(3): 632649.
Börzel, TA (2000) Why There Is No ‘Southern Problem’: On Environmental Leaders and Laggards in the European Union. Journal of European Public Policy 7(1): 141162.
Brambilla, P (2001) Gender and Monitoring: A Review of Practical Experiences. London: BRIDGE, Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex.
Burri, S Van Eijken, H (2015) Gender Equality Law in 33 European Countries: How are EU Rules Transposed Into National Law in 2014? Brussels: Publications Office of the European Union.
Burt, RS (2000) The network structure of social capital. Research in organizational behavior 22, 345423.
Carpenter, DP, Esterling, KM Lazer, DM (2004) Friends, Brokers, and Transitivity: Who Informs Whom in Washington Politics? Journal of Politics 66(1): 224246.
Csardi, G Nepusz, T (2006) The Igraph Software Package for Complex Network Research. InterJournal, Complex Systems 1695. http://igraph.org.
Freeman, LC (1977) A Set of Measures of Centrality Based on Betweenness. Sociometry 40(1): 3541.
Gould, RV Fernandez, RM (1989) Structures of Mediation: A Formal Approach to Brokerage in Transaction Networks. Sociological Methodology 19, 89126.
Granovetter, MS (1973) The Strength of Weak Ties. American Journal of Sociology 78, 13601380.
Handcock, M, Hunter, D, Butts, C, Goodreau, S Morris, M (2003) STATNET: Software tools for the Statistical Modelling of Network Data, http://statnetproject.org.
Handcock, M, Hunter, D, Butts, C, Goodreau, S, Krivitsky, P Morris, M (2016) ERGM: Fit, Simulate and Diagnose Exponential-Family Models for Networks. The Statnet Project, http://www.statnet.org.
Heclo, H (1978) Issue Networks and the Executive Establishment. Public Administration: Concepts and Cases 413, 4657.
Ingold, K (2011) Network Structures Within Policy Processes: Coalitions, Power, and Brokerage in Swiss Climate Policy. Policy Studies Journal 39(3): 435459.
Jensen, CB (2007) Implementing Europe A Question of Oversight. European Union Politics 8(4): 451477.
Keck, M Sikkink, K (1998) Activists Beyond Borders: Advocacy Networks in International Politics. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Kenis, P Schneider, V (1991) Policy Networks and Policy Analysis: Scrutinizing a New Analytical Toolbox. In Marin B and Mayntz R (eds.), Policy Networks: Empirical Evidence and Theoretical Considerations. Frankfurt: Campus Verlag, 2559.
Klüver, H (2012) Biasing politics? Interest group participation in EU policy-making. West European Politics 35(5): 11141133.
Knoke, D (1996) Comparing Policy Networks: Labor Politics in the US, Germany, and Japan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kollman, K (1997) Inviting Friends to Lobby: Interest Groups, Ideological Bias, and Congressional Committees. American Journal of Political Science 41(2): 519544.
König, T Bräuninger, T (1998) The Formation of Policy Networks: Preferences, Institutions and Actors’ Choice of Information and Exchange Relations. Journal of Theoretical Politics 10(4): 445471.
Koskinen, J Snijders, TAB (2012) Simulation, Estimation, and Goodness of Fit. In Lusher D, Koskinen J, Robins G (eds.), Exponential Random Graph Models for Social Networks: Theory, Methods, and Applications. New York: Cambridge University Press, 130140.
Krivitsky, PN, Handcock, MS Morris, M (2011) Adjusting for network size and composition effects in exponential-family random graph models. Statistical methodology 8(4): 319339.
Lang, S (2009) Assessing Advocacy: European Transnational Women’s Networks and Gender Mainstreaming. Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State and Society 16(3): 327357.
Laumann, EO Knoke, D (1987) The Organizational State: Social Choice in National Policy Domains. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
Leifeld, P Schneider, V (2012) Information Exchange in Policy Networks. American Journal of Political Science 56(3): 731744.
Lubbers, MJ, Molina, JL, Lerner, J, Brandes, U, Ávila, J McCarty, C (2010) Longitudinal Analysis of Personal Networks. The case of Argentinean Migrants in Spain. Social Networks 32(1): 91104.
McCarty, C (2003) Egonet. Personal Network Software.
McCubbins, MD Schwartz, T (1984) Congressional Oversight Overlooked: Police Patrols Versus Fire Alarms. American Journal of Political Science 28(1): 165179.
Nerbonne, JF Nelson, KC (2008) Volunteer macroinvertebrate monitoring: Tensions among group goals, data quality, and outcomes. Environmental Management 42(3): 470479.
Newig, J Koontz, TM (2014) Multi-Level Governance, Policy Implementation and Participation: The EU’s Mandated Participatory Planning Approach to Implementing Environmental Policy. Journal of European Public Policy 21(2): 248267.
O’Toole, LJ (2011) The EDA in Oakland: A Case That Catalyzed a Field. Public Administration Review 71(1): 116120.
Pleines, H (2010) Is this the way to Brussels? CEE civil society involvement in EU governance. Acta Politica 45(1-2): 229246.
Provan, KG Milward, HB (1995) A Preliminary Theory of Interorganizational Network Effectiveness: A Comparative Study of Four Community Mental Health Systems. Administrative Science Quarterly 40(1): 133.
Rhodes, RA (2006) Policy Network Analysis. Oxford: The Oxford Handbook of Public Policy.
Robins, G Lusher, D (2012) A Simplified Account of ERGM as a Statistical Model. In Lusher D, Koskinen J, Robins G (eds.), Exponential Random Graph Models for Social Networks: Theory, Methods, and Application. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1628.
Robins, G, Pattison, P, Kalish, Y Lusher, D (2007) An Introduction to Exponential Random Graph (p*) Models for Social Networks. Social Networks 29(2): 173191.
Saetren, H (2005) Facts and Myths About Research on Public Policy Implementation: Out‐of‐Fashion, Allegedly Dead, But Still Very Much Alive and Relevant. Policy Studies Journal 33(4): 559582.
Sandström, A Carlsson, L (2008) The Performance of Policy Networks: The Relation Between Network Structure and Network Performance. Policy Studies Journal 36(4): 497524.
Scharpf, FW (1997) Games Real Actors Play: Actor-Centered Institutionalism in Policy Research. New York: Westview Press.
Schneider, M, Scholz, J, Lubell, M, Mindruta, D Edwardsen, M (2003) Building Consensual Institutions: Networks and the National Estuary Program. American Journal of Political Science 47(1): 143158.
Scholz, JT, Berardo, R Kile, B (2008) Do Networks Solve Collective Action Problems? Credibility, Search, and Collaboration. The Journal of Politics 70(2): 393406.
Simpson, CR (2015) Multiplexity and Strategic Alliances: The Relational Embeddedness of Coalitions in Social Movement Organisational Fields. Social Networks 42, 4259.
Snijders, TA, Pattison, PE, Robins, GL Handcock, MS (2006) New Specifications for Exponential Random Graph Models. Sociological Methodology 36(1): 99153.
Stokman, FN Zeggelink, EP (1996) Is Politics Power Or Policy Oriented? A Comparative Analysis of Dynamic Access Models in Policy Networks. Journal of Mathematical Sociology 21(1–2): 77111.
Stokman, FN Berveling, J (1998) Dynamic Modeling of Policy Networks in Amsterdam. Journal of Theoretical Politics 10(4): 577601.
Tallberg, J (2002) Paths to Compliance: Enforcement, Management, and the European Union. International Organization 56(3): 609643.
Thatcher, M (1998) The Development of Policy Network Analyses: From Modest Origins To Overarching Frameworks. Journal of Theoretical Politics 10(4): 389416.
Timmer, ASH Senden, LAJ (2016) A comparative analysis of gender equality law in Europe 2016: A comparative analysis of the implementation of EU gender equality law in the EU Member States, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Montenegro, Norway, Serbia and Turkey. Brussels: European Commission.
Ulibarri, N Scott, TA (2016) Linking Network Structure to Collaborative Governance. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 27(1): 163181.
Weible, CM (2005) Beliefs and Perceived Influence in a Natural Resource Conflict: An Advocacy Coalition Approach To Policy Networks. Political Research Quarterly 58(3): 461475.
Zhelyazkova, A, Kaya, C Schrama, R (2016) Decoupling Practical and Legal Compliance: Analysis of Member States’ Implementation of EU Policy. European Journal of Political Research 55(4): 827846.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Public Policy
  • ISSN: 0143-814X
  • EISSN: 1469-7815
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-public-policy
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

Schrama supplementary material 1
Schrama supplementary material

 Word (14 KB)
14 KB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 6
Total number of PDF views: 19 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 395 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 6th July 2018 - 21st August 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.