Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-59b7f5684b-2bkkj Total loading time: 0.324 Render date: 2022-09-28T07:41:16.323Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "displayNetworkTab": true, "displayNetworkMapGraph": false, "useSa": true } hasContentIssue true

Balancing work and care: the effect of paid adult medical leave policies on employment in Europe

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  10 September 2020

DEEPA JAHAGIRDAR
Affiliation:
PhD Candidate, Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health, McGill University, 1140 Pine Avenue W., Montreal, Quebec, H3A 1A3 email: deepa.jahagirdar@mail.mcgill.ca
MICHELLE DIMITRIS
Affiliation:
PhD Candidate, Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health, McGill University, 1020 Pine Avenue W., Montreal, QC, H3A 1A2 email: michelle.dimitris@mail.mcgill.ca
ERIN STRUMPF
Affiliation:
Associate Professor, Department of Economics and Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health, McGill University, Leacock Building, Room 418, 855 Sherbrooke St. W., Montreal, QCH3A 2T7 email: erin.strumpf@mcgill.ca
JAY S. KAUFMAN
Affiliation:
Professor, Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health, McGill University, 1020 Pine Avenue W., Montreal, QC, H3A 1A2 email: jay.kaufman@mcgill.ca
SAM HARPER
Affiliation:
Associate Professor, Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health, McGill University, 1020 Pine Avenue W., Room 36B, Montreal, QCH3A 1A2 email: sam.harper@mcgill.ca
JODY HEYMANN
Affiliation:
Distinguished Professor of Health Policy and Management, Distinguished Professor of Public Affairs, and Distinguished Professor of Medicine at UCLA, UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, UCLA, Dean’s Office, 650 Charles E. Young Dr. S, 16-035 Center for Health Sciences, Los Angeles, CA90095-177265 email: jody.heymann@ph.ucla.edu
EFE ATABAY
Affiliation:
Research assistant, PROSPERED Project, Institute for Health and Social Policy, McGill University, 1130 Pine Avenue W., Montreal, QuebecH3A 1A3 email: Efe.atabay@mcgill.ca
ILONA VINCENT
Affiliation:
Academic Associate, PROSPERED Project, Institute for Health and Social Policy, McGill University, 1130 Pine Ave W., Montreal, QCH3A 1A3 email: ilona.vincent@mcgill.ca
ARIJIT NANDI*
Affiliation:
Associate Professor in the Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health, Institute for Health and Social Policy, McGill University, 1130 Pine Avenue W., Montreal, QuebecH3A 1A3
*
*Corresponding author. email: arijit.nandi@mcgill.ca

Extract

Increasing caregiving needs for family members has created pressure on prime-age workers. Combined with the ageing population, the demand for care related to illness and disability by relatives mean more of the workforce may have to consider caring needs (Bauer and Sousa-Poza, 2015). ‘Informal caregivers’ provide care generally without payment (Yoo et al., 2004). In contrast to formal care, informal caregivers usually have a close relationship with the recipient: for example, siblings and adult children. Informal caregiving is considered a desirable option to meet support needs from several perspectives; these caregivers may be preferred by recipients relative to formal arrangements especially during severe acute illnesses. Caregivers may also feel a personal sense of responsibility to look after loved ones rather than defer to strangers (Fine, 2012) though this may depend on the individual’s needs and the available alternatives. Although men are starting to play an important role due to shifting social gender roles, the vast majority of informal caregivers are women who increasingly attempt to juggle caring with labour force participation (Carmichael et al., 2008).

Type
Article
Copyright
© The Author(s), 2020. Published by Cambridge University Press

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Agree, E.M. and Glaser, K. (2009), Demography of informal caregiving. International handbook of population aging. Springer, 647668.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ahn, T. and Yelowitz, A. (2015), The short-run impacts of Connecticut’s paid sick leave legislation. Applied Economics Letters 22: 12671272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Antonova, L., Aranda, L., Pasini, G., et al. (2014), Migration, family history and pension: the second release of the SHARE Job Episodes Panel. Working Paper Series 18.Google Scholar
Antonova, L., Aranda, L, Brugiavini, A., Cavapozzi, D., Pasini, G. and Trevisan, E. (2017), SHARE Job Episodes Panel. Releaseversion: 6.0.0 SHARE-ERIC. Dataset. DOI: 10.6103/SHARE.jep.600.Google Scholar
Arno, P.S., Levine, C. and Memmott, M.M. (1999), The Economic Value Of Informal Caregiving: President Clinton’s proposal to provide relief to family caregivers opens a long-overdue discussion of this “invisible” health care sector. Health Affairs 18: 182188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bauer, J.M. and Sousa-Poza, A. (2015), Impacts of Informal Caregiving on Caregiver Employment, Health, and Family. Journal of Population Ageing 8: 113145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Belli, R.F. (1998), The structure of autobiographical memory and the event history calendar: potential improvements in the quality of retrospective reports in surveys. Memory 6: 383406.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Berecki-Gisolf, J., Lucke, J., Hockey, R., et al. (2008), Transitions into informal caregiving and out of paid employment of women in their 50s. Social Science & Medicine 67: 122127.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bolin, K., Lindgren, B. and Lundborg, P. (2008), Your next of kin or your own career?: Caring and working among the 50+ of Europe. Journal of Health Economics 27: 718738.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Börsch-Supan, A. (2017), Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), Wave 3 – SHARELIFE. In: 10.6103/SHARE.w3.600 S-EDsD (ed) Release version: 6.0.0. ed.Google Scholar
Börsch-Supan, A., Brandt, M., Hunkler, C., et al. (2013), Data Resource Profile: The Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). International Journal of Epidemiology 42: 9921001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brugiavini, A.C., Cavapozzi, D., Pasini, G. and Trevisan, E. (2013), Working life histories from SHARELIFE: a retrospective panel. SHARE Working Paper Series 11-2013. Munich, Germany.Google Scholar
Cadar, D., Murray, E.T., Head, J., et al. (2016), The Association Between Informal Caregiving and Exit From Employment Among Older Workers: Prospective Findings From the UK Household Longitudinal Study. The Journals of Gerontology: Series B 73: 12531262.Google Scholar
Carmichael, F., Hulme, C., Sheppard, S., et al. (2008), Work – life imbalance: Informal care and paid employment in the UK. Feminist Economics 14: 335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crespo, L. and Mira, P. (2014), Caregiving to elderly parents and employment status of European mature women. Review of Economics and Statistics 96: 693709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dimick, J.B. and Ryan, A.M. (2014), Methods for Evaluating Changes in Health Care Policy: The Difference-in-Differences ApproachDifference-in-Differences ApproachJAMA Guide to Statistics and Methods. JAMA 312: 24012402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Esarey, J. and Menger, A. (2018), Practical and effective approaches to dealing with clustered data. Political Science Research and Methods: 119.Google Scholar
Fine, M.D. (2012), Employment and Informal Care: Sustaining Paid Work and Caregiving in Community and Home-based Care. Ageing International 37: 5768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Finnish Centre for Pensions. Retirement ages in Member States. Available at: https://www.etk.fi/en/the-pension-system/international-comparison/retirement-ages/ Google Scholar
Francesca, C., Ana, L-N., Jérôme, M., et al. (2011), OECD health policy studies help wanted? Providing and paying for long-term care: providing and paying for long-term care: OECD Publishing.Google Scholar
Gautun, H. and Bratt, C. (2017), Caring too much? Lack of public services to older people reduces attendance at work among their children. European Journal of Ageing 14: 155166.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Goode, W.J. (1960), A theory of role strain. American sociological review: 483496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hedel, K.v., Mejía-Guevara, I., Avendaño, M., et al. (2016), Work–Family Trajectories and the Higher Cardiovascular Risk of American Women Relative to Women in 13 European Countries. American Journal of Public Health 106: 14491456.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Henz, U. (2006), Informal Caregiving at Working Age: Effects of Job Characteristics and Family Configuration. Journal of Marriage and Family 68: 411429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jacobs, J.C., Van Houtven, C.H., Laporte, A., et al. (2015), Baby Boomer caregivers in the workforce: Do they fare better or worse than their predecessors? The Journal of the Economics of Ageing 6: 89101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kendig, H., Byles, J.E., O’Loughlin, K., et al. (2014), Adapting data collection methods in the Australian Life Histories and Health Survey: a retrospective life course study. BMJ open 4: e004476.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Leigh, A. (2010), Informal care and labor market participation. Labour Economics 17: 140149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lester, G. (2005), A defense of paid family leave. Harvard Journal of Law & Gender, 28: 1.Google Scholar
Lilly, M.B., Laporte, A. and Coyte, P.C. (2007), Labor market work and home care’s unpaid caregivers: a systematic review of labor force participation rates, predictors of labor market withdrawal, and hours of work. The Milbank Quarterly 85: 641690.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Marks, S.R. (1977), Multiple roles and role strain: Some notes on human energy, time and commitment. American sociological review: 921936.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marks, S.R. and MacDermid, S.M. (1996), Multiple roles and the self: A theory of role balance. Journal of Marriage and the Family: 417432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mazzonna, F. and Havari, E. (2011), Can we trust older people’s statements on their childhood circumstances? Evidence from SHARELIFE. SHARE Working Paper Series 05-2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McGarry, K.M. (2006), Does caregiving affect work? Evidence based on prior labor force experience. Health care issues in the United States and Japan. University of Chicago Press, 209228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pavalko, E.K. and Artis, J.E. (1997), Women’s caregiving and paid work: Causal relationships in late midlife. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 52: S170S179.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pavalko, E.K. and Henderson, K.A. (2006), Combining Care Work and Paid Work:Do Workplace Policies Make a Difference? Research on Aging 28: 359374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rostgaard, T. and Szebehely, M. (2012), Changing policies, changing patterns of care: Danish and Swedish home care at the crossroads. European Journal of Ageing 9: 101109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sarasa, S. and Billingsley, S. (2008), Personal and household caregiving from adult children to parents and social stratification. Families, Ageing and Social Policy: Intergenerational Solidarity in European Welfare States: 123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Scholes, S., Medina, J., Cheschire, H., et al. (2009), Living in the 21st century: Older people in England. The 2006 English longitudinal study of ageing. Technical report.Google Scholar
Schröder, M. (2011), Retrospective data collection in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe. SHARELIFE methodology. Mannheim: MEA.Google Scholar
Verbakel, E. (2014), Informal caregiving and well-being in Europe: What can ease the negative consequences for caregivers? Journal of European Social Policy 24: 424441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
StataCorp. (2015), Stata Statistical Software: Release 14. College Station, TX: StataCorp LP.Google Scholar
Wahrendorf, M. (2015), Previous employment histories and quality of life in older ages: sequence analyses using SHARELIFE. Ageing & Society 35: 19281959.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wu, Z. and Penning, M.J. (2015), Caregiver Stress and Mental Health: Impact of Caregiving Relationship and Gender. The Gerontologist 56: 11021113.Google Scholar
Yoo, B-K., Bhattacharya, J., McDonald, K.M., et al. (2004), Impacts of informal caregiver availability on long-term care expenditures in OECD countries. Health services research 39: 19711992.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Supplementary material: File

Jahagirdar et al. supplementary material

Jahagirdar et al. supplementary material

Download Jahagirdar et al. supplementary material(File)
File 411 KB

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Balancing work and care: the effect of paid adult medical leave policies on employment in Europe
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Balancing work and care: the effect of paid adult medical leave policies on employment in Europe
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Balancing work and care: the effect of paid adult medical leave policies on employment in Europe
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *