In 1965 Zadeh introduced the concept of fuzzy sets. The characteristic of fuzzy sets is that the range of truth value of the membership relation is the closed interval [0, 1] of real numbers. The logical operations ⊃, ∼ on [0, 1] which are used for Zadeh's fuzzy sets seem to be Łukasiewciz's logic, where p ⊃ q = min(1, 1 − p + q), ∼ p = 1 − p. L. S. Hay extended in  Łukasiewicz's logic to a predicate logic and proved its weak completeness theorem: if P is valid then P + Pn is provable for each positive integer n. She also showed that one can without losing consistency obtain completeness of the system by use of additional infinitary rule.
Now, from a logical standpoint, each logic has its corresponding set theory in which each logical operation is translated into a basic operation for set theory; namely, the relation ⊆ and = on sets are translation of the logical operations → and ↔. For Łukasiewicz's logic, P Λ (P ⊃ Q). ⊃ Q is not valid. Translating it to the set version, it follows that the axiom of extensionality does not hold. Thus this very basic principle of set theory is not valid in the corresponding set theory.
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