Skip to main content
×
×
Home

The Political Incorporation of Muslims in the United States: The Mobilizing Role of Religiosity in Islam

  • Karam Dana (a1), Bryan Wilcox-Archuleta (a2) and Matt Barreto (a3)
Abstract

Despite the overwhelming evidence to the contrary, popular perceptions in the United States, especially among political elites, continue to believe that religious Muslims oppose American democratic traditions and values. While many studies find positive relationships between mosque attendance and civic participation among U.S. Muslims, an empirical and theoretical puzzle continues to exist. What is missing is research that examines the relationships between the multi-dimensional concept of religiosity and how this is associated with public opinion and attitudes towards the American political system among Muslim Americans. Using a unique national survey of Muslim Americans, we find a positive relationship between religious beliefs, behavior, and belonging and perceptions of compatibility with American democratic traditions. Quite simply, the most religious are the most likely to believe in political integration in the United States.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Bryan Wilcox-Archuleta, Political Science, University of California, Los Angeles, 4289 Bunche Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90095. E-mail: bwa@ucla.edu
References
Hide All
Abdul Rauf, Feisal. 2004. What's right with Islam: a new vision for Muslims and the West. San Francisco: Harper San Francisco, p. 86.
Acevedo, Gabriel A., and Chaudhary, Ali R.. 2015. “Religion, Cultural Clash, and Muslim American Attitudes About Politically Motivated Violence.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 54: 242–60.
Ali, M. Amir. 2004. “A Case for Muslim Political Participation.” Muslim Public Affairs Committee UK.
al-Shanqiti, Sheikh Muhammad Al-Mukhtar. 2003. “Muslims’ Participation in US Elections” [Quoted in 2006]. https://archive.islamonline.net/?p=21110 (accessed September 21, 2014).
Ayers, John W. 2007. “Changing Sides: 9/11 and the American Muslim Voter.” Review of Religious Research 49 (2): 187–98.
Ayers, John W., and Hofstetter, C. Richard. 2008. “American Muslim Political Participation Following 9/11: Religious Belief, Political Resources, Social Structures, and Political Awareness.” Politics and Religion 1 (1) (March 14): 326.
Barreto, Matt, and Muñoz, José. 2003. “Reexamining the ‘politics of in-between’: political participation among Mexican immigrants in the United States.” Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences 25.
Bilici, Mucahit. 2011. “Being Targeted, Being Recognized: The Impact of 9/11 on Aram and Muslim Americans.” Contemporary Sociology 40 (2): 133–37.
Bloemraad, Irene. 2006. Becoming a Citizen: Incorporating Immigrants and Refugees in the United States and Canada. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Cameron, Colin A., and Trivedi, Pravin K.. 1998. Regression Analysis of Count Data. Econometric Society Monograph No. 30. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Campbell, David E. 2004. “Acts of Faith: Churches and Political Engagement.” Political Behavior 26 (2): 155–80.
Cassel, Carol A. 1999. “Voluntary Associations, Churches, and Social Participation Theories of Turnout.” Social Science Quarterly 80 (3): 504–17.
Cesari, Jocelyne. 2013. Why the West Fears Islam: An Exploration of Muslims in Liberal Democracies. New York: Palgrave Macmillian.
Choi, Jangsup, Gasim, Gamal, and Patterson, Dennis. 2011. “Identity, Issues, and Religious Commitment and Participation: Explaining Turnout among Mosque-Attending Muslim Americans.” Studies in Ethnicity and Nationalism 11 (3): 343–64.
Dana, Karam. 2011. Muslims in America: A Profile. The Dubai Initiative Paper Series. New York: The Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School of Government.
Dana, Karam. 2017. “Anti-Western Feelings in the Arab World and the Role of Exposure to the West: Rethinking Connections Through Public Opinion.” Territory, Politics, Governance. doi: 10.1080/21622671.2017.1292946.
Dana, Karam, Barreto, Matt, and Oskooii, Kassra. 2011. “Mosques as American Institutions: Mosque Attendance, Religiosity and Integration into the Political System among American Muslims.” Religions 2 (4): 504–24.
Dana, Karam, and Franklin, Stephen. 2013. “Islam in America.” In Islam for Journalists: A Primer on Covering Muslim Communities in America, eds. Pintak, Lawrence and Franklin's, Stephen. Columbia, Missouri: Donald W. Reynolds Journalism Institute, 96127.
Davis, Darren. 1997. “The direction of race of interviewer effects among African-Americans: Donning the Black Mask.” American Journal of Political Science 41 (1): 309–22.
Djupe, Paul A., and Calfano, Brian R.. 2012. “American Muslim Investment in Civil Society Political Discussion, Disagreement, and Tolerance.” Political Research Quarterly 65 (3): 516–28.
Djupe, Paul A., and Gilbert, Christopher P.. 2009. The Political Influence of Churches, eds. Leege, David C., and Wald, Kenneth D.. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Espenshade, Thomas J., and Ramakrishnan, S. Karthick. 2001. “Immigrant Incorporation and Political Participation in the United States.” International Migration Review 35: 870909.
Goldstein, Sidney, and Goldscheider, Calvin. 1968. Jewish Americans: Three Generations in a Jewish Community. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.
Gordon, Milton M. 1964. Assimilation in American Life: The Role of Race, Religion, and National Origins. New York: Oxford University Press.
Harris, Fredrick C. 1994. “Something Within: Religion as a Mobilizer of African-American Political Activism.” Journal of Politics 56 (1): 4268.
Herberg, Will. 1955. Catholic—Protestant—Jew. New York: Doubleday & Co.
Hochschild, Jennifer, and Mollenkopf, John. 2010. “Immigrant Political Incorporation: Comparing Success in the US and Western Europe.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 33: 1938.
Huntington, Samuel. 1996. The Clash of Civilizations. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Jalalzai, Farida. 2009. “The Politics of Muslims in America.” Politics and Religion 2 (2) (April): 163–99.
Jamal, Amaney. 2005. “The Political Participation and Engagement of Muslim Americans: Mosque Involvement and Group Consciousness.” American Politics Research 33: 4.
Jamal, Amaney A. 2010. “Muslim Americans: Enriching or Depleting American Democracy?” In Religion and Democracy in the United States: Danger or Opportunity, eds. Wolfe, Alan and Katznelson, Ira. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 89110.
Jeanrond, Werner G. 2002. “Belonging or Identity? Christian Faith in a Multi-Religious World.” In Many Mansions? Multiple Religious Belonging and Christian Identity, ed. Cornille, Catherine. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 106–20.
Jones-Correa, Michael A., and Leal, David L.. 2001. “Political Participation: Does Religion Matter?Political Research Quarterly 54 (4): 751.
Kellstedt, Lyman, Green, John C., Guth, James L., and Smidt, Corwin E.. 1996. “Grasping at the Essentials: The Social Embodiment of Religion and Political Behavior.” In Religion and the Culture Wars, eds. Green, John, Guth, James, Smidt, Corwin, and Kellstedt, Lyman. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 174–92.
Kelly, Nathan J., and Morgan, Jana. 2008. “Religious Traditionalism and Latino Politics in the United States.” American Politics Research 36 (2): 236.
Krysan, Maria. 1998. “Privacy and the expression of white racial attitudes: A comparison across three contexts.” Public Opinion Quarterly 62 (4): 506–44.
Krysan, Maria, and Couper, Mick P.. 2003. “Race in the Live and Virtual Interview: Racial Deference, Social Desirability, and Activation Effects in Attitude Surveys.” Social Psychology Quarterly 66 (4): 364–83.
Lajevardi, Nazita. 2015. “The Media Matters: Muslim American Portrayals and the Effects on Mass Attitudes.” Paper Delivered at the 112th Meeting of the American Political Science Association (APSA), Philadelphia, PA, 2 September 2016.
Layman, Geoffrey. 2001. The Great Divide: Religious and Cultural Conflict in American Party Politics. New York: Columbia University Press.
Layman, Geoffrey C. 1997. “Religion and Political Behavior in the United States: The Impact of Beliefs, Affiliations, and Commitment From 1980 to 1994.” Public Opinion Quarterly 61 (2): 288.
Lee, Jongho, and Pachon, Harry P.. 2007. “Leading the Way: An Analysis of the Effect of Religion on the Latino Vote.” American Politics Research 35 (2): 252–72.
Lewis, Bernard. 1990. “The Roots of Muslim Rage.” The Atlantic Monthly, September 1990.
Lien, Pei-te, Conway, Margaret, and Wong, Janelle. 2004. The Politics of Asian Americans. New York: Routledge.
March, Andrew. 2006. “Liberal Citizenship and the Search for an Overlapping Consensus: The Case of Muslim Minorities.” Philosophy & Public Affairs 34 (4): 373421.
March, Andrew. 2007. “Islamic Foundations for a Social Contract in non-Muslim Liberal Democracies.” American Political Science Review 101 (2): 235–52.
March, Andrew F. 2011. “Reading Tariq Ramadan: Political Liberalism, Islam, and ‘Overlapping Consensus’.” Ethics & International Affairs 21 (4) (March): 399413.
McDaniel, Eric L., and Ellison, Christopher G.. 2008. “God's Party? Race, Religion, and Partisanship over Time.” Political Research Quarterly 61 (2) (February 9): 180–91.
Mitchell, Claire. 2006. Religion, Identity and Politics in Northern Ireland: Boundaries of Belonging and Belief. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing.
Olson, Laura R., and Warber, Adam L.. 2008. “Belonging, Behaving, and Believing: Assessing the Role of Religion on Presidential Approval.” Political Research Quarterly 61 (2): 192204.
Oskooii, Kassra A. R. 2015. “How Discrimination Impacts Sociopolitical Behavior: A Multi-Dimensional Perspective.” Political Psychology 37: 613–40.
Oskooii, Kassra, and Dana, Karam. 2017. “Muslims in Great Britain: The Impact of Mosque Attendance on Political Behaviour and Civic Engagement.” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. DOI: 10.1080/1369183X.2017.1330652.
Putnam, Robert D. 2000. Bowling Alone: Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Putnam, Robert D., and Campbell, David E.. 2010. American Grace: How Religion Divides and Unites Us. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Read, Jen‘nan Ghazal. 2007. “More of a Bridge than a Gap: Gender Differences in Arab-American Political Engagement.” Social Science Quarterly 88 (5) (December): 1072–91.
Read, Jen‘nan Ghazal 2015. “Gender, Religious Identity, and Civic Engagement among Arab Muslims in the United States.” Sociology of Religion 76 (1) (July): 119.
Rozell, Mark, and Wilcox, Clyde. 1997. God at the Grass Roots, 1996: The Christian Right in the American Elections. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
Sanchez, G. R. 2006. ‘The Political Role of Group Consciousness in Latino Public Opinion.’ Political Research Quarterly 59 (3): 435–46.
Schoettmer, Patrick. 2015. “Mobilization and the Masjid: Muslim Political Engagement in Post 9/11 America.” Politics, Groups, and Identities 3: 2.
Smidt, Corwin E. 2013. American Evangelicals Today. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers.
Steenbrink, Karel A. 1990. “The Study of Comparative Religion by Indonesian Muslims: A Survey.” Numen, 37 (December): 141–67.
Strabac, Zan, and Listhaug, Ola. 2008. “Anti-Muslim prejudice in Europe: A multilevel analysis of survey data from 30 countries.” Social Science Research 37 (1): 268–86.
Swaine, Lucas. 1996. “Principled Segregation: Liberal Governance and Religious Free Exercise.” Journal of Church and State 38 (3): 596619.
Swaine, Lucas. 2001. The Liberal Conscience: Politics and Principle in a World of Religious Pluralism. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Valenzuela, Ali A. 2014. “Tending the Flock: Latino Religious Commitments and Political Preferences.” Political Research Quarterly 67 (4): 930–42.
Verba, Sidney, Schlozman, Kay Lehman, and Brady, Henry. 1995. Voice and Equality: Civic Voluntarism in American Politics. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Wilcox, Clyde. 1986. “Fundamentalists and Politics: An Analysis of the Effects of Differing Operational Definitions.” Journal of Politics 48 (4): 1041–51.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Race, Ethnicity, and Politics
  • ISSN: -
  • EISSN: 2056-6085
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-race-ethnicity-and-politics
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 23
Total number of PDF views: 192 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 997 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 14th August 2017 - 23rd June 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.