This paper treats of semantical systems S of sufficient strength so that for any set W definable in S (in a sense which will be made precise), there must exist a sentence X which is true in S if and only if it is an element of W. We call such an X a Tarski sentence for W. It is the sentence which (in a purely extensional sense) says of itself that it is in W. If W is the set of all expressions not provable in some syntactical system C, then X is the Gödel sentence which is true (in S) if and only if it is not provable (in C). We provide a novel method for the construction of these sentences, which yields sentences particularly simple in structure. The method is applicable to a variety of systems, including a form of elementary arithmetic, and some systems of protosyntax self applied. In application to the former, we obtain an extremely simple and direct proof of a theorem, which is essentially Tarski's theorem that the truth set of elementary arithmetic is not arithmetically definable.
The crux of our method is in the use of a certain function, the ‘norm’ function, which replaces the classical use of the diagonal function. To give a heuristic idea of the norm function, let us define the norm of an expression E (of informal English) as E followed by its own quotation.
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