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Characterising the ‘Txt2Stop’ Smoking Cessation Text Messaging Intervention in Terms of Behaviour Change Techniques

  • Susan Michie (a1), Caroline Free (a2) and Robert West (a3)
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/jsc.2012.12
  • Published online: 01 August 2012
Abstract

The ‘Txt2Stop’ SMS messaging programme has been found to double smokers’ chances of stopping. It is important to characterise the content of this information in terms of specific behaviour change techniques (BCTs) for the purpose of future development. This study aimed to (i) extend a proven system for coding BCTs to text messaging and (ii) characterise Txt2Stop using this system. A taxonomy previously used to specify BCTs in face-to-face behavioural support for smoking cessation was adapted for the Txt2Stop messages and inter-rater reliability for the adapted system assessed. The system was then applied to all the messages in the Txt2Stop programme to determine its profile in terms of BCTs used. The text message taxonomy comprised 34 BCTs. Inter-rater reliability was moderate, reaching a ceiling of 61% for the core program messages with all discrepancies readily resolved. Of 899 texts delivering BCTs, 218 aimed to maintain motivation to remain abstinent, 870 to enhance self-regulatory capacity or skills, 39 to promote use of adjuvant behaviours such as using stop-smoking medication, 552 to maintain engagement with the intervention and 24 were general communication techniques. The content of Txt2Stop focuses on helping smokers with self-regulation and maintaining engagement with the intervention. The intervention focuses to a lesser extent on boosting motivation to remain abstinent; little attention is given to promoting effective use of adjuvant behaviours such as use of nicotine replacement therapy. As new interventions of this kind are developed it will be possible to compare their effectiveness and relate this to standardised descriptions of their content using this system.

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Corresponding author
Address for correspondence: Susan Michie, Department of Clinical, Educational and Health Psychology, 1–19 Torrington Place, University College London, London WC1E 7HB, UK. Email: s.michie@ucl.ac.uk
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C. Free , R. Whittaker , R. Knight , T. Abramsky , A. Rodgers , & I. G. Roberts (2009). Txt2Stop: a pilot randomised controlled trial of mobile phone-based smoking cessation support. Tobacco Control, 18 (2), 8891. doi: 10.1136/tc.2008.026146

C. Free , R. Knight , S. Robertson , R. Whittaker , P. Edwards , W. Zhou , (2011). Smoking cessation support delivered via mobile phone text messaging (Txt2Stop): A single-blind, randomised trial. Lancet, 378, 4855. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60701-0

S. Michie , C. Abraham , M. P. Eccles , J. J. Francis , W. Hardeman , & M. Johnston (2011). Strengthening evaluation and implementation by specifying components of behaviour change interventions: a study protocol. Implementation Science, 6 (1), 10. doi: 10.1186/1748-5908-6-10

S. Michie , C. Abraham , C. Whittington , J. McAteer , & S. Gupta (2009). Effective techniques in healthy eating and physical activity interventions: a meta-regression. Health Psychology, 28 (6), 690701. doi: 10.1037/a0016136

S. Michie , S. Ashford , F. F. Sniehotta , S. U. Dombrowski , A. Bishop , & D. P. French (2011). A refined taxonomy of behaviour change techniques to help people change their physical activity and healthy eating behaviours: The CALO-RE taxonomy. Psychology & Health, 26, 14791498.

S. Michie , S. Churchill , & R. West (2011). Identifying evidence-based competencies required to deliver behavioural support for smoking cessation. Annals of Behavioural Medicine, 41, 5970. doi: 10.1007/s12160-010-9235-z

S. Michie , N. Hyder , A. Walia , & R. West (2011). Development of a taxonomy of behaviour change techniques used in individual behavioural support for smoking cessation. Addictive Behaviours, 36 (4), 315319. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2010.11.016

A. Rodgers , T. Corbett , D. Bramley , T. Riddell , M. Wills , R. B. Lin , (2005). Do u smoke after txt? Results of a randomised trial of smoking cessation using mobile phone text messaging. Tobacco Control, 14 (4), 255261. doi: 10.1136/tc.2005.011577

R. West , A. Walia , N. Hyder , L. Shahab , & S. Michie (2010). Behaviour change techniques used by the English Stop Smoking Services and their associations with short-term quit outcomes. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 12, 742747. doi:10.1093/ntr/ntq074

R. West , A. Evans , & S. Michie (2011). Behaviour change techniques used in group-based behavioural support by the English Stop-Smoking Services and preliminary assessment of association with short-term outcomes. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 13 (12):13161320.

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Journal of Smoking Cessation
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  • EISSN: 1834-2612
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-smoking-cessation
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