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Why did Kartosuwiryo start shooting? An account of Dutch–Republican–Islamic forces interaction in West Java, 1945–49

  • R.E. Elson and Chiara Formichi
Abstract

S.M. Kartosuwiryo, famed leader of the long and bloody Darul Islam rebellion which began in West Java in 1948, was a strong supporter of the Indonesian independence struggle and a champion of the Indonesian Republic proclaimed in 1945. This article seeks to understand how it was that Kartosuwiryo came to oppose that very Republic with such violence in 1948–49. Many scholars have sought to explain the origins of the Darul Islam movement in terms of Kartosuwiryo's fanatic Islamist ambition. However, a detailed examination of the circumstances of the revolt's gestation and outbreak indicates that it was a consequence of a complex interplay of historically contingent circumstances rather than any ideological fixity.

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1 See, for example, Effendy, Bahtiar, Islam and the state in Indonesia (Singapore: ISEAS, 2003), p. 51; and Temby, Quinton, ‘Imaging an Islamic State in Indonesia: From Darul Islam to Jemaah Islamiyah’, Indonesia, 89 (2010): 136.

2 See, for example, Harahap, Zainabun, Operasi-operasi militer menumpas Kahar Muzakkar (Jakarta: Mega Bookstore and Pusat Sedjarah Angkatan Bersendjata, 1965); and van Dijk, C., Rebellion under the banner of Islam: The Darul Islam in Indonesia (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1981), p. 1

3 It should be noted that Kahar Muzakkar in South Sulawesi, and Ibnu Hajar in South Kalimantan held their positions until Feb.–Mar. 1965. See Album peristiwa pemberontakan D.I.-T.I.I. di Indonesia (Jakarta: Dinas Sejarah Tentara Nasional Indonesia Angkatan Darat, 1978).

4 Pinardi, , Sekarmadji Maridjan Kartosuwirjo (Jakarta: Badan Penerbit ‘Aryaguna’, 1964), pp. 34–5. In his autobiography, Sukarno recalls (albeit providing an improbable timing): ‘in 1918 Kartosuwiryo was a dear friend. We worked side by side with Tjokro [Cokroaminoto] for our country. In the ‘20s in Bandung we lived, ate, and dreamed together. However as I progressed on nationalistic principles, he worked solely along Islamic principles'. See Sukarno, , An autobiography as told to Cindy Adams (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1965), p. 272.

5 ‘De Dar-ul-Islam-beweging (Rijk van den Islam)’, Archief van de Algemene Secretarie van de Nederlands-Indische Regering en de daarbij gedeponeerde archieven (1922), 1944–1950 (hereafter AAS), no. 2752, Nationaal Archief, The Hague (hereafter NA).

6 ‘Separatisme – mendjalangkan move baru dengan nama Islam’, Berita Indonesia, 12 Dec. 1949.

7 Van Nieuwenhuijze, C.A.O., ‘The Darul Islam Movement in western Java’, Pacific Affairs, 23, 2 (1950): 170, 181.

8 Republik Indonesia: Propinsi Djawa Barat, ed. Roekomy, R., Soekotjo, , Aditirto, S. (Jakarta: Kementerian Penerangan, 1953), pp. 213, 218; ‘Bhinneka Tunggal Ika harus merupakan kenjataan’, Majallah TEMPO, 25 Feb. 1950: 5.

9 These statements were first presented by Pinardi and then reported by subsequent writers. See Pinardi, Kartosuwirjo, pp. 23, 29, 41–8; Jackson, Karl D., Traditional authority and national integration: Darul Islam in West Java (Berkley; London: University of California Press, 1980 [1971]), pp. 22–3, 122; and Van Dijk, Rebellion, p. 27.

10 For example, see Moegi Prihantoro, Penumpasan pemberontakan DI/TII S.M. Kartosuwiryo di Jawa Barat (Bandung: Tentara Nasional Indonesia [TNI], Angkatan Darat [AD], Dinas Sejarah, 1982 [1974]), p. 25. For later re-elaborations of this concept, see Pinardi, Kartosuwirjo, pp. 50, 52, 54–5, 76; Soebardi, S., ‘Kartosuwiryo and the Darul Islam rebellion in Indonesia’, Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, 14, 1 (1983): 123–4.

11 Horikoshi, Hiroko, ‘The Dar-ul-Islam Movement in West Java (1942–62): An experience in the historical process’, Indonesia, 20 (1975): 74.

12 This view has been seconded and further elaborated upon in Chiara Formichi, ‘Kartosuwiryo's role in the creation of the Islamic State of Indonesia (Negara Islam Indonesia), 1927–1949’ (Ph.D. diss., School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, 2009).

13 Pinardi, Kartosuwirjo, p. 21.

14 Ibid., pp. 34–5. Kartosuwiryo had been the PSII representative at the meeting, led by Sukarno, which formed the PPPKI (Pemufakatan Perhimpunan-Perhimpunan Politik Kebangsaan Indonesia), an indication that his political attitudes at that time were rather more ecumenical than they were later to become (Van Dijk, Rebellion, p. 398.).

15 Politiek-Politioneel Overzicht (hereafter PPO) Jan. 1929, in Politiek-politioneele overzichten van Nederlandsche-Indië, vol. 2, ed. Poeze, Harry A. (Dordrecht: Foris, 1983), p. 14; PPO Aug. 1929, p. 177; Anonymous, SM Kartosoewirjo: Pemberontak atau mujahid (Jakarta: Suara Hidayatullah, 1999), p. 9; Dengel, Holk H., Darul Islam dan Kartosuwirjo: Langkah perwujudan angan-angan yang gagal (Jakarta: Pustaka Sinar Harapan, 1995), p. 8.

16 Pinardi, Kartosuwirjo, pp. 20–3; Chaidar, Al, Pemikiran politik proklamator Negara Islam Indonesia S.M. Kartosoewirjo: Fakta dan data sejarah Darul Islam (Jakarta: Darul Falah, 1999), p. 39.

17 On PSII's changing agenda, see ‘Persatuan ummat Islam se-dunia’, Fadjar Asia, 21 Jan. 1930. For a discussion of these changes and how these were reflected in Kartosuwiryo's writings in Fadjar Asia in 1928–30, see Formichi, Chiara, ‘Kartosuwiryo and the Negara Islam Indonesia: Between religious nationalism and pan-Islam’, Indonesia, 90 (2010): 125–46.

18 Van Dijk, Rebellion, pp. 21, 27–8; Al Chaidar, Pemikiran, p. 24; Boland, B.J., The struggle of Islam in modern Indonesia, rev. edn (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1982), p. 55.

19 Kartosuwiryo, quoted in Noer, Deliar, The modernist Muslim movement in Indonesia 1900–1942 (Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press, 1973), pp. 146–7.

20 Ibid., p. 147.

21 Van Dijk, Rebellion, p. 28; Prihantoro, Penumpasan, p. 30.

22 Quoted in De ontwikkeling van de nationalistische beweging in Nederlandsch-Indië, vol. 4, ed. Kwantes, R.C. (Groningen: Wolters-Noordhof/Bouma's Boekhuis, 1982), p. 457.

23 Pinardi, Kartosuwirjo, p. 37.

24 Van Dijk, Rebellion, p. 28. These seem to have become more pronounced by the late 1940s and early 1950s, see Ibid., p. 392; and Pinardi, Kartosuwirjo, pp. 41–9.

25 Soebardi, ‘Kartosuwiryo’, p. 124.

26 Nieuwenhuijze, C.A.O., Aspects of Islam in post-colonial Indonesia (The Hague: Van Hoeve, 1958), p. 168.

27 Soeara P.S.I.I., Nov. 1937, Overzicht van de Inlandsche en Maleisch-Chineesche pers (hereafter IPO), 49/1937, p. 800.

28 PPO May–June 1940, in Poeze, Politiek-politioneele overzichten, vol. 4, p. 341.

29 ‘Oprichting van een nieuwe politiek-godsdienstige partij door het KPK-PSII’ [11 Apr. 1940], Archief van het Ministerie van Koloniën, 1900–1963: Geheime Mailrapporten, 1914–1952, no. 181, NA.

30 Pemandangan, 1 Apr. 1940, IPO 14/1940, pp. 236–7; Van Dijk, Rebellion, p. 36.

31 Noer, The modernist Muslim movement, pp. 148–9; Poeze, ‘Inleiding’, in Poeze, PPO, vol. 4, p. xxxix; PPO Jan. 1939, p. 257; PPO Feb. 1939, p. 268; Van Dijk, Rebellion, p. 38; Al Chaidar, Pemikiran, p. 47.

32 PPO June 1939, p. 302; Al Chaidar, Pemikiran, p. 48.

33 Kartosoewirjo, S.M., Daftar oesaha hidjrah PSII (Malangbong: Penerbit Poestaka Dar-oel-Islam, 1940), p. 5.

34 Van Dijk, Rebellion, p. 39.

35 Al Chaidar, Pemikiran, p. 49.

36 Van Dijk, Rebellion, p. 398.

37 Kartosuwiryo is not mentioned, however, in the official Japanese reference publication, Orang Indonesia jang terkemoeka di Djawa (Djakarta: Gunseikanbu, 1944).

38 ‘Ketoea Dewan MIAI mengoetjapkan terima kasih’, Asia Raya, 18 May 1943. Kartosuwiryo was said to be toean Bandung Kentjo.

39 See articles published on Soeara M.I.A.I. between Mar. and Sept. 1943.

40 The Bait al-Mal is a Quranic institution representing a communal treasury into which Quranic taxes were entered and through which the community could support those in need of financial help such as widows, orphans and the poor. For further details on the Japanese-era Bait al-Mal, see Benda, Harry J., The crescent and the rising sun: Indonesian Islam under the Japanese occupation 1942–1945 (The Hague: W. van Hoeve, 1958), pp. 144–7.

41 ‘Gambar soesoenan Baital-mal M.I.A.I.’, Soeara MIAI, 1 July 1943.

42 Benda, Crescent and the rising sun, pp. 145–6; ‘Pemboebaran MIAI’, Asia Raya, 2 Nov. 1943, and ‘Madjelis Sjoera Moeslimin Indonesia’, Asia Raya, 23 Nov. 1943.

43 Benda, Crescent and the rising sun, p. 146.

44 ‘Nama-nama kepala rombongan jang akan dikirimkan keloeroeh Syuu oentoek Hooshi-II’, Indonesia Merdeka, 25 Apr. 1945: 6.

45 Benda, Crescent and the rising sun, p. 266.

46 Pinardi, Kartosuwirjo, p. 53.

47 Alers, Henri J.H., Om een rode of groene merdeka: tien jaren binnenlandse politiek Indonesië 1943–1953 (Eindhoven: Vulkaan, 1956), pp. 73, 240; Effendy, Islam and the state, p. 35; Dengel, Darul Islam, p. 54; Prihantoro, Penumpasan, p. 42; Al Chaidar, Pemikiran, p. 65.

48 Pinardi, Kartosuwirjo, p. 31; Noer, Deliar, Partai Islam di pentas nasional 1945–1965 (Jakarta: Grafitipers, 1987), p. 100; Aboebakar, H., Sedjarah hidup K.H.A. Wahid Hasjim dan karangan tersiar (Jakarta: Panitya Buku Peringatan Alm. K.H.A. Wahid Hasjim, 1957), p. 352. At the Nov. 1945 Masyumi congress, Kartosuwiryo was secretary of the Executive Committee, and former PSII and Partai Islam Indonesia (PII) members dominated the Central Board, whilst Nahdlatul Ulama and Muhammadiyah leaders were found only in the Majelis Syuro. The Dewan Partij included Sukiman as chairman (from his PSII splinter PII), Abikusno (PSII) and Wali al-Fatah (PII) as his deputies, Harsono Cokroaminoto (PSII) and Prawoto Mangkusasmito (SIS) as secretaries. The Majelis Sjuro included K.H. Hasyim Asy'ari as chairman, and Ki Bagus Hadikusumo, K.H. Wahid Hasyim and Kasman Singodimejo as vice-chairmen. See Masjoemi, , Partai Politik Islam Indonesia (Boekit Tinggi: Dewan Pemimpin Daerah Masjoemi Soematra Barat, 1945).

49 Kartosoewirjo, S.M., Haloean politik Islam (Garut: Dewan Penerangan Masjoemi Daerah Priangan, 1946), p. 9.

50 Ibid., pp. 15–16.

51 Ibid., p. 14.

52 Ibid., pp. 22–3.

53 Ibid., pp. 27–8.

54 Ibid., p. 38.

55 Ibid., p. 35.

56 Ibid., p. 30. Jackson, Karl D. in Traditional authority, Islam and rebellion: A study of Indonesian political behaviour (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980), p. 10, asserts that ‘in his attempt to maintain autonomy and increase the area of his local control, [Kartosuwiryo] seems to have planned an attack on the headquarters of the Siliwangi Division at the beginning of 1946. For this he was arrested and later released by Nasution, the divisional commander’. A Siliwangi publication makes a similar assertion that Kartosuwiryo prepared an attack on Siliwangi headquarters in Malangbong, see Album kenangan perjuangan Siliwangi, ed. Satari, R.A. (Jakarta: Badan Pembina Corps Siliwangi Jakarta Raya, 1991), p. 294. Given the tone of Kartosuwiryo's thinking at this time, and the lack of any other specific evidence (Nasution makes no mention of it, even though he himself met Kartosuwiryo around this time [Sekitar perang kemerdekaan Indonesia (Bandung: Dinas Sejarah Angkatan Darat/Angkasa, 1976–82), vol. 6, p. 251]), these reports are probably fabricated.

57 Dengel, Darul Islam, p. 58.

58 Deliar Noer and Akbarsyah, K.N.I.P.: Komite Nasional Indonesia Pusat. Parlemen Indonesia 1945–1959, pp. 382–3, 396–7.

59 ‘Sidang Badan Pekerdja K.N.I. Poesat’, Merdeka, 27 Mar. 1947.

60 Pelita Rakjat, 9 July 1947.

61 Kartosuwiryo was well known for his fierce opposition to the Linggarjati Agreement, initialled in Nov. 1946 and ratified by the KNIP in Feb. 1947. The agreement involved Dutch recognition of the Republic as holding de facto authority in Java, Madura and Sumatra, and Dutch–Republican co-operation in establishing a federal Indonesia, including the Republic, by 1949. For the text of the agreement, see Wehl, David, The birth of Indonesia (London: George Allen and Unwin, 1948), pp. 146–8. The agreement was bitterly opposed by Masyumi; see R.S. Soeria Santosa to Director-General, General Affairs, 9 Jan. 1946, AAS, no. 2746, NA.

62 See Mohammed Rum, paraphrased interview with George Kahin, Yogyakarta, 23 Nov. 1948, Kahin papers (private), held at George McT. Kahin Center, Cornell University (hereafter Kahin (private)).

63 Soeloeh Ra'jat, 10 July 1947; Pinardi, Kartosuwirjo, p. 31; Nasution, Sekitar perang, vol. 5, p. 50; Santosa, Kholid O, Jejak-jejak sang pejuang pemberontak: Pemikiran, gerakan & ekspresi politik S.M. Kartosuwirjo dan Daud Beureueh (Bandung: Sega Arsy, 2006), p. 78; Dengel, Darul Islam, p. 60. Kartosuwiryo's close subordinate, Raden Oni, head of the Priangan Sabilillah, had been a strong opponent of Amir's policies, as defence minister, of attempting to control and channel the political ideas of the army along socialist lines to the detriment of Muslim views (Dengel, Darul Islam, p. 59).

64 Pinardi, Kartosuwirjo, p. 54. Pinardi strongly implies that Kartosuwiryo saw such troops as integral for his press for an Islamic state and not just to defend the Republic from the Dutch. In Anderson, Benedict R. O'G., Java in a time of revolution: Occupation and resistance, 1944–1946 (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1972), p. 220, Anderson erroneously names Kartosuwiryo as first secretary, a position held in fact by Harsono Cokroaminoto.

65 Adam Malik, In the service of the Republic (Jakarta: Gunung Agung, 1980), p. 175.

66 Hiroko, ‘Dar ul-Islam movement in West Java (1948–62)’, p. 69; Effendy, Islam and the state, p. 35; Van Dijk, Rebellion, p. 84. In the 1949 pamphlet ad-Daulatul Islamiyah, this frustration surfaced as one of the main triggers behind his actions, as he labelled diplomacy ‘an incurable disease which no dukun could heal’; see S.M. Kartosuwiryo, ‘ad-Daulatul Islamiyah’ (Mar. 1949), ch. 11.

67 Pinardi, Kartosuwirjo, p. 32; Al Chaidar, Pemikiran, pp. 68–9.

68 Pembela Tanah Air – Defenders of the Fatherland, a volunteer force raised by the Japanese to oppose Allied reconquest of the Indies.

69 ‘Bijzonder Inlichtingen Rapport’ (J.H. Stockmans) [12 June 1948], Archief Procureur-Generaal bij het Hooggerechtshof Ned. Indië 1945–1950 (hereafter APG), no. 997, NA; ‘De Daroel Islam-beweging in West-Java. CMI publicatie no. 91’ [29 Sept. 1948], AAS, no. 3977, NA. Noer, Partai Islam, p. 180, notes that ‘the same attitude [concerning jihad] could be found amongst other people and organisations such as NU [Nahdlatul Ulama], Muhammadiyah, and Majelis Islam Tinggi in Sumatra’.

70 Kasman Singodimejo [Head of Judicial Affairs section, Ministry of Defence] to Vice-Minister of Defence [Yogyakarta], 22 Oct. 1947, APG, no. 399, NA.

71 Nieuwenhuijze, Aspects, p. xi.

72 Ibid., p. 172; Noer, Partai Islam, pp. 180–1. Those representatives were Anwar Cokroaminoto and Abikusno Cokrosuyoso, neither of whom, apparently, was aware that they had been so appointed (Dengel, Darul Islam, p. 88; Al Chaidar, Pemikiran, p. 557).

73 Dengel, Darul Islam, p. 61.

74 For better coordination of their activities, the West Java struggle bands (badan perjuangan) had organised themselves late in 1945 into a ‘Struggle Leadership Council Headquarters’ (Markas Dewan Pimpinan Perjuangan) and in early 1946 into a 61-organisation strong Council of the United Priangan Struggle (Majlis Persatuan Perjuangan Priangan), of which the Hizbullah leader Kamran was head. These forces were not part of the regular Indonesian army (Tentara Rakyat Indonesia [TRI], later TNI); Dengel, Darul Islam, p. 56; Horikoshi, ‘The Dar ul-Islam movement’, p. 67. See also P.M.H. Groen, ‘Marsroutes en dwaalsporen: Het Nederlands militair-strategisch beleid in Indonesië 1945–1950’ (Ph.D. diss., Leiden University, 1991), p. 117; Van Dijk, Rebellion, p. 84; and Usman Jauhari, ‘Peranan Hizbullah-Sabilillah dalam perlawanan bersenjata terhadap Belanda di Jawa Barat pada masa revolusi fisik (1945–1959)’ (diss., Universitas Padjajaran, Bandung, 1987), p. 51.

75 Kartosuwiryo, it needs to be noted, was not the first to attempt to establish this part of West Java as a purely Muslim region; an earlier attempt, in 1945–46, instigated by Kiai Abdul Hamid of Ciamis, had been defeated by Republican troops (‘De Daroel Islam-beweging in West-Java’).

76 ‘Ontstaan en ontwikkeling der “Madjelis Islam”’ [22 Mar. 1949], Archief Ministerie van Defensie. Collectie archieven Strijdkrachten in Ned. Indië (1938–39) 1941–1957 [1960] (hereafter AMD), no. 1125, NA; Dengel, Darul Islam, p. 102; Soebardi, ‘Kartosuwiryo’, p. 118.

77 O.W. Visser to R.S. Soeria Santosa, 12 Aug. 1948, APG, no. 997, NA; Dengel, Darul Islam, p. 63.

78 ‘Ontstaan en ontwikkeling der “Madjelis Islam”’.

79 Visser to Soeria Santosa, 12 Aug. 1948.

80 ‘Beknopt politiek-politioneel verslag van de regentschappen Bandoeng, Garoet, Tasikmalaja, Tjiamis, Soemedang, Cheribon, Koeningan, Indramajoe, Madjalengka, Poerwakarta en Soekaboemi over de maanden November en December 1947 (eigen berichtgeving)’, APG, no. 1081, NA.

81 ‘Politiek-Economisch Verslag betreffende de residentie Priangan over de periode 1 tot en met 15 September 1947’, Archief van het Ministerie van Koloniën, 1900–1963: Rapportage Indonesië, 1945–1950 (hereafter Rapportage Indonesië), no. 327, NA.

82 ‘Politiek Economisch Verslag betreffende de Residentie Priangan over de maand October 1947’, Rapportage Indonesië, no. 327, NA.

83 ‘Politiek Economisch Verslag betreffende de Residentie Priangan over de maand November 1947’, Rapportage Indonesië, no. 327, NA; ‘Perihal Keadaan Tasikmalaya’ [12 Dec. 1947], Arsip Kepolisian Negara Republik Indonesia (herafter KepNeg), no. 495, Arsip Nasional Republik Indonesia, Jakarta (hereafter ANRI).

84 ‘Laporan tentang keadaan didaerah Tasikmalaya Utara’ [23 Dec. 1947], KepNeg, no. 495, ANRI.

85 ‘Perihal politieke situasi’ [9 Dec. 1947], KepNeg, no. 495, ANRI.

86 ‘Laporan tentang keadaan didaerah Tasikmalaya Utara’.

87 ‘Ichtisar Laporan no. 5, Daerah Priangan, so'al Totalitaire Oorlog’ [Nov. 1947], Arsip Kementrian Pertahanan Republik Indonesia, no. 1073, ANRI.

88 Kahin, Nationalism and revolution, p. 230. Indeed, Masyumi members withdrew from the cabinet even before the agreement was signed; see Abdullah, Taufik, Sejarah ummat Islam Indonesia (Jakarta: Majelis Ulama Indonesia, 1991), p. 375. Abikusno remarked that ‘the Madjelis Sjoero Ulama [Ulama Council] of the Masjumi has declared that the Renville Agreement is haram [sinful] shortly after its signing’ (paraphrased interview with George Kahin, Yogyakarta, 20 Nov. 1948, Kahin [private]).

89 It is estimated that around 29,000 Republican troops withdrew across the line (Dengel, Darul Islam, p. 63). See also Dinas Sejarah Militer TNI-Angkatan Darat, Cuplikan sejarah perjuangan TNI-Angkatan Darat (Bandung/Jakarta: Dinas Sejarah Militer TNI-Angkatan Darat/Fa. Mahjuma, 1972), pp. 140–7; Sedjarah Militer Kodam VI Siliwangi, Siliwangi: dari masa ke masa (Jakarta: Penerbit Fakta Mahjuma, 1968), pp. 118–21, 137; Kahin, Nationalism and revolution, p. 218.

90 It was expected under Renville – at least by the Republicans – that United Nations-managed plebiscites would be held which would determine whether the territory would form a state of itself or situate itself under Republican rule. The Dutch quickly made it clear that those plebiscites would not be forthcoming; see Kahin, Nationalism and revolution, p. 328; and Cribb, Robert, Gangsters and revolutionaries: The Jakarta People's militia and the Indonesian revolution 1945–1949 (Sydney: Allen & Unwin, 1991), p. 173.

91 Sudirman, naturally, had ordered that informal troops fill the space left by regular TNI troops (Pinardi, Kartosuwirjo, p. 78).

92 Cribb, Gangsters and revolutionaries, p. 166.

93 Anonymous source, quoted in Roekomy et al., Republik Indonesia: Propinsi Djawa Barat, p. 214.

94 Pinardi, Kartosuwirjo, p. 56.

95 ‘Notes by George Kahin on Daroel Islam’, Kahin (private).

96 Van Dijk, Rebellion, p. 20.

97 Sejarah revolusi kemerdekaan daerah Jawa Barat, ed. Ekadjati, Edi S. (Jakarta: Direktorat Sejarah dan Nilai Tradisional, Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan, 1981), p. 179; Jauhari, ‘Peranan’, p. 63. Nasution, as commander of the Siliwangi division, had long struggled to subordinate such irregular armed bands to regular TNI control. See, for example, ‘Nasoetion, Abdoel, Haris’, AAS, no. 2658, NA; and ‘Netherlands Forces Intelligence Service (NEFIS). Afdeling III. Bulletin no. 29. De Bamboe Roentjing beweging in West-Java’, AAS, no. 2689, NA.

98 Van Dijk, Rebellion, p. 19; ‘De Dar-ul-Islam beweging’, APG, no. 506, NA.

99 Pinardi, Kartosuwirjo, p. 57; Dengel, Darul Islam, p. 64.

100 Mokaginta, A.J. et al. , Sedjarah singkat perdjuangan bersendjata bangsa Indonesia (Jakarta?: Staf Angkatan Bersenjata, 1964), pp. 98–9; Dengel, Darul Islam, p. 64. Smail notes that ‘Hizbullah (i.e. urban Islamic) units generally accompanied the army on the trek to Central Java, while Sabilillah (i.e. rural Islamic) groups did not. The former, like the national leadership of the Masjumi party, were committed to support of the secular Indonesian state. The latter became the core of the anti-Republican Darul Islam (Islamic state) movement which had its centre in east Priangan’ (Bandung, pp. 92–3; see also p. 156).

101 Dengel, Darul Islam, p. 65. See also ‘Beknopt politiek-politioneel verslag van de Regentschappen Bandoeng, Garoet, Tasikmalaja, Tjiamis, Soemedang, Cheribon, Koeningan, Indramajoe, Madjalengka, Poerwakarta en Soekaboemi, over de maand Februari 1948’, APG, no. 1075, NA.

102 Dengel, Darul Islam, pp. 65–6.

103 Quoted in Dengel, Darul Islam, p. 66. Kamran had been a senior figure in the West Java Hizbullah; Sedjarah Militer Kodam VI Siliwangi, Siliwangi, p. 40.

104 Pinardi, Kartosuwirjo, p. 33; Santosa, Jejak-jejak, p. 95; Dengel, Darul Islam, pp. 66–7.

105 ‘Pelaporan no.14/7/48 Perihal Darul Islam’ [17 July 1948], ‘Dunia Masyumi menghentikan usahanya’ [1 Mar. 1948], Arsip Djogjakarta Documenten 1945–1949 (hereafter DjogjaDoc), no. 218h, ANRI .

106 Visser to Soeria Santosa, 12 Aug. 1948. Kartosuwiryo's unilateral freezing of Masyumi was apparently rejected or ignored by a number of regional Masyumi branches, including those at Cirebon and Buitenzorg (‘De Daroel Islam-beweging in West-Java’).

107 Prihantoro, Penumpasan, p. 111. A TII document dated 13 July 1948, calling up Hizbullah and Sabilillah troops for the coming struggle as part of the TII, asserted that ‘the struggle of the Islamic Community is becoming more expansive and violent by the day, in order to weaken Netherlands imperialism. The Community shall establish an Islamic State of Indonesia, that is free’ (bijlage III of ‘De Daroel Islam-beweging in West-Java’).

108 Dengel, Darul Islam, p. 68.

109 Pinardi, Kartosuwirjo, pp. 57–8, 93; Van Dijk, Rebellion, p. 86; Dengel, Darul Islam, pp. 67–8. See also Groen, ‘Marsroutes’, pp. 124, 132–3.

110 ‘De Daroel Islam-beweging in West-Java’.

111 ‘De Dar-ul-Islam-beweging (Rijk van den Islam)’; ‘Islamitische stromingen in de Residenties Priangan en Cheribon [9 June 1948], AAS, no. 2572, NA; ‘Verslag West-Java. Over het eerste halfjaar 1948’, Rapportage Indonesië, no. 313, NA; see also Sin Po, 15 Mar. 1948; Keng Po, 1 Apr. 1948.

112 ‘Centrale Militaire Inlichtingendienst (CMI). Signalement no. 69’ [4 Dec. 1948], Rapportage Indonesië, no. 176, NA. See also ‘Beknopt politiek-politioneel verslag van de Regentschappen Bandoeng, Garoet, Tasikmalaja, Tjiamis, Soemedang, Cheribon, Koeningan, Indramajoe, Madjalengka, Poerwakarta, Soekaboemi, Tjiandjoer en Buitenzorg over de maand November 1948’; ‘Beknopt politiek-politioneel verslag van de Regentschappen Bandoeng … over de maand December 1948’, AAS, no. 3036, NA.

113 ‘Beknopt politiek-politioneel verslag van de Regentschappen Bandoeng … over de maand December 1948’.

114 A translation of the decisions taken at the Cipeundeuy conference is included in ‘Rapport betreffende M.I., N.I.I. en T.N.I.I.’ (J.R. Kniphorst) [17 Oct. 1948], APG, no. 997, NA. Indonesian documentation relating to the 1 Mar. 1948 meeting is in ‘Surat-surat bulan Desember 1948 tentang rencana keterangan umat Islam (NII)’, DjogjaDoc, no. 218, ANRI.

115 Pinardi, Kartosuwirjo, p. 58; Noer, Partai Islam, p. 180; Dengel, Darul Islam, pp. 68–9.

116 Pinardi, Kartosuwirjo, pp. 58–9; Nieuwenhuijze, Aspects, p. 64; Dengel, Darul Islam, p. 69. It was noteworthy that the Wali Negara of Pasundan, Wiranatakusuma, had strong Islamist leanings, and was known to have reservations about the lack of a specifically Islamic character in the 1945 Indonesian constitution. The Dutch indeed, spoke of ‘an undoubtedly very close relationship between the ideals of the Wali Negara of Pasundan and the struggle of the Darul Islam movement’ and that ‘his real ideal is an Islamic, completely independent and sovereign state of Pasundan’ (‘Signalement: De verhouding tussen Wali Negara van Pasoendan Wiranatakoesoema en de Daroel-Islam’, AAS, no. 3979); Effendy, Islam and the state, p. 36.

117 ‘Beknopt politiek-politioneel verslag van de Regentschappen Bandoeng … over de maand December 1948’.

118 Dengel, Darul Islam, pp. 71, 88, 219. See also Soebardi, ‘Kartosuwiryo’, p. 122.

119 Pinardi, Kartosuwirjo, p. 59; Al Chaidar, Pemikiran, pp. 76–8; Dengel, Darul Islam, pp. 74–8. See also ‘Proces-Verbaal [Rd. Didi bin Rd. Oehap al. Tatang Bahtiar]’, AAS, no. 2755, NA; and Visser to Soeria Santosa, 12 Aug. 1948. On the categorisation of Darul Islam zones, see ‘De Daroel Islam-beweging in West-Java’.

120 Pinardi, Kartosuwirjo, p. 60; Van Dijk, Rebellion, p. 89; Dengel, Darul Islam, pp. 74, 78, 112.

121 ‘Proces-Verbaal [Rd. Didi bin Rd. Oehap al. Tatang Bahtiar]’.

122 Dengel, Darul Islam, pp. 78–80; Al Chaidar, Pemikiran, p. 79. See also ‘Proces-Verbaal [Rd. Didi bin Rd. Oehap al. Tatang Bahtiar]’.

123 ‘De Darul-Islam-beweging en haar betrekkingen met het Islam-blok, in verband met de binnenlandse machtsverhouding op Java. Nefis publicatie no. 107’ n.d. [1950], Archive of the Marine en Leger Inlichtingendienst, de Netherlands Forces Intelligence Service en de Centrale Militaire Inlichtingendienst in Nederlands-Indië, no. 641, NA. ‘Darul Islam di Djawa Barat’ [23 July 1948], DjogjaDoc, no. 203, ANRI.

124 ‘Kutipan Pidato2 pada tgl 28/3-’48 (Kongres Masjumi di Madiun) dari 1. Wali Alfatah 2. KA Sanoesi', DjogjaDoc, no. 243, ANRI.

125 Dengel, Darul Islam, p. 81; Van Dijk, Rebellion, p. 93; Al Chaidar, Pemikiran, p. 104; Jackson, Traditional authority, p. 6.

126 ‘Verkort Politiek Weekrapport nr. 2 van Indonesië [29 Jan. 1949]’, AMD, no. 1654, NA.

127 ‘Verkort Politiek Weekrapport nr. 4 van Indonesië’ [9 Feb. 1949], AMD, no. 1654, NA.

128 Sjariffudin, Amak, Kisah Kartosuwirjo dan menjerahnja (Surabaya: Grip, 1965?), p. 8; Dengel, Darul Islam, pp. 71, 87; Mohammad Natsir 70 tahun: Kenang-kenangan kehidupan dan perjuangan, ed. Puar, Yusuf Abdullah (Jakarta: Pustake Antara, 1978), p. 185.

129 ‘Centrale Militaire Inlichtingendienst (CMI). Signalement no. 17’ [29 Sept. 1948], AAS, no. 3978, NA.

130 Simatupang, T.B., Report from Banaran: Experiences during the people's war (Ithaca: Modern Indonesia Project, Cornell University Press, 1972), p. 98.

131 Alers, Om een rode of groene merdeka, p. 243.

132 ‘Centrale Militaire Inlichtingendienst (CMI). Signalement no. 69’.

133 Dengel, Darul Islam, p. 81.

134 Ibid., p. 82.

135 In early Oct. 1948 the ‘political leadership’ of the Ciamis Darul Islam contacted Natsir, Rum and Hatta calling for the Republic's material support in the West Java struggle. It is interesting to see how the Darul Islam focused on the relevance of this regional struggle for the sake of the freedom of Yogyakarta. K.H. Zainal Hasan Thoha [leader of Ummat Islam in Ciamis] and Muhammad Nur Lubis [Commander of Tentara Islam Indonesia Bat. III Res. I Div. I] to Dr Mohammad Hatta [Vice President, Republik Indonesia], Mr Muhammad Rum [head of Delegation, Republik Indonesia] and Muhammad Natsir [Minister of Information, Republik Indonesia], 3 Oct. 1948, DjogjaDoc, no. 150, ANRI.

136 Dengel, Darul Islam, pp. 81–2.

137 ‘Signalement inzake de neiging van de Darul Islam-beweging om de plaats van de thans verdwenen Republiek in te nemen’, AAS, no. 3979, NA.

138 ‘Politiek-economisch verslag Pasundan van gedelegeerde van de hoge vertegenwoordiger van de kroon voor Pasundan (Van Diffelen) over de maand Nov. 1949’, in Officiële bescheiden betreffende de Nederlands-Indonesische betrekkingen, 1945–1950 (hereafter NIB), vol. 20, ed. Drooglever, P.J. and Schouten, M.J.B. (‘s-Gravenhage: Instituut voor Nederlandse Geschiedenis, 1996), p. 709.

139 A Dutch intelligence report of late Aug. 1949 spoke of the sending of ‘some contact persons’ from ‘the Pasundan side’ to Kartosuwiryo to seek an unspecified agreement (‘Dagrapport van de Sectie Inlichtingen afgesloten dd 23 Augustus 1949, 10.00 uur’, APG, no. 1259, NA).

140 Sjariffudin, Kisah Kartosuwirjo, pp. 8–9; Dengel, Darul Islam, p. 90.

141 Sjariffudin, Kisah Kartosuwirjo, p. 10. Kartosuwiryo later denied having had any contact with deviant Dutch officers, such as Westerling, nor indeed with any other Dutchmen (Dengel, Darul Islam, p. 125). There may have been low-level connections between APRA and Darul Islam which involved the supply of weapons and ammunition to the latter (Dengel, Darul Islam, p. 221).

142 See ‘Beknopt politiek-politioneel verslag van de Regentschappen Bandoeng, Garoet, Tasikmalaja, Tjiamis, Soemedang, Cheribon, Koeningan, Indramajoe, Madjalengka, Poerwakarta en Soekaboemi over de maand maart 1948’, in NIB, vol. 13, ed. Drooglever, P.J. and Schouten, M.J.B. (‘s Gravenhage: Martinus Nijhoff, 1986), pp. 370–2 (see also accompanying notes); ‘Beknopt politiek-politioneel verslag van de Regentschappen Bandoeng … over de maand Mei 1948’, in the same volume, pp. 803–5 (and accompanying notes); ‘“Situatierapport no 138 van 17 tot 18 Juni”, Lt. gouverneur-generaal (Van Mook) aan minister van overzeese gebiedsdelen (Jonkman), 21 Juni 1948’, in NIB, vol. 14, ed. P.J. Drooglever and M.J.B. Schouten (‘s Gravenhage: Martinus Nijhoff, 1988), p. 174; ‘Beknopt politiek-politioneel verslag van de Regentschappen Bandoeng, Garoet, Tasikmalaja, Tjiamis, Soemedang, Cheribon, Koeningan, Indramajoe, Madjalengka, Poerwakarta, Soekaboemi, Tjiandjoer en Buitenzorg, over de maand Juni 1948’, in the same volume, pp. 238–9.

143 One Dutch report remarked that in Singajaya subdistrict, ‘between 6 and 9 February [1949] 1115 houses, 15 mosques and langgars, one school and one baledesa were burned down, making 4000 people homeless’ (‘Politiek economisch verslag Priangan van resident/hoofd tijd. Bestuursdienst Priangan (Van der Harst) over Feb. 1949’, in NIB, vol. 17, ed. Drooglever, P.J. and Schouten, M.J.B. (‘s-Gravenhage: Instituut voor Nederlandse Geschiedenis, 1992), p. 696.

144 ‘Negara Islam Indonesia Maklumat no. 5’, Imam SM Kartosuwiryo [20 Dec. 1948], Arsip Penumpasan DI-TII JaBar, folii, Archives of Angkatan Bersendjata Republik Indonesia, Jakarta.

145 ‘Negara Islam Indonesia: Maklumat no. 6’, in Pinardi, Kartosuwirjo, p. 63. See also ‘Proces-Verbaal [Rd. Didi bin Rd. Oehap al. Tatang Bahtiar]’, which indicates that this sentiment was broadly accepted amongst Darul Islam members.

146 ‘Negara Islam Indonesia: Maklumat no. 6’, in Pinardi, Kartosuwirjo, p. 64.

147 ‘Maklumat no. 7’, in Al Chaidar, Pemikiran, pp. 558–9.

148 See Nasution's instruction of 22 Dec. 1948, in his Sekitar perang kemerdekaan, vol. 10, pp. 17–18.

149 ‘Politiek economisch verslag van de resident/hoofd tijd. bestuursdienst Priangan (Van der Harst) betreffende de residentie Priangan over de maand Jan. 1949’, in NIB, vol. 17, p. 324.

150 Simatupang, Report from Banaran, p. 31.

151 ‘Notes by George Kahin on Daroel Islam’.

152 See ‘Centrale Militaire Inlichtingendienst (CMI). Afdeling III. Order of battle bende-wezen West-Java. 1 November 1948’, AAS, no. 2690, NA.

153 Pinardi, Kartosuwirjo, p. 64; Dengel, Darul Islam, pp. 85–6.

154 ‘Verkort Politiek Weekrapport nr. 4 van Indonesië’.

155 Dengel, Darul Islam, p. 85; Soetanto, Himawan, Long march Siliwangi (Jakarta: Kata Hasta Pustaka, 2007), pp. 184–5.

156 ‘Militaire bekendmaking no. 1 der N.I.I.’ (O.W. Visser) [4 Feb. 1949], APG, no. 997, NA; ‘Verkort Politiek Weekrapport nr. 3 van Indonesië’ [5 Feb. 1949], AMD, no. 1654, NA; Dengel, Darul Islam, p. 86. A copy of such an agreement may be found in ‘Beknopt politiek-politioneel verslag over de maand Februari 1949 van de regentschappen in de Negara Pasoendan’, AAS, no. 3036, NA. See also ‘Beknopt politiek-politioneel verslag over de maand Maart 1949 van de regentschappen in de Negara Pasoendan’. A more formal effort at parlay between Kamran and the TNI in February ended in violence (Dengel, Darul Islam, p. 89).

157 ‘Nota’ (R.S. Nataradja) [31 July 1949], APG, no. 1001, NA; ‘Politiek Economische Verslag betreffende de Residentie Priangan over de maand Februari 1949’, Rapportage Indonesië, no. 329, NA; Sedjarah Militer Kodam VI Siliwangi, Siliwangi, pp. 281–3.

158 ‘Notes by George Kahin on Daroel Islam’.

159 Roekomy et al., Republik Indonesia: Propinsi Djawa Barat, p. 189.

160 Sayidiman Suryohadiprojo, quoted in Sinjal, Daud, Laporan kepada bangsa: Militer Akademi Yogya (Jakarta: Pustaka Sinar Harapan, 1996), p. 132. See also Dengel, Darul Islam, p. 88.

161 ‘Notes by George Kahin on Daroel Islam’.

162 Van Dijk, Rebellion, p. 91; Dengel, Darul Islam, p. 86; Satari, Album, pp. 303–4; Prihantoro, Penumpasan, pp. 114–17; Sedjarah Militer Kodam VI Siliwangi, Siliwangi, pp. 523–6; ‘Dagrapport van de Sectie Inlichtingen. Afgesloten 30 Januari 1949 te 10.00 uur’, APG, no. 1252, NA.

163 ‘Dagrapport van de Sectie Inlichtingen: Afgesloten dd 18 Februari 1949, 10.00 uur’, APG, no. 1253, NA.

164 ‘Wekelijksmilitair inlichting- en operatief rapport v/m 23 t/m 29 Maart 1949’, AMD, no. 1125, NA.

165 See Republik Indonesia: Propinsi Djawa Barat, p. 233; Awwas, I.S., Menelusuri perjalanan jihad S.M. Kartosuwiryo: Proklamator Negara Islam Indonesia (Yogyakarta: Wihdah Press, 1999), p. 57.

166 ‘Nota’ (R. S. Nata[radja]) [31 July 1949], APG, no. 1001, NA.

167 Noer, Partai Islam, p. 181; Dengel, Darul Islam, p. 88.

168 ‘Beknopt politiek-politioneel verslag over de maand April 1949 van de regentschappen in de Negara Pasundan’, AAS, no. 3036, NA; Pinardi, Kartosuwirjo, p. 66; Van Dijk, Rebellion, pp. 90–1; Noer, Partai Islam, p. 181.

169 Dengel, Darul Islam, p. 86.

170 ‘Militaire bekendmaking no. 1’ [25 Jan. 1949], APG, no. 997, NA.

171 Ibid.

172 ‘Militaire bekendmaking no. 1 der N.I.I.’. Deliar Noer (‘Penegakan syari'ah Islam dalam pentas politik nasional’, in Awwas, Irfan S., Risalah kongres Mujahidin I dan penegakan syari'ah Islam [Yogyakarta: Wihdah Press, 2001], pp. 36–7) suggests that, had the TNI not required TII forces to subordinate themselves to it but rather invited them into a partnership to fight Dutch forces, Kartosuwiryo might have accepted such an arrangement and the final break might not have eventuated. But that view seems to ignore both the ferocity of the TII response to the returning TNI troops and its grave suspicions about the character and purpose of these troops.

173 See the Darul Islam propaganda material enclosed with Regent of Garut to Resident of Priangan, 25 Mar. 1949, APG, no. 1108, NA.

174 Pinardi, Kartosuwirjo, pp. 66, 70, 72; Van Dijk, Rebellion, p. 92; Noer, Partai Islam, pp. 181–2; Dengel, Darul Islam, pp. 91–3, 121; Al Chaidar, Pemikiran, p. 666 [20 Aug. 1949]. For a vigorous rendition of the view that ‘the Republic of today is no longer the Republic for which [the people] struggled from of old’, see also the pamphlet of the Ciamis branch of NII, dated 21 July 1949, included in ‘Politiek-politioneel-verslag dalam bulan Juli 1949 dari kabupaten2 seluruh Negara Pasundan’, AAS, no. 3036, NA. The day after the proclamation of the NII, the head of information for the NII in Tasikmalaya spoke of ‘the fall of the Republic of Indonesia. From being a free state, the Republic has become a colony under the name of a participant state of the R.I.S. [United States of Indonesia]’ (‘Beknopt politiek-politioneel verslag over de maand Augustus 1949 van de regentschappen in de Negara Pasoendan’, AAS, no. 3036, NA).

175 Keng Po, 21 Mar. 1949.

176 Van Dijk, Rebellion, p. 92; ‘Kort verslag van het bezoek door ondergetekende [Van Maarseveen] gebracht aan Indonesië van 20–29 Juni 1949’, in NIB, vol. 19, ed. Drooglever, P.J. and Schouten, M.J.B. (‘s-Gravenhage: Instituut voor Nederlandse Geschiedenis, 1994), p. 191; ‘s'Jacob (voorzitter van de Nederlandse delegatie te Batavia) aan s'Jacob (hoogleraar te Utrecht), 17 Aug. 1949’, in NIB, vol. 19, p. 544.

177 ‘Politiek-economisch verslag Priangan van resident/hoofd tijdelijke bestuursdienst Priangan (Van der Harst) over Maart 1949’, in NIB, vol. 18, ed. Drooglever, P.J. and Schouten, M.J.B. (‘s-Gravenhage: Instituut voor Nederlandse Geschiedenis, 1993), p. 305.

178 ‘Commissaris van de kroon voor Pasundan (Van Diffelen) aan hoge vertegenwoordiger van de kroon (Beel), 22 Feb. 1949’, in NIB, vol. 17, p. 622; NIB, vol. 18, p. 8, note 1. ‘Legercommandant (Spoor) aan minister van binnenlandse zaken van Pasundan (Mahmoen Soemadipradja), 1 Maart 1949’, in NIB, vol. 18, p. 8; Dengel, Darul Islam, pp. 89–90. See also ‘ZG Rapport no. 55 dd. 1 Apr 49’, AAS, no. 2799, NA; Sin Po, 23 Mar. 1949; and Keng Po, 24 Mar. 1949.

179 ‘Politiek-economisch verslag Priangan van residentie hoofd tijdelijke bestuursdienst Priangan (Van der Harst) over de maand April 1949’, in NIB, vol. 18, p. 513. See also ‘Beknopt politiek-politioneel verslag over de maand April 1949 van de regentschappen in de Negara Pasundan’; Sedjarah Militer Kodam VI Siliwangi, Siliwangi, pp. 306–7; Sin Po, 20 Apr. 1949.

180 Groen, ‘Marsroutes’, p. 204.

181 Dengel, Darul Islam, p. 130.

182 ‘Politiek-economisch verslag van Pasundan van gedelegeerde van de hoge vertegenwoordiger van de kroon voor Pasundan (Van Diffelen) over de maand Okt. 1949’, in NIB, vol. 20, p. 512.

183 ‘Politiek-economisch verslag Priangan van resident/hoofd tijdelijke bestuursdienst Priangan (Van der Harst) over Maart 1949’, in NIB, vol. 18, p. 305. There were, it seems, some such cases of co-operation, although they were often ruined by bad faith (See ‘Dagrapport van de Sectie Inlichtingen: Afgesloten 29 Januari 1949 te 10.00 uur’, APG, no. 1252, NA; ‘Dagrapport van de Sectie Inlichtingen afgesloten dd 15 Augustus 1949, 10.00 uur’, APG, no. 1259, NA).

184 Alers, Om een rode of groene merdeka, pp. 244–5.

185 Van Dijk, Rebellion, p. 100; ‘De Dar-ul-Islam beweging’. According to a Dutch report on TII troops in Garut, ‘their clothing is predominantly black with a red armband or red headwear (hoofddoek) with a red-white star’ (‘Overzicht en ontwikkeling van de toestand 5 Aug. 1800 uur tot 12 Aug. 1800 uur’ [13 Aug. 1948], AMD, no. 1121, NA; ‘“Beoordeling van de toestand in de periode 11 tot 17 Mei 1949 (no. 17)” van legercommandant (Spoor)’, in NIB, vol. 18, p. 660; ‘Beknopt politiek-politioneel verslag over de maand April 1949 van de regentschappen in de Negara Pasundan’.

186 ‘Minister van overzeese gebiedsdelen (Van Maarseveen) aan hoge vertegenwoordiger van de kroon (Lovink), 6 Okt. 1949’, in NIB, vol. 20, p. 183.

187 ‘Islamitisch stroomingen in de Residenties Priangan en Cheribon’, 9 June 1948, AAS, no. 2572, NA.

188 Kahin, Nationalism and revolution, p. 331.

189 ‘Notes by George Kahin on Daroel Islam’.

190 ‘Verkort Politiek Weekrapport nr. 5 van Indonesië’ [16 Feb. 1949], AMD, no. 1654, NA; see also ‘Verkort Politiek Weekrapport nr. 11 van Indonesië’ [31 Mar. 1949], AMD, no. 1654, NA.

191 Van Dijk, Rebellion, p. 92.

192 ‘Politiek economisch verslag Priangan van resident/hoofd tijd. Bestuursdienst Priangan (Van der Harst) over Feb. 1949’, in NIB, vol. 17, pp. 696–7.

193 ‘Verkort Politiek Weekrapport nr. 12 van Indonesië’ [7 Apr. 1949], AMD, no. 1654, NA.

194 ‘Links-politieke en extreem-Islamitische stromingen in West-Java’ [7 Sept. 1949], AAS, no. 3038, NA. See also ‘Beknopt politiek-politioneel verslag over de maand Mei 1949 van de regentschappen in de Negara Pasundan’, AAS, no. 3036, NA; ‘Beknopt politiek-politioneel-verslag over de maand Maart 1949 van de regentschappen in de Negara Pasoendan’; and ‘Politiek ekonomisch verslag Residentie Priangan Juli 1949’, Bijlage IIId of ‘Het Communisme in Indonesië’, AAS, no. 2740, NA.

195 ‘Politiek-economisch verslag van Pasoendan over de maand October 1949’, Rapportage Indonesië, no. 310, NA.

196 ‘Beoordeeling van de toestand in de periode van 19–26 Juli 1947 (no. 27)’ [1 Aug. 1949], APG, no. 1266, NA.

197 Cribb, Gangsters and revolutionaries, ch. 12–13.

198 ‘Beknopt politiek-politioneel-verslag over de maand Juni 1949 van de regentschappen in de Negara Pasundan’, AAS, no. 3036, NA.

199 Horikoshi, ‘The Dar ul-Islam movement’, p. 60.

200 Dengel, Darul Islam, p. 93. This may be the representation mentioned in ‘Dagrapport van de Sectie Inlichtingen afgesloten dd 11 Juli 1949, 10.00 uur’, APG, no. 1258, NA.

201 Kedaulatan Rakyat, 13 Feb. 1950, in ‘Ichtisar gerakan DI/Kartosuwiryo’ [27 July 1950], Arsip Kabinet Perdana Menteri RI (1949–1950) [herafter KabPerd], no. 150, ANRI.

202 Abdullah et al., Sejarah ummat Islam, p. 377; Puar, Mohammad Natsir 70 tahun, p. 185; Noer, Partai Islam, p. 182; Dengel, Darul Islam, p. 93.

203 Quoted in Dengel, Darul Islam, pp. 93–4.

204 Pinardi, Kartosuwirjo, p. 74.

205 Kartosuwiryo's proclamation, in Pinardi, Kartosuwirjo, p. 75.

206 Dengel, Darul Islam, p. 119; Al Chaidar, Pemikiran, p. 668. A little earlier, a Dutch report claimed that Kartosuwiryo had contacted the Masyumi leader Kasman Singodimejo expressing his opposition to the Round Table negotiations and requesting him to organise a coup against the Republican leaders (‘“Beoordeling van de toestand in de periode t/m 8 November 1949 (nr. 42)” van legercommandant (Buurman van Vreeden)’, in NIB, vol. 20, pp. 567–8).

207 ‘Beknopt politiek-politioneel verslag over de maand September 1949 van de regentschappen in de Negara Pasoendan’, AAS, no. 3036, NA.

208 Soebagijo, I.N., Masykur, K.H.: Sebuah biografi (Jakarta: Gunung Agung, 1982), pp. 83–4; Dengel, Darul Islam, pp. 122–3.

209 Boland, The struggle of Islam, p. 60.

210 ‘Penjelesaian soal Darul Islam’, Berita Indonesia, 23 Dec. 1949; ‘Statement Masjumi tentang Perisitiwa “Darul Islam”’ [23 Apr. 1950], KabPerd, no. 150, ANRI.

211 Nieuwenhuijze, Aspects, p. 173.

212 ‘Sikap PSII Terhadap Penjelesaian Soal Darul Islam’ [4 May 1950], Arsip Kabinet Presiden Republik Indonesia Serikat, 1949–1950, no. 107, ANRI.

213 Mokaginta et al., Sedjarah, p. 98.

214 Nieuwenhuijze, Aspects, p. 174.

215 Dengel, Darul Islam, p. 123.

216 Quoted in Aboebakar, Sedjarah hidup K.H.A. Wahid Hasjim, pp. 174–5.

217 Pedoman, 12 May 1951, in Natsir, M., Capita selecta 2 (Jakarta: Bulan Bintang, 1957), pp. 270–1.

218 On 22 Oct. 1950, Kartosuwiryo sent a ‘secret note’ to Sukarno requesting, among other things, that the Republic dispense with nationalism and instead adopt Islam as its guiding principle; on 27 Feb. 1951, Kartosuwiryo sent another missive seeking, amongst other things, recognition from the Republic (Prihantoro, Penumpasan, pp. 163–74). See also Boland, The struggle of Islam, pp. 60–1; and Dengel, Darul Islam, p. 220.

219 Feith, Herbert, The decline of constitutional democracy in Indonesia (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1962), p. 211.

220 Nieuwenhuijze, Aspects, p. 162.

221 Ibid., pp. 162–4; Harun Nasution, ‘The Islamic state in Indonesia: The rise of the ideology, the movement for its creation and the theory of the Masjumi’ (M.A. thesis, McGill University, 1965), pp. 78–9.

222 Wahid Hasyim even issued a fatwa to the effect that in the period of revolution it was forbidden to use Dutch ships to make the hajj (Aboebakar, Sedjarah hidup K.H.A. Wahid Hasjim, p. 113).

223 Djiwa Repoeblik, 20 Oct. 1945.

224 Quoted in Aboebakar, Sedjarah hidup K.H.A. Wahid Hasjim, p. 357. See also pp. 360–1.

225 Ibid., p. 360.

226 ‘De Negara Islam Indonesia’.

227 Mohammed Rum, paraphrased interview with George Kahin, Yogyakarta, 23 Nov. 1948, Kahin (private).

228 Paraphrased in ‘Beknopt politiek-politioneel verslag over de maand Maart 1949 van de regentschappen in de Negara Pasoendan’.

229 See, for example, the case of Kiyai Yusuf Tauziri, in Van Dijk, Rebellion, pp. 13–14. See also the Jan. 1951 clarification of the Masyumi position in relation to Darul Islam in Puar, Mohammad Natsir 70 tahun, pp. 180–1. An important element in their calculations was probably the political cost of engaging in open conflict with the established powers.

230 See Sin Po, 20 Apr. 1949.

231 Noer, Partai Islam, p. 179.

232 Nieuwenhuijze, Aspects, p. 174.

R.E. Elson is Emeritus Professor at the University of Queensland, Australia. Correspondence in connection with this paper should be addressed to: . Chiara Formichi is Assistant Professor at the Asian and International Studies department, City University of Hong Kong. Correspondence in connection with this paper should be addressed to: . Research for this article was assisted by funding from the Australian Research Council's Discovery Grants Program. The authors would like to thank David Jenkins and John Butcher for their advice on an earlier draft of this article.

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