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Introduction — Imagined laboratories: Colonial and national racialisations in Island Southeast Asia

  • Warwick Anderson and Ricardo Roque
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This special issue brings together papers originally presented at the panel ‘Colonial and National Racializations in Southeast Asia’ as part of the 7th EuroSEAS meeting in Lisbon, in July 2013. We are grateful to James Dunk for extensive research assistance. The Australian Research Council provided research support (FL110100243).

Footnotes
References
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1 Delfin, Frederick C., ‘The population history of the Philippines: A genetic overview’, Philippine Studies: Historical and Ethnographic Viewpoints 63, 4 (2015): 471.

2 Tumonggor, Meryanne K., Karafet, Tatiana M., Hallmark, Brian, Lansing, J. Stephen, Sudoyo, Herawati, Hammer, Michael F. and Cox, Murray P., ‘The Indonesian Archipelago: An ancient genetic highway linking Asia and the Pacific’, Journal of Human Genetics 58, 3 (2013): 165.

3 Trocki, Carl A., ‘Political structures in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries’, in The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia, ed. Tarling, Nicholas, vol. 3 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999), p. 107.

4 The relevance of ‘race’ as ‘ethnic’ marker in the post-colonial history of Indonesia is treated dismissively in the entry for Race’ in Cribb, Robert and Kahin, Audrey, Historical Dictionary of Indonesia (Lanham, MD: Scarecrow, 2004), pp. 362–4.

5 See, for example, Stoler, Ann Laura, ‘Rethinking colonial categories’, Comparative Studies in Society and History 13, 1 (1989): 134–61; Making empire respectable: The politics of race and sexual morality in 20th-century colonial cultures’, American Ethnologist 16, 4 (1989): 634–60; and Sexual affronts and racial frontiers: European identities and the cultural politics of exclusion in colonial Southeast Asia’, Comparative Studies in Society and History 34, 3 (1992): 514–51. See also Anderson, Warwick, Colonial pathologies: Race, hygiene, and American tropical medicine in the Philippines (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2006).

6 Stoler, Ann L., Carnal knowledge and imperial power: Race and the intimate in colonial rule (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002), p. 8. See also Taylor, Jean Gelman, The social world of Batavia: European and Eurasian in Dutch Asia (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1983); and Gouda, Frances, Dutch culture overseas: Colonial practice in the Netherlands Indies, 1900–1942 (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 1995).

7 Kramer, Paul A., The blood of government: Race, empire, the United States and the Philippines (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2006), pp. 23. See also Anderson, Warwick, ‘Racial conceptions in the global south’, Isis 105 (2014): 782–92.

8 ‘The underlying racial basis of anti-colonial movements’, Paul Kratoska and Ben Batson summarise, ‘produced a heightened awareness of ethnic identities’.  ‘Nationalism and modernist reform’, in Tarling, The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia, vol. 2, p. 313.

9 See Edwards, Penny, Cambodge: The cultivation of a nation, 1860–1945 (Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press, 2007).

10 Milner, Anthony, The invention of politics in colonial Malaya: Contesting nationalism and the expansion of the public sphere (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994); Vickers, Adrian, ‘“Malay identity”: Modernity, invented tradition, and forms of knowledge’, Review of Indonesian and Malaysian Affairs 31, 1 (1997): 173211; Reid, Anthony, ‘Understanding Melayu (Malay) as a source of diverse modern identities’, Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 32, 3 (2001): 295313; Milner, Anthony, ‘Afterword: A history of Malay ethnicity’, in Contesting Malayness: Malay identity across boundaries, ed. Barnard, Timothy P. (Singapore: Singapore University Press, 2004), pp. 241–57; Elson, Robert E., ‘“Constructing the nation”: Ethnicity, race, modernity, and citizenship in early Indonesian thought’, Asian Ethnicity 6 (2005): 145–60; and Kahn, Joel S., Other Malays: Nationalism and cosmopolitanism in the modern Malay World (Singapore: NUS Press, 2006).

11 Jonsson, Hjorleifur, Mien relations: Mountain people and state control in Thailand (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2005); Scott, James C., The art of not being governed: An anarchist history of upland Southeast Asia (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009); Roque, Ricardo, ‘Mountains and black races: Anthropology's heterotopias in colonial East Timor’, Journal of Pacific History 47, 3 (2012): 263–82; and the essays recently collected in Tappe, Oliver, ed., ‘Frictions and fictions: Intercultural encounters and frontier imaginaries in upland Southeast Asia’, special issue, Asia Pacific Journal of Anthropology 16, 4 (2015).

12 For example, Anderson, Colonial pathologies; Kramer, The blood of government. Recent collections include Douglas, Bronwen and Ballard, Chris, eds., ‘Race, place and civilization: Colonial encounters and governance in Greater Oceania’, special issue, Journal of Pacific History 47, 3 (2012); and Skott, Christina, ed., ‘Europe and the Malay world’, special issue, Indonesia and the Malay World 42, 123 (2014). See also Douglas, Bronwen and Ballard, Chris, eds., Foreign bodies: Oceania and the science of race, 1750–1880 (Canberra: ANU ePress, 2008). An earlier sociological analysis is Hirschman, Charles, ‘The making of race in colonial Malaya: Political economy and racial ideology’, Sociological Forum 1, 2 (1986): 330–61.

13 Roque, Ricardo, Headhunting and colonialism: Anthropology and the circulation of human skulls in the Portuguese Empire, 1870–1930 (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2010); Howes, Hilary, The race question in Oceania: A.B. Meyer and Otto Finsch between metropolitan theory and field experience, 1865–1914 (Frankfurt-am-Main: Peter Lang, 2013); Manickam, Sandra Khor, Taming the wild: Aborigines and racial knowledge in colonial Malaya (Singapore: NUS Press, 2015); Firpo, Christina Elizabeth, The uprooted: Race, children, and imperialism in French Indochina, 1890–1980 (Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press, 2016); and Sysling, Fenneke, Racial science and human diversity in colonial Indonesia (Singapore: NUS Press, 2016).

14 See Kiong-Tong, Chee, Identity and ethnic relations in Southeast Asia: Racializing Chineseness (New York: Springer, 2010).

15 Anderson, Warwick, ‘Traveling white’, in Re-orienting whiteness, ed. Ellinghaus, Kat, Carey, Jane and Boucher, Leigh (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009), p. 66.

16 For example, Saraswati, L. Ayu, Seeing beauty, sensing race in transnational Indonesia (Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press, 2013).

17 Gelpke, J.H.F. Sollewijn, ‘On the origin of the name Papua’, Bijdragen Tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde 149, 2 (1993): 318–32.

18 Douglas, Bronwen, Science, voyages, and encounters in Oceania, 1511–1850 (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2014). On the history of early classifications of Oceanic peoples, including French Dumont d'Urville's famous Melanesia/Polynesia/Micronesia divide, see Thomas, Nicholas, ‘The force of ethnology: Origins and significance of the Melanesia/Polynesia division’, Current Anthropology 30, 1 (1989): 2741. See also Buschmann, Rainer F., Anthropology's global histories: The ethnographic frontier in German New Guinea, 1870–1945 (Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press, 2009), pp. 46.

19 On this historical uncertainty on geographical naming, leading also to the designation ‘Indonesia’, see Jones, Russell, ‘Earl, Logan, and “Indonesia”’, Archipel 6, 6 (1973): 93118.

20 Spate, Oskar H.K., The Spanish Lake (Canberra: ANU Press, 1979); and Buschmann, Rainer F., Iberian visions of the Pacific Ocean, 1507–1899 (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2014).

21 For critical studies of the notion of ‘island laboratories’, see MacLeod, Roy and Rehbock, Philip F., eds., Darwin's laboratory: Evolutionary theory and natural history in the Pacific (Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press, 1994); Edmond, Rod and Smith, Vanessa, eds., Islands in history and representation (New York: Routledge, 2003); Anderson, Warwick, ‘Racial hybridity, physical anthropology, and human biology in the colonial laboratories of the United States’, Current Anthropology 53, S5 (2012): S95-S207; and Sivasundaram, Sujit, Islanded: Britain, Sri Lanka and the bounds of an Indian Ocean colony (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2013).

22 Wallace, Alfred Russel, The Malay Archipelago: The land of the orang-utan, and the bird of paradise. A narrative of travel, with studies of man and nature (London: Macmillan, 1869), p. 1.

23 See Camerini, Jane R., ‘Evolution, biogeography, and maps: An early history of Wallace's Line’, Isis 84 (1993): 700727; Vetter, Jeremy, ‘Wallace's other line: Human biogeography and field practice in the eastern colonial tropics’, Journal of the History of Biology 39, 1 (2006): 89123; Roque, Headhunting and colonialism, pp. 153–9.

24 Chris Ballard, ‘“Oceanic negroes”: Early British anthropology of Papuans, 1820–1869’, in Douglas and Ballard, Foreign bodies, pp. 157–201. On the Oceanic phase of anthropology see Urry, James, ‘Making sense of diversity and complexity: The ethnological context and consequences of the Torres Strait Expedition and the Oceanic phase in British anthropology, 1890–1935’, in Cambridge and the Torres Strait: Centenary essays on the 1898 Anthropological Expedition, ed. Herle, Anita and Rouse, Sandra (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998), pp. 201–33; and Buschmann, Anthropology's global histories, pp. 154–70.

25 Young, Robert J.C., Colonial desire: Hybridity in theory, culture, and race (New York: Routledge, 1995). See also Blanckaert, Claude, ‘Of monstrous métis? Hybridity, fear of miscegenation, and patriotism from Buffon to Paul Broca’, in The color of liberty: Histories of race in France, ed. Peabody, Sue and Stovall, Tyler (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2003), pp. 4270. See Douglas, Bronwen, ‘Confronting “hybrids” in Oceania: Field experience, materiality and the science of race in France’, Revue d'Histoire des Sciences Humaines 27 (2015): 2763.

26 For early Iberian discourses on ‘purity of blood’ and mixing in Asia, see Torres, Max S. Hering, Martinez, M. Elena and Nirenberg, David, eds., Race and blood in the Iberian world (Berlin: LIT Verlag, 2012).

27 Anderson, Warwick, ‘Hybridity, race, and science: The voyage of the Zaca, 1934–35’, Isis 103 (2012): 229–53; Anderson, ‘Racial hybridity, physical anthropology, and human biology’.

28 Anderson, Warwick, ‘Leprosy and citizenship’, Positions: East Asia Cultures Critique 6 (1998): 707–30.

29 See also Anderson, Colonial pathologies; and Reyes, Raquel A.G., Love, passion, and patriotism: Sexuality and the Philippine Propaganda Movement, 1882–1892 (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2008).

30 Smail, John R.W., ‘On the possibility of an autonomous history of Southeast Asia’, Journal of Southeast Asian History 2, 2 (1961): 101.

31 Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty, ‘Can the subaltern speak?’, in Marxism and the interpretation of cultures, ed. Nelson, Cary and Grossberg, Lawrence (London: Macmillan, 1988), pp. 271313.

32 These issues are discussed more extensively in Stoler, Ann Laura, Along the archival grain: Epistemic anxieties and colonial common sense (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2009). See also Anderson, Warwick, ‘On the beach in the Marquesas: Weedy historicities and prosthetic futures’, in Pacific futures: Past and present, ed. Anderson, Warwick, Johnson, Miranda and Brookes, Barbara (Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press, 2018).

33 Anderson, Warwick and Pols, Hans, ‘Scientific patriotism: Medical science and national self-fashioning in Southeast Asia’, Comparative Studies in Society and History 54, 1 (2012): 93113. The critical study of the Chinese nationalist invocation of Peking Man is exemplary: see Sautman, Barry, ‘Peking Man and the politics of paleoanthropological nationalism in China’, Journal of Asian Studies 60, 1 (2001): 95124; and Cheng, Yinghong, ‘“Is Peking Man still our ancestor?”: Genetics, anthropology, and the politics of racial nationalism in China’, Journal of Asian Studies 76, 3 (2017): 575602.

This special issue brings together papers originally presented at the panel ‘Colonial and National Racializations in Southeast Asia’ as part of the 7th EuroSEAS meeting in Lisbon, in July 2013. We are grateful to James Dunk for extensive research assistance. The Australian Research Council provided research support (FL110100243).

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Journal of Southeast Asian Studies
  • ISSN: 0022-4634
  • EISSN: 1474-0680
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