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The Name Kurd and its Philological Connexions

  • G. R. Driver (a1)
Extract

It is not unlikely that the earliest trace of the Kurds is to be found on a Sumerian clay-tablet, of the third millennium B.C., on which “ the land of Kar-da ” or “ Qar-da ” is mentioned. This “ land of Karda ” adjoined that of the people of Su, who dwelt on the south of Lake Wân, and seems in all probability to have been connected with the Qur-ṭi-e, who lived in the mountains to the west of the same lake, and with whom Tiglath-Pileser I fought; the philological identity of these two names is, however, uncertain, owing to the doubt about the precise value of the palatals and dentals in Sumerian.

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page 393 note 1 Thureau-Dangin, Die Sumerischen und Akkadischen Königsinschriften, i, 150 (No. 22, § 2).

page 393 note 2 Tiglath-Pileser's Cylinder-Inscription, I, ii, 17; iii, 50.

page 393 note 3 This identification is accepted by Winckler in Schrader's Keilschriftliche Bibliothek, vol. i, s.v. Tiglath-Pileser; Spiegel, Eranische Altertumskunde, i, 356; Kiepert, Lehrbuch der Alten Geographie, p. 80; Sachau in Zeitschrift für Assyriologie, xii, 52; and Hommel, Geschichte, p. 524; it is rejected by Streck in Z. f. Ass., xiii, 101.

page 393 note 4 Xen., Anab., III, v, 15, 17 ; IV, i, 2–4, 8–11; iii, 1–2, 7, 26–7, 30; v, 5, 17; VII, viii, 25.

page 393 note 5 The singular Cardûchus is an artificial form deduced from the plural Cardûchi (Xen., Cyr., vi, 3, 30).

page 394 note 1 Xen., Anab., IV, iv, 18 ; vi, 5 ; viii, 1 ; V, v, 17.

page 394 note 2 Steph. Byz., Ethnica (Meineke), s.v. Τοχοι, i, 211; see also his note on Καρδοχοι, i, 358.

page 394 note 3 Id. ib., i, 211.

page 394 note 4 See also Meillet, Esquisse d'une Grammaire comparée de l'Arménien classique, pp. 40–3, and Hübschmann, Armenische Grammatik, pp. 404, 518–20.

page 394 note 5 See Polyb., Hist., v, 79, 11, 82, 11; Corn. Nep., Datames, viii, 2; Arr., Anab., ii, 8, 5–6, and Plut., Sec. Epic., xiii; see also Steph. Byz., s.v. Kardakes; Hesych., Lex. (Schow), p. 403, (Alberti), ii, 147 ; Phot., Lex. Synag. (Porson), i, 131.

page 395 note 1 Plin., Hist. Nat., vi, 15, 44.

page 395 note 2 Id. ib., vi, 31, 129.

page 395 note 3 Strab., op. cit., xvi, 747. For references to Kardûchi see Strab., Geogr., xvi, 747 ; Epit., p. 148 (Kardûchiā); Diod. Sic., Hist. Gr., xiv, 127 ; Plin., Hist. Nat., vi, 44 ; Ptol., Geogr., vi, 2 ; Agath., Hist., iv, 29 ; Theophyl. Simoc, ii, 10, 2.

page 395 note 4 In the corresponding passage in Josephus (Archœol., xx, 2, 2, § 34) the MSS. read Καρρν, Καιρν, or Καρεν, all possibly errors for Καρδν, although the form Καρδο, with which Γρδοι should be compared, does not actually occur.

page 396 note 1 The other writers of biographies of Alexander the Great have Gordiaei, Gordyaei (Curt. Ruf., Hist. Alex., iv, 10, 8; v, 1, 4, 14–15), or Cordiaei (Epit. Rer. Gest. Alex. Magn., xxix); in one passage of Curtius (op. cit., iv, 10, 8) some MSS. appear to read Cordei.

page 397 note 1 Steph. Byz., s.v. Gordyaea.

page 397 note 2 Compare the note, quoted below, in Land's Anecd. Syr., iii, p. 332.

page 397 note 3 Strab., Geogr., xii, 13, 533 ; xv, 3, 727.

page 397 note 4 Polyb., Hist., v, 52.

page 397 note 5 Livius, ab Urb. Cond., xxxvii, 40, 9 (where they are called Cyrtaei), and xlii, 58, 13.

page 397 note 6 E.g. Barhebraeus, Nomocanon (Hunt MSS. 1), 36 v., Ascensus Mentis (ib., 540), 83 v.; Patr. Or., Sim‘on bar Sabba’e, cp. 23 (and 25); Wright, Catal. of Syr. MSS. in the B.M., iii, 1136a-b; al.

page 398 note 1 The Nestorians pronounced Qardû as Qardâ, which without doubt contributed to the Arabic Qardā (Acts of Mārî, 23, 2).

page 398 note 2 Avri et Slîbâ, de Patr. Nest. Comm. (Gismondi), p. 80 ; Maris, de Patr. Nest. Comm. (Gismondi), pp. 2, 3, 10;. Balâdhurî, 176, 5; Aṭ-ṭabarî, iii, 610, 3 ; Ibn Faqîh, 132, 8 ; 136, 2 ; Ibn Rustah, 106, 14 ; 195, 12 ; Ibn Khurdâdhbih, 76, 12 ; 245, 15 ; Mas‘ûdî, Tanbih, 53, 12 ; Ibn Ḥauqal, 145, 13. Yâqût (i, 476) has Qirdā, which he says that people pronounced Qardā. Compare also Bāqardā in Arabic (Aṭ-ṭab., iii, 610, 1).

page 398 note 3 M‘ārt d’Gazê (Bezold), Syr., p. 98 = Ar., p. 99.

page 398 note 4 Elias of Nisibis (Baethgen) in Abhandl. f. d. Kunde des Morgenl., viii, 3, p. 17.

page 398 note 5 Assemanni, Bibl. Or., vol. i, pp. 204a, 352a; Chabot, Nest. Synods in Notices et Extraits (Paris), x, p. 165.

page 399 note 1 Chabot, op. cit., x, p. 423 (Syr., p. 165); Tûmâ d’Margâ, Governors (Budge), p. 98, al. ; Bedjan, Acta Martyrum, ii, p. 673 ; Wright, Catal. of Syr. MSS. in the Brit. Mus., iii, p. 1207a.

page 399 note 2 Mār Yabhalāhâ (Bedjan), chap, xiv, p. 121.

page 399 note 3 Nöldeke in ZDMG., xxix, pp. 419 ff.

page 399 note 4 Compare the form Kûrdayyâ in a writer of the twelfth century A.D. (Johannes of Nisibis, in Assemanni's Bibl. Or., ii, pp. 221–2).

page 399 note 5 The Arabic account of Abu-’l-Faraj (Pococke), p. 13, has “ the mountain of the Qurd which is called Al-Jûdī ”.

page 400 note 1 The form Qardûn occurs also in Midr. Bereshîth Rabbâ and in the Mandaic Great Book (i, 380, 21) in reference to the same passage.

page 400 note 2 Yebhāmôth, 3b, 16a.

page 400 note 3 Rabbinowitz on Bābâ Bathrâ, 91a.

page 400 note 4 The usual plural in Arabic is ’ Akrâd, but there once occurs ’ Akârîd. (‘Abdu-’l-Bâsiṭ, Dâris in the Journal Asiatique, IX, iv, pp. 252–3) as a variant in one MS. for the regular form.

page 401 note 1 Gibbon, Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, chap. lix.

page 401 note 2 See Baethgen in Abhandl. f. d. Kunde des Morgenl., viii, 3, p. 17.

page 401 note 3 Assemanni, Bibl. Or., ii, p. 366.

page 401 note 4 E.g. Assyrian gardu or qardu = Persian gurd or kurd (valiant), etc. ; similarly the Persian Kirmân became Qarman in Syriac.

page 402 note 1 Nöldeke, Kardu und Kurden in Beiträge zur Alten Geschichte und Geographie : Festschrift für H. Kiepert, pp. 71–82 ; see also Hartmann, Bohtan, pp. 90 ff.

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