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ON OBDD-BASED ALGORITHMS AND PROOF SYSTEMS THAT DYNAMICALLY CHANGE THE ORDER OF VARIABLES

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  22 June 2020

Abstract

In 2004 Atserias, Kolaitis, and Vardi proposed $\text {OBDD}$ -based propositional proof systems that prove unsatisfiability of a CNF formula by deduction of an identically false $\text {OBDD}$ from $\text {OBDD}$ s representing clauses of the initial formula. All $\text {OBDD}$ s in such proofs have the same order of variables. We initiate the study of $\text {OBDD}$ based proof systems that additionally contain a rule that allows changing the order in $\text {OBDD}$ s. At first we consider a proof system $\text {OBDD}(\land , \text{reordering})$ that uses the conjunction (join) rule and the rule that allows changing the order. We exponentially separate this proof system from $\text {OBDD}(\land )$ proof system that uses only the conjunction rule. We prove exponential lower bounds on the size of $\text {OBDD}(\land , \text{reordering})$ refutations of Tseitin formulas and the pigeonhole principle. The first lower bound was previously unknown even for $\text {OBDD}(\land )$ proofs and the second one extends the result of Tveretina et al. from $\text {OBDD}(\land )$ to $\text {OBDD}(\land , \text{reordering})$ .

In 2001 Aguirre and Vardi proposed an approach to the propositional satisfiability problem based on $\text {OBDD}$ s and symbolic quantifier elimination (we denote algorithms based on this approach as $\text {OBDD}(\land , \exists )$ algorithms). We augment these algorithms with the operation of reordering of variables and call the new scheme $\text {OBDD}(\land , \exists , \text{reordering})$ algorithms. We notice that there exists an $\text {OBDD}(\land , \exists )$ algorithm that solves satisfiable and unsatisfiable Tseitin formulas in polynomial time (a standard example of a hard system of linear equations over $\mathbb {F}_2$ ), but we show that there are formulas representing systems of linear equations over $\mathbb {F}_2$ that are hard for $\text {OBDD}(\land , \exists , \text{reordering})$ algorithms. Our hard instances are satisfiable formulas representing systems of linear equations over $\mathbb {F}_2$ that correspond to checksum matrices of error correcting codes.

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The Journal of Symbolic Logic , June 2020 , pp. 632 - 670
© The Association for Symbolic Logic 2020

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Footnotes

The present paper is an expansion of an earlier conference paper [17]. It includes the contents of [17] augmented with all the proofs that were omitted in the conference version. In addition, the paper contains a new deterministic construction of a hard example for $\text {OBDD}(\land , \exists )$ algorithms.

References

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ON OBDD-BASED ALGORITHMS AND PROOF SYSTEMS THAT DYNAMICALLY CHANGE THE ORDER OF VARIABLES
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