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The 1967 anti-Chinese riots in Burma and Sino–Burmese relations

  • Hongwei Fan

Abstract

Anti-Chinese riots broke out in Rangoon on 26 June 1967. The riots, which resulted from Chinese students' defiance of the Burmese government's ban on wearing Mao badges in school, led to the deterioration of Sino–Burmese relations, symbolised by the cessation of ‘Pauk Phaw’ ties and the subsequent shift in China's foreign policy which included open intervention in Burma's civil war. The riots contributed to estranged relations between Beijing and Rangoon throughout the 1970s and 1980s despite the normalisation of bilateral ties in 1970. While the roots of the Rangoon riots lay in Burma's political economy and tensions within the local Chinese community in the context of Cold War international relations, Beijing bore primary responsibility, however, due to its export of the Cultural Revolution.

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1 Johnstone, William C., Burma's foreign policy: A study in neutralism (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1963), p. 199.

2 Churchill was quoted in a meeting between Mao and the Burmese leaders: ‘Mao Zedong Zhuxi Jiejian Miandian Zongli Wu Barui, Wu Jueying Tanhua Jilu [Transcript of Chairman Mao Zedong's meeting with Burmese deputy premier U Ba Swe and U Kywa Nyein]’, Archive of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the PRC (hereafter, AMFA), no. 105-00339-01(1).

3 ‘Guanyu Dui Miandian Jiaqiang Gongzuo Wenti [More efforts to pull Burma into China's orbit]’, AMFA no. 105-01865-01.

4 See, for instance, Dingbang, Yu, Zhongmian Guanxi Shi [The history of Sino–Burmese relations] (Beijing: Guangming Ribao Chubanshe, 2000); Xixing, Lin, Zhongmian Youhao Guanxi Yanjiu [A study of the friendship between China and Burma] (Guangzhou: Jinan Daxue Chubanshe, 2000); Jienan, Wang, Zhongmian Youhao Liangqian Nian [Two thousand years of friendship between China and Burma] (Mangshi: Dehong Minzu Chubanshe, 1996), Renzheng, Zhuo, Yinyin Baobo Qing: 1956 Zhongmian Bianmin Da Lianhuan [Pauk Phaw friendship: Cross-border gathering between China and Burma in 1956] (Beijing: Zhongyang Wenxian Chubanshe, 2003); Zhongguo He Miandian Youhao Guanxi Shi Ziliao Huibian [Documents on China–Burma friendship] (Kunming: Yunnan Lishi Yanjiu Suo, 1954).

5 Lidong, Feng, Mianhua Bainian Shihua [One hundred years of the Chinese in Burma] (Hong Kong: Mirror Post Cultural Enterprises, 2002), p. 309.

6 Xixing, Lin, A study of the friendship between China and Burma, pp. 274–7.

7 Xiongpu, Fang, Zhubo Sasnji: Miandian Huaren Shehui Lueying [Glimpses of the Chinese community in Myanmar] (Hong Kong: Nandao Chubanshe, 2000), pp. 318–20; Zhu, Lin, ‘Tongding Sitong: 1967 Nian Miandian Paihua Qiyin Chutan [Recalling a painful experience: The origin of the 1967 anti-Chinese riots in Burma]’, in Huaqiao Lishi Luncong [Collection of Overseas Chinese history] (Fuzhou: Fujian Huaqiao Lishi Xuehui, 1987), vol. IV, p. 246.

8 Badgley, John H., ‘Burma's China crisis: The choices ahead’, Asian Survey, 7, 11 (1967): 758; Holmes, Robert A., ‘Burma's foreign policy toward China since 1962’, Pacific Affairs, 45, 2 (1972): 245; Smith, Martin, Burma: Insurgency and the politics of ethnicity (Dhaka: The University Press, 1999), p. 225. See also US Central Intelligence Agency (hereafter CIA), ‘Peking and the Burmese communists: The perils and profits of insurgency’, declassified CIA Intelligence Report, RSS no. 0052/71, July 1971, p. 46.

9 Fitzgerald, Stephen, China and the Overseas Chinese: A study of Peking's changing policy, 1949–1970 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1972), pp. 169–70.

10 See Gurtov, Melvin, ‘The Foreign Ministry and foreign affairs during the Cultural Revolution’, China Quarterly, 40 (Oct.–Dec. 1969): 100–2; Trager, Frank N., ‘Sino–Burmese relations: The end of the Pauk Phaw era’, Orbis, 11, 4 (1968): 1053; Pettman, Ralph, China in Burma's foreign policy (Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1973), pp. 30–3.

11 Holmes, ‘Burma's foreign policy’, p. 245; Holmes, Robert A., ‘China–Burma relations since the rift’, Asian Survey, 12, 8 (1972): 687; Bandyopadhyaya, Kalyani, Burma and Indonesia: Comparative political economy and foreign policy (New Delhi: South Asian Publishers, 1983), pp. 170–1; Trager, ‘Sino–Burmese relations’, p. 1053; Bert, Wayne, ‘Chinese relations with Burma and Indonesia’, Asian Survey, 15, 6 (1975): 476.

12 Bandyopadhyaya, Burma and Indonesia, pp. 170–1.

13 Bert, Wayne, ‘Chinese policy toward Burma and Indonesia’, Asian Survey, 25, 9 (1985): 965.

14 ‘Guanyu Zhou Enlai Zongli Fangmian De Waijiao Tongbao [Diplomatic bulletin of Premier Zhou Enlai's visit to Burma]’, AMFA, no. 203-00583-05.

15 ‘Zhu Miandian Shiguan Guanyu Naiwen Tuixing Guoyouhua Jingji Zhengce Deng Wenti De Qingkuang Baogao [Reports of Chinese Embassy to Burma on economic nationalisation policies pursued by Ne Win]’, AMFA, no. 118-01251-03.

16 ‘More efforts to pull Burma’.

17 ‘Chenyi Fuzongli Xiang Miandian Zhuhua Dashi Jiaowen Jieshao Zhou Enlai Zongli Fangmian Qingkuang [Vice Premier Chen Yi informs Burmese Ambassador to China of Premier Zhou Enlai's trip to Burma]’, AMFA, no. 106-01144-02.

18 ‘Zhu Miandian Shiguan Dui Miandian Zhengju De Kanfa [Perspectives of the Chinese Embassy to Burma on the Burmese political situation]’, AMFA, no. 105-01225-01.

19 ‘Waijiaobu Yiya Guanyu Miandian Zhengju He Waijiao Dongxiang Dengde Diaoyan Cailiao [A report on Burmese domestic politics and foreign affairs by the First Asian Department of Foreign Ministry]’, AMFA, no. 105-01314-02.

20 ‘Diplomatic bulletin of Premier Zhou Enlai's visit to Burma’.

21 ‘Zhou Enlai Zongli Fangmian Huitan Fangan [Programme of Premier Zhou Enlai's visit to Burma]’, AMFA, no. 203-00582-01.

22 Imagawa, Eiichi, Newii Gunseika No Biruma [Burma under the Ne Win military regime] (Tokyo: Ajia Hyouronsya, 1971), p. 187. For similar opinions, see Lintner, Bertil, ‘Illegal aliens smuggling to and through Southeast Asia's Golden Triangle’, in Globalizing Chinese migration: Trends in Europe and Asia, ed. Nyíri, Pál and Saveliev, Igor (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2002), p. 111; Pettman, China in Burma's foreign policy, pp. 41–2; Nagaho, Habu, Shin Syokminchi Syuugi To Minzokuka Kumei [New colonialism and nationalist revolution] (Tokyo: Jiji Tuusinsya, 1973), p. 205; Silverstein, Josef, ‘A new vehicle on Burma's road to socialism’, Asia, 29 (1973): 66; Silverstein, Josef, Burma: Military rule and the politics of Stagnation (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1977), pp. 161, 178; Steinberg, David I., Burma: A socialist nation of Southeast Asia (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1982), p. 83; Steinberg, David I., Turmoil in Burma: Contested legitimacies in Myanmar (Norwalk: EastBridge, 2006), p. 100.

23 Holmes, ‘China–Burma relations since the rift’, pp. 686–7.

24 Trager, ‘Sino–Burmese relations’, p. 1045.

25 Lin Zhu, ‘Tongding Sitong: 1967’, p. 246.

26 For China's first coverage on the anti-Chinese riots in Rangoon, see ‘Miandian Fandong Zhengfu Grongran Zhizao Fanhua Baoxing [Burmese reactionary government plotted anti-Chinese riot undisguisedly]’, Renmin Ribao [People's Daily], 29 June 1967.

27 Hirayoshi, Sakuma, Biruma Ni Kurashi Shite: Toza Sareta Kuni No Hitobito To Seikatu [Living in Burma: People and their lives in a closed country] (Tokyo: Keiso Shobo, 1994), p. 56.

28 ‘Miandian Zhengfu Suoshi Baotu Lianxu Xiji Wo Shiguan Shahai Wo Zhuanjia Pohai Wo Qiaobao [Burmese government goaded mobs to attack China's Embassy repeatedly, kill Chinese aid technician and persecute Overseas Chinese]’, Renmin Ribao, 29 June 1967.

29 ‘Wo Linshi Daiban Yanchi Miandian Dangju Zuzhi Baotu Shahai Wo Zhuanjia [Chinese chargé d'affaires severely reprimands Burmese authorities who goaded mobs to kill Chinese aid technician]’, Renmin Ribao, 30 June 1967.

30 ‘Zhonghua Renmin Gonghe Guo Zhengfu Fabiao Shengming Zui Qianglie Zui Yanzhong Kangyi Miandian Zhengfu Fanhua Paihua De Faxisi Baoxing [PRC Government issues a statement of the strongest and most urgent protest against anti-Chinese fascist violence of the Burmese Government]’, Renmin Ribao, 30 June 1967.

31 Shchetinkin, A., ‘Peking's crude interference’, Current Digest of the Post-Soviet Press, 41, 19 (1 Nov. 1967): 25.

32 ‘Miangong Zhongyang Jiu Miandian Fandong Zhengfu Fanhua Paihua Shijian Fabiao Shengming [Central Committee of BCP issued statement on anti-Chinese riot contrived by reactionary Burmese Government]’, Renmin Ribao, 2 July 1967.

33 ‘Miandian De Jiangjieshi: Naiwen Junren Zhengfu Bibai Renmin Bisheng [The military government of Ne Win, the Chiang Kaishek of Burma, is bound to fail; the people are bound to win]’, Renmin Ribao, 6 July 1967.

34 ‘Miangong Genjudi Geming Renmin Lianxu Juxing Daguimo Jihui [Revolutionary people staged massive rally within BCP base area]’, Renmin Ribao, 11 Aug. 1967; ‘Jianjue Dizhi He Fandui Naiwen Fandongpai De Fanhua Paihua Huodong [Firmly reject and oppose Ne Win reactionaries’ anti-Chinese activities]', Renmin Ribao, 4 Nov. 1967.

35 ‘Woguo Zhengfu Xiang Miandian Zhengfu Tijiao Beiwanglu Yanzheng Jujue Miandian Fandong Zhengfu De Huangmiu Yaoqiu [China submitted a memorandum to Burma, refuse absurd demands of Burmese reactionary government]’, Renmin Ribao, 2 July 1967.

36 Gurtov, Melvin, China and Southeast Asia: The politics of survival (Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1975), p. 118.

37 Pettman, China in Burma's foreign policy, pp. 36–7.

38 ‘China and Burma: The end of a lovely relationship’, Economist, 8 July 1967.

39 Gurtov, China and Southeast Asia, p. 117.

40 Simonia, N., ‘Maoists use blackmail’, Current Digest of the Post-Soviet Press, 36, 19 (27 Sept. 1967): 36.

41 ‘Mian Fandong Zhengfu Zai Gedi Fengkuang Pohai Huaqiao [Reactionary Burmese government madly persecuted Overseas Chinese all over the country]’, Renmin Ribao, 7 July 1967.

42 ‘Naiwen Fandong Zhengfu Gongran Goujie Jiangbang Ba Fanhua Yundong Kuoda Dao Quangguo Chengzhen Nongcun [Reactionary Ne Win authority colludes with Chiang Kaishek junta to the teeth to extend anti-China riots to towns and counties throughout Burma]’, Renmin Ribao, 13 July 1967.

43 Xing, Wen, ‘Naiwen Ducai Yu 1967 Fanhua Shijian [Ne Win's autarchy and 1967 anti-Chinese incident]’, Huaren Yuekan [Overseas Chinese Monthly], 11 (1988): 15.

44 Interview, SCB, Mandalay, Myanmar, 7 Dec. 2005.

45 In Burma, a higher percentage of Cantonese than Fujianese had historically supported the Kuomintang.

46 Interview, LFH, Yangon, Myanmar, 18 Nov. 2005.

47 Interview, SCB, Mandalay, Myanmar, 7 Dec. 2005.

48 Interview, Luo Xilong, Yangon, Myanmar, 11 Nov. 2005.

49 Interview, Wang Qinliang, Yangon, Myanmar, 20 Nov. 2005.

50 Interview, Li Jiamei, Mandalay, Myanmar, 7 Dec. 2005.

51 Lintner, Bertil, The rise and fall of the Communist Party of Burma (BCP) (Ithaca, NY: Southeast Asia Program, Cornell University, 1990), p. 23.

52 Interview, HHZ, Kunming, China, 7 Dec. 2003.

53 Interview, Zeng Xiuying, Hong Kong, 14 Sept. 2007.

54 Interview, Cun Shoubin, Mandalay, Myanmar, 7 Dec. 2005.

55 Interview, Zhao Hua, Kunming, China, 7 Dec. 2003.

56 Interview, YMQ, Yangon, 20 Mar. 2010.

57 ‘Zhonggong Zhongyang Relie Zhuhe Miandian Gongchandang Chengli Ershiba Zhounian [Central Committee of CCP warmly congratulates the BCP on its 28th anniversary]’, Renmin Ribao, 15 Aug. 1967.

58 Interview, FG, former vice-chairman of BCP Central Committee, Xiamen, China, 17 Feb. 2005.

59 Interview, ZZT, Taunggyi, Myanmar, 16 Dec. 2005.

60 Zafesov, G., ‘Chinese provocations in Burma’, Current Digest of the Post-Soviet Press, 26, 19 (19 July 1967): 27.

61 Fitzgerald, Stephen, China and the Overseas Chinese: A study of Peking's changing policy, 1949–1970 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1972), p. 169.

63 Guanyu Wenhua Da Geming De Xuanchuan Jiaoyu Yodian [Propaganda and instruction outline of the Cultural Revolution]’, Xinhua Monthly, 6 (1966), p. 29. Or see People's Daily and PLA Daily of 6 June 1966.

64 Jisen, Ma, Waijiaobu Wenge Jishi [The Cultural Revolution in the Foreign Ministry of China] (Hong Kong: Xianggang Zhongwen Daxue Chubanshe, 2003), p. 134.

65 Zhuliang, , ‘Wusi Wuwei Zhuiqiu Zhenli De Wangjiaxiang [Selfless and fearless truth-seeker, Wang Jiaxiang]’, Yan Huang Chunqiu, 8 (2006): 6.

66 Robinson, Thomas, ‘China confronts the Soviet Union: Warfare and diplomacy on China's Inner Asian frontiers’, in The Cambridge history of China, vol. 15. The People's Republic, part 2: Revolutions within the Chinese Revolution, 1966–1982, ed. MacFarquhar, Roderick and Fairbank, John K. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991), p. 244.

67 Zedong, Mao, Jianguo Yilai Mao Zedong Wengao [Manuscripts of Mao Zedong since the establishment of the PRC], vol. 13 (Beijing: Zhongyang Wenxian Chubanshe, 1998), p. 163.

68 Zhou Enlai Nian pu: 1949–1976 [A chronicle of Zhou Enlai: 1949–1976], vol. 2 (Beijing: Zhongyang Wenxian Chubanshe, 1997), p. 196.

69 Mao, Jianguo Yilai Mao Zedong Wengao, vol. 12, pp. 128–9.

70 Duyi, , Chenyi in the Cultural Revolution (Beijing: Shijie Zhishi Chubanshe, 1997), p. 95.

71 Robinson, ‘China confronts the Soviet Union’, p. 246.

72 Melvin Gurtov, ‘The Foreign Ministry’, p. 72.

73 Interview, Cheng Ruisheng, former Chinese ambassador to Burma, Beijing, 12 July 2009; Interview, Xiaogang, former vice-president of All-China Federation of Returned Overseas Chinese, Beijing, 15 July 2003.

74 Zhou Enlai Waijiao Wenxuan [Selected diplomatic writings of Zhou Enlai] (Beijing: Zhongyang Wenxian Chubanshe, 1990), p. 481.

75 Ibid., p. 482.

76 Zhou Enlai Nian pu, p. 473.

77 Zeng Guanying and Chen Zunfa, Witnessing two anti-Chinese riots in Burma, manuscript.

78 A very popular Chinese film in the Mao era which reflects the CCP's revolutionary spirit.

79 Zeng and Chen, Witnessing the anti-Chinese riots.

80 Interview, WXX, Yangon [Rangoon], Myanmar, 23 Dec. 2005.

81 ‘Li Xiannian Zhuxi Zai Wu Shanyou Zongtong Juxing De Huanying Yanhui Shang De Jianghua [President Li Xiannian's speech at the welcoming banquet for President U San Yu]’, Renmin Ribao, 6 Mar. 1985.

82 Pettman, China in Burma's foreign policy, p. 45.

83 Gyi, Maung Maung, ‘Foreign policy of Burma since 1962: Negative neutralism for group survival’, in Military rule in Burma since 1962, ed. Lehman, F.K. (Singapore: Maruzen Asia, 1981), p. 10.

84 Hirayoshi, Sakuma, Biruma Gendai Seijisi [Modern political history of Burma] (Tokyo: Keiso Shobo, 1993), p. 218.

85 Taylor, Jay, China and Southeast Asia: Peking's relations with revolution movements (New York: Praeger, 1976), p. 211.

86 Smith, Burma, p. 225.

87 ‘Miandian Naiwen Jiangjun Neibu Tanhua Pianduan He Muqian Chujing Jiqi Zuofa [Excerpts of Ne Win's private speech and his current position as well as his responses]’, AMFA, no. 105-01226-01.

88 ‘Miandian Guoyouhua He Jingji Qingkuang [Burma's economic nationalisation and economic situation]’, AMFA, no. 105-01223-01.

89 ‘Miandian Daogu Jianchan Qingkuang He Caizheng Jingji Cuoshi [Burma's reduction of rice output and its financial and economic steps]’, AMFA, no. 105-01303-04.

90 Stifel, Laurence D., ‘Burmese socialism: Economic problems of the first decade’, Pacific Affairs, 45, 1 (1972): 67.

91 Silverstein, ‘A new vehicle’, pp. 64–6.

92 Biruma No Jiryokukousei Rosen To Wagakuni No Keizai Kyouryoku-Birumakeizai Kyouryoku Tyousadan Houkokusyo [Burma's self-independent economic route and its economic cooperation with Japan: Report of Burmese economic cooperation mission] (Tokyo: International Cooperation Bureau, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan, 1972), p. 72.

93 Annual Report of the Embassy of the Philippines, Rangoon, Burma, Fiscal Year 1966–1967, pp. 28–9.

94 Stifel, Laurence D., ‘Economics of the Burmese way to socialism’, Asian Survey, 11, 8 (1971): 805.

95 Policeman and uncle feared drowned in search of rice’, Working People's Daily, 25 June 1967.

96 Aung-Thwin, Maureen and Myint-U, Thant, ‘The Burmese ways to socialism’, Special Issue: Rethinking Socialism, Third World Quarterly, 13, 1 (1992): 73.

97 Silverstein, Burma: Military rule, p. 178.

98 Ibid., pp. 110–11.

99 Burma: The way to socialism — & havoc’, TIME Magazine, 30 Aug. 1963.

100 ‘More efforts to pull Burma’.

101 ‘Miandian Naiwen Zhengfu Yu Youpai Zhijian De Maodun He Douzheng Qingkuang [Contradiction and conflict between the Ne Win government and rightists in Burma]’, AMFA, no. 105-01303-02.

102 Maung, Mya, The Burma road to poverty (New York: Praeger, 1991), pp. 110–11.

103 See Imagawa, Newii Gunseika No Biruma [Burma under Ne Win], p. 187; Lintner, ‘Illegal aliens smuggling’, p. 111; Pettman, China in Burma's foreign policy, pp. 41–2; Nagaho, Shin Syokminchi Syuugi To Minzokuka Kumei [New colonialism and nationalist revolution], p. 205; Silverstein, ‘A new vehicle on Burma's road’, p. 66; Silverstein, Burma, pp. 161, 178; Steinberg, Burma: A socialist nation, p. 83; Steinberg, Turmoil in Burma, p. 100.

104 CIA, ‘Peking and the Burmese communists’, p. 52.

105 Interview, Cheng Ruisheng, Beijing, 12 July 2009.

106 Hirayoshi, Biruma Ni Kurashi Shite, pp. 56–7.

107 Toru, Ono, ‘Biruma No Genjyou [The current situation of Burma]’, Tounanajia Kenkyuu [Southeast Asian Studies], 5, 2 (1967): 190.

108 Interview, Guo Huilan, Xiamen, China, 21 Oct. 2003.

109 Interview, Chen Zunfa, Xiamen, China, 31 Aug. 2003.

110 Interview, Lai Baoluo, Yangon, Myanmar, 23 Nov. 2005.

111 Bandyopadhyaya, Burma and Indonesia, p. 171.

112 Interview, Huang Renmei, Hong Kong, 14 Sept. 2007; Interview, Zeng Xiuying, Hong Kong, 14 Sept. 2007.

113 Interview, Huang Renmei, Hong Kong, 14 Sept. 2007.

114 One article in People's Daily, written by a Burmese Chinese, reflected the pro-Beijing Overseas Chinese fanatical support for the Cultural Revolution. See ‘Miandian Aiguo Huaqiao Yongyuan Zhongyu Maozhuxi [Burma patriotic Overseas Chinese stay loyal to Chairman Mao forever]’, Renmin Ribao, 30 June 1967.

115 Lin Zhu, ‘Tongding Sitong: 1967’, p. 250.

116 Interview, Wu Xizhi, Yangon, Myanmar, 23 Nov. 2005.

117 Interview, WXX, Yangon, Myanmar, 23 Dec. 2005.

118 Interview, He Lihua, Mandalay, Myanmar, 7 Dec. 2005.

119 Interview, Guo Huilan, Xiamen, China, 21 Oct. 2003.

120 Thomas Robinson, ‘China confronts the Soviet Union’, pp. 235–6.

121 Alexander, Garth, The invisible China: The Overseas Chinese and the politics of Southeast Asia (New York: Macmillan, 1974), pp. 92–3.

122 Annual Report of the Embassy of the Philippines, p. 25.

123 Zhongmian Liangguo Zongli Lianhe Shengming [Joint statement of China and Burma's premiers]’, Xinhua Yuebao, 7 (1954).

124 ‘Miandian Zhengfu Guanyuan Ji Baokan Dui Zhou Enlai Zongli Fangmian De Fanying [Burmese government officials and the media's response to Premier Zhou Enlai's visit to Burma]’, AMFA, no. 105-00259-03(1).

125 U Nu, ‘Burma's neutral policy’, Burma, Jan. 1955, p. 1.

126 David Wen-wei Chang, ‘A comparative study of neutralism of India, Burma and Indonesia’ (Ph.D. diss., University of Illinois, 1960), p. 122. For other similar arguments, see Thomson, John Seabury, ‘Burma: A neutral in China's shadow’, Review of Politics, 19 (1957): 336; Rose, Jerry, ‘Burma and the balance of neutralism’, Reporter, Jan. 3, 1963, p. 24; Johnstone, , Burma's foreign policy, p. 164; Trager, Frank, ‘Burma and China’, Journal of Southeast Asian History, 5, 1 (1964): 61.

127 ‘Transcript of Chairman Mao Zedong's meeting with Burmese deputy premier U Ba Swe and U Kywa Nyein’.

128 Address delivered by General Ne Win, Chairman of the Burma Socialist Programme Party, at the Opening Session of the Fourth Party Seminar on 6 November 1969 (n.p.), p. 37.

129 Shaoqi, Liu, Lun Guoji Zhuyi Yu Minzu Zhuyi [Internationalism and nationalism] (Beijing: Renmin chubanshe, 1951), p. 25.

130 Liu Shaoqi Nianpu [Chronicle of Liu Shaoqi: 1898–1969], vol. 2 (Beijing: Zhongyang Wenxian Chubanshe, 1996), p. 245.

131 Ness, Peter Van, Revolution and Chinese foreign policy (Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1970), p. 12.

132 Purcell, Victor, The revolution in Southeast Asia (London: Thames and Hudson, 1962), p. 92.

133 Lengxi, Wu, Shinian Lunzhan: 1956–1966 Zhongsu Guanxi Shinian Huiyi Lu [A debate for 10 years: Memoirs on Sino–Soviet Union relations 1956–1966] (Beijing: Zhongyang Wenxian Chubanshe, 1999), p. 152.

Hongwei Fan is an Associate Professor at the Research School of Southeast Asian Studies, Xiamen University, People's Republic of China. Correspondence in connection with this paper should be addressed to: . The author would like to thank Distinguished Professor David I. Steinberg for his help with this article and the anonymous reviewers for their detailed comments and suggestions. He wishes to acknowledge the support of a grant from the Ministry of Education, China, 10YJC770022 and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, 0240-ZK1003.

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