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Chronicles of Javanese Transition1

  • Paul Stange (a1)
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2 In the terms outlined by Geertz, C. in Works and Lives (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1988, pp. 2021). Anderson initiated a “discourse formation” within Indonesian studies by bridging politics, language, literature and history in a fashion many others now do.

3 Lansing, S., Priests and Programmers (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1991), pp. 127–34 is another example of similar perspective in this respect.

4 Anderson, B., Language and Power (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1990), pp. 811, 7893; Hefner, R., The Political Economy of Mountain Java (Berkeley: University of California Press), pp. ixxiii, 23, 224–29.

5 It is worth noting original details of works printed here, only two of which are previously unpublished. I list them as ordered in my discussion of them: “Professional Dreams: Reflections on Two Javanese Classics”, paper presented to the Southeast Asian Summer Studies Institute in 1984; “A Time of Darkness and a Time of Light: Transposition in Early Indonesian Nationalist Thought”, in Perceptions of the Past in Southeast Asia, ed. Reid, A. and Marr, D. (Hong Kong: Heinemann, 1979); The Languages of Indonesian Politics”, Indonesia 1 (04 1966); “The Idea of Power in Javanese Culture”, in Culture and Politics in Indonesia, ed. Holt, C. et al. (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1972); “The Discourse of Charisma”, paper delivered to the American Anthropological Association in 1985; Old State, New Society: Indonesia's New Order in Comparative Historical Perspective”, Journal of Asian Studies 42 (05 1983); Sembah-Sumpah: The Politics of Language and Javanese Culture”, in Change and Continuity in Southeast Asia, ed. Long, R. and Kirchehofer, D. (Honolulu: University Hawaii at Manoa, 1984); and “Cartoons and Monuments: The Evolution of Political Communication under the New Order”, in Political Power and Communications in Indonesia, ed. Jackson, K. and Pye, L. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978).

6 In Anderson's discussion the fluidity of local languages is not sufficiently apparent, breaks between languages thus appear too sharp. Jeff Roberts, a London based researcher from SOAS now working in Tengger, explains that in that context people routinely mix lengger dialect, Madurese, Javanese and Indonesian in single conversations. In Becker, 's discussion of the wayang, in “Text-Building, Epistemology and Aesthetics in Javanese Shadow Theatre”, in The Imagination of Reality: Essays in Southeast Asian Coherence Systems, ed. Becker, A.L. and Yengoyan, A. (Norwood, New Jersey: Ablex Pub. Corp., 1979), he suggests that different figures, like different speech levels, represent coexistent epistemic realms which supplement each other.

7 Keeler, W., in Javanese Shadow Plays, Javanese Selves (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987) shows how Anderson's images translate into a village context in Central Java in the late 1970s. In Malang now, these notions of authority are abundantly evident in local practices. American exchange students have enthused about this essay as “the most pertinent key” to a range of village and urban contexts they encounter. The thesis, whatever its limits still “works” to open insight into local dynamics.

8 In Budiardjo, M. (ed.), Aneka Pemikiran tentang Kuasa dan Wibawa (Jakarta: Sinar Harapan, 1984).

9 I have extended his thesis in this direction within an essay on The Logic of Rasa in Java”, Indonesia 38 (1984) and have commented on the critical uses of related ideas in “Interpreting Javanist Millenial Imagery”, in Creating Indonesian Cultures, ed. Alexander, P. (Sydney: Oceania Pubs, 1989). My arguments push in a direction similar to Moertono's in Aneka Pemikiran, ed. Budiardjo.

10 In a lecture on the role of the military in third world states (Cornell, Summer 1970).

11 Moedjanto, , in The Concept of Power in Javanese Culture (Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press, 1986), argues, contrary to this thrust of Anderson's, that the “power” of kings in important respects increased as Dutch power grew.

12 This represents a slippage Smail, John warned against, in “On the Possibility of an Autonomous History of Modern Southeast Asia”, Journal of Southeast Asian History 2, no. 2 (1961). Smail distinguished issues of perspective and moral judgement, but errors remain common and are easy to make.

13 The full title is: Hindu Javanese: Tengger Tradition and Islam (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1985). Hefner, 's essays on Islam so far include: “The Political Economy of Islamic conversion in Modern East Java” [in Islam and the Political Economy of Meaning: Comparative Studies in Muslim Discourse, ed. Roff, W. (London: Groom Helm, 1987)] and Islamizing Java? Religion and Politics in Rural East Java”, Journal of Asian Studies 46 (1987).

14 Elson, Robert, in his review of Hefner's book [Asian Studies Review 15, no. 2 (11 1991): 324–26] says that upland coffee cultivation began earlier.

15 Lyon, M., Bases Of Conflict in Rural Java (Berkeley: University of California CSEAS, 1970) and Mortimer, R., Indonesian Communism under Sukarno (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1974).

16 Peletz, M., A Share of the Harvest: Kinship, Property and Social History among the Malays of Rembau (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1988).

17 Singapore: Oxford University Press, 1992.

18 Conversation in Ithaca (October 1986).

19 Budiardjo, (ed.), Aneka Pemikiran.

20 Information on Sutrisno's local role from Jeffery Roberts.

21 It is worth noting which essays Anderson has ommitted in this collection. Both a short monograph, On the Mythology and the Tolerance of the Javanese (Ithaca: Cornell Modern Indonesia Project, 1965), and two essays, in his (et al.), Religion and Social Ethos in Indonesia (Clayton, Victoria: Monash Centre of SEA Studies, 1977), push beyond works included here towards refraining outsider views of Indonesia to incorporate local views.

22 The “Cornell paper”, produced with McVey, R. and Bunnell, F., was later published as A Preliminary Analysis of the October 1, 1965 Coup in Indonesia (Ithaca: Cornell Modern Indonesia Project, 1971).

23 Anderson, B., Java in a Time of Revolution (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1972).

24 Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1989.

25 Anderson, B., Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism (London: Verso, 1983).

26 Miriam Budiardjo's volume contains a translation of Anderson's essay into Bahasa Indonesia, along with essays by Koentjaraningrat and Moertono commenting on it. Moertono, Soemarsaid's earlier work, State and Statecraft in Old Java (Ithaca: Cornell Modern Indonesia Project, 1968), along with Shrieke, BJO's, Indonesian Sociological Studies Vol. II (The Hague and Bandung: van Hoeve, 1957) were major sources used by Anderson for his 1972 paper.

27 Fachry Ali speaks quite directly to the issues Anderson addressed (published in Jakarta: Gramedia, 1986). However Moedjanto's book, despite the title (published in Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press, 1986) treats the evolution of older systems of royal power on their own ground, not referring often to Anderson.

28 Hadiz, Vedi, Politik, Budaya dan Perubahan Sosial: Ben Anderson dalam Studi Politik Indonesia (Jakarta: Gramedia, 1992). This includes a complete bibliography of Anderson's works, a very useful reference which, unfortunately, does not appear in Anderson's own collection.

29 Robison, R., Indonesia: the Rise of Capital (Sydney: Allen & Unwin, 1986).

30 As noted by Henley, David in his review of B. Anderson, Language and Power [Asian Studies Review 16, no. 1 (07 1992): 228–29].

31 Quoted in Hadiz, , Politik, p. 161.

32 My excursions have been limited to three days in Tosari, two in Ngadisari and one in Ngadas and Ranupani. For impressions I rely also on reports by students, who have undertaken field experience in Tengger, and conversations with Jeffrey Roberts. The comments below, in relation to Kasada and dukun Jamat, are based on my observations.

33 Bowen, John, Sumatran Politics and Poetics: Gayo History, 1900–1989 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1991).

34 Suggestion of changes in the Yogya kraton are contained in Hughes-Freeland, F., “A Throne for the People: Observations on the Jumenengen of Sultan Hamengku Buwono X”, Indonesia 51 (1991).

1 I am indebted to Jeff Roberts and Peter McCall for comments on drafts of this work.

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Journal of Southeast Asian Studies
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