Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-5d6d958fb5-8cb25 Total loading time: 0.531 Render date: 2022-11-28T06:40:40.262Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "displayNetworkTab": true, "displayNetworkMapGraph": false, "useSa": true } hasContentIssue true

Fixed or mixed? Variation in tree functional types and vegetation structure in a forest-savanna ecotone in West Africa

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  23 July 2020

George K.D Ametsitsi
Affiliation:
Plant Ecology and Nature Conservation Group, Wageningen University, 6700 AAWageningen, the Netherlands Forestry Research Institute of Ghana, P.O. Box 63, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana
Frank Van Langevelde
Affiliation:
Wildlife Ecology and Conservation Group, Wageningen University, 6700 AAWageningen, the Netherlands School of Life Sciences, Westville Campus, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban4000, South Africa
Vincent Logah
Affiliation:
Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana
Thomas Janssen
Affiliation:
Plant Ecology and Nature Conservation Group, Wageningen University, 6700 AAWageningen, the Netherlands Department of Earth Sciences, VU Amsterdam, Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HVAmsterdam, the Netherlands
Jose A Medina-Vega
Affiliation:
Plant Ecology and Nature Conservation Group, Wageningen University, 6700 AAWageningen, the Netherlands Forest Ecology and Forest Management group, Wageningen University, 6700 AAWageningen, the Netherlands
Hamza Issifu
Affiliation:
Plant Ecology and Nature Conservation Group, Wageningen University, 6700 AAWageningen, the Netherlands Department of Forestry and Forest Resources Management, University for Development Studies, P.O. Box 1882, Tamale, Ghana
Laurianne Ollivier
Affiliation:
Plant Ecology and Nature Conservation Group, Wageningen University, 6700 AAWageningen, the Netherlands
Koos den Hartogh
Affiliation:
Plant Ecology and Nature Conservation Group, Wageningen University, 6700 AAWageningen, the Netherlands
Thomas Adjei-Gyapong
Affiliation:
Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana
Stephen Adu-Bredu
Affiliation:
Forestry Research Institute of Ghana, P.O. Box 63, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana
Jon Lloyd
Affiliation:
Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, Silwood Park Campus, AscotSL5 7PY, UK School of Marine and Environmental Sciences, James Cook University, Cairns, 4870Qld, Australia Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, 14040-900Ribeirão Preto, Brazil
Elmar M Veenendaal*
Affiliation:
Plant Ecology and Nature Conservation Group, Wageningen University, 6700 AAWageningen, the Netherlands
*
Author for correspondence: *Elmar M Veenendaal, Email: Elmar.Veenendaal@wur.nl

Abstract

We analysed thirty-five 400-m2 plots encompassing forest, savanna and intermediate vegetation types in an ecotonal area in Ghana, West Africa. Across all plots, fire frequency was over a period of 15 years relatively uniform (once in 2–4 years). Although woodlands were dominated by species typically associated with savanna-type formations, and with forest formations dominated by species usually associated with closed canopies, these associations were non-obligatory and with a discrete non-specialized species grouping also identified. Across all plots, crown area index, stem basal area and above-ground biomass were positively associated with higher soil exchangeable potassium and silt contents: this supporting recent suggestions of interplays between potassium and soil water storage potential as a significant influence on tropical vegetation structure. We also found an average NDVI cover increase of ~0.15% year−1 (1984–2011) with plots dominated by non-specialized species increasing more than those dominated by either forest- or savanna-affiliated species. Our results challenge the traditional view of a simple forest vs. savanna dichotomy controlled by fire, and with our newly identified third non-specialized species grouping also potentially important in understanding ecotonal responses to climate change.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
© The Author(s), 2020. Published by Cambridge University Press

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Literature cited

Aho, K, Derryberry, D and Peterson, T (2014) Model selection for ecologists: the worldviews of AIC and BIC. Ecology 95, 631636.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Armani, M, Van Langevelde, F, Tomlinson, KW, Adu-Bredu, S, Djagbletey, GD and Veenendaal, EM (2018) Compositional patterns of overstorey and understorey woody communities in a forest–savanna boundary in Ghana. Plant Ecology and Diversity 11, 451463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Asare, EO (1962) A note on the vegetation of the transition zone of the Tain Basin in Ghana. Ghana Journal of Science 2, 6073.Google Scholar
Aubréville, A (1938) La forêt coloniale: les forêts de l’Afrique Occidentale Française. Paris: Académie des Sciences Coloniales. 244 pp.Google Scholar
Bartoń, K (2013) MuMIn: multi-model inference. R package version 1.9.5.Google Scholar
Batjes, NH (1996) Development of a world data set of soil water retention properties using pedotransfer rules. Geoderma 71, 3152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bond, WJ (2010) Do nutrient-poor soils inhibit development of forests? A nutrient stock analysis. Plant and Soil 334, 4760.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Boonman, CC, van Langevelde, F, Oliveras, I, Couédon, J. Luijken, N, Martini, D and Veenendaal, EM (2019) On the importance of root traits in seedlings of tropical tree species. New Phytologist. doi: 10.1111/nph.16370.Google Scholar
Cardoso, AW, Medina-Vega, JA, Malhi, Y, Adu-Bredu, S, Ametsitsi, GKD, Djagbletey, G, Van Langevelde, F, Veenendaal, E and Oliveras, I (2016) Winners and losers: tropical forest tree seedling survival across a West African forest–savanna transition. Ecology and Evolution 6, 34173429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Charter, JR and Keay, RJ (1960) Assessment of the Olokemeji fire-control experiment (investigation 254) 28 years after institution. Nigerian Forestry Information Bulletin 3, 132.Google Scholar
Chave, J, Réjou-Méchain, M, Búrquez, A, Chidumayo, E, Colgan, MS, Delitti, WB, Duque, A, Eid, T, Fearnside, PM, Goodman, RC, Henry, Met al. (2014) Improved allometric models to estimate the aboveground biomass of tropical trees. Global Change Biology 20, 31773190.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Couteron, P and Kokou, K (1997) Woody vegetation spatial patterns in a semi-arid savanna of Burkina Faso, West Africa. Plant Ecology 132, 211227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cuni-Sanchez, A, White, LJ, Calders, K, Jeffery, KJ, Abernethy, K, Burt, A, Disney, M, Gilpin, M, Gomez-Dans, JL and Lewis, SL (2016) African savanna-forest boundary dynamics: a 20-year study. PLoS ONE 11, e0156934.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dowling, AJ, Webb, AA and Scanlan, JC (1986). Surface soil chemical and physical patterns in a Brigalow–Dawson gum forest, central Queensland. Australian Journal of Ecology 11, 155162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frazer, GW, Canham, C and Lertzman, K (1999) Gap Light Analyzer (GLA), Version 2.0: Imaging software to extract canopy structure and gap light transmission indices from true-colour fisheye photographs, users manual and program documentation. Burnaby, BC: Simon Fraser University and Millbrook, NY: The Institute of Ecosystem Studies.Google Scholar
Furley, PA, Proctor, J and Ratter, JA (1992) Nature and Dynamics of Forest-Savanna Boundaries. London: Chapman & Hall.Google Scholar
Gee, GW and Bauder, JW (1986) Particle-size analysis. In Klute, A (ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 1 – Physical and Mineralogical Methods. Second Edition. Agronomy No. 9, Part 1. Madison, WI: ASA-SSSA, pp. 383411.Google Scholar
Gillman, GP (1979) A proposed method for the measurement of exchange properties of highly weathered soils. Australian Journal of Soil Research 17, 129139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goetze, D, Horsch, B and Porembski, S (2006) Dynamics of forest-savanna mosaics in north-eastern Ivory Coast from 1954 to 2002. Journal of Biogeography 33, 653664.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goodland, R and Pollard, R (1973) The Brazilian cerrado vegetation: a fertility gradient. Journal of Ecology 61, 219224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gray, EF and Bond, WJ (2015) Soil nutrients in an African forest/savanna mosaic: drivers or driven? South African Journal of Botany 101, 6672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hartemink, AE and Huting, J (2008) Land cover, extent, and properties of Arenosols in Southern Africa. Arid Land Research and Management 22, 134147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hawthorne, WD (1995) Ecological Profiles of Ghanaian Forest Trees. Oxford: Oxford Forestry Institute.Google Scholar
Hawthorne, WD and Jongkind, CC (2006) Woody Plants of Western African Forests: A Guide to the Forest Trees, Shrubs and Lianes from Senegal to Ghana. Richmond: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.Google Scholar
Hennenberg, KJ, Goetze, D, Minden, V, Traore, D and Porembski, S (2005) Size-class distribution of Anogeissus leiocarpus (Combretaceae) along forest–savanna ecotones in northern Ivory Coast. Journal of Tropical Ecology 21, 273281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hennenberg, KJ, Fischer, F, Kouadio, K, Goetze, D, Orthmann, B, Linsenmair, KE, Jeltsch, F and Porembski, S (2006) Phytomass and fire occurrence along forest–savanna transects in the Comoé National Park, Ivory Coast. Journal of Tropical Ecology 22, 303311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hiernaux, P, Diarra, L, Trichon, V, Mougin, E, Soumaguel, N and Baup, F (2009) Woody plant population dynamics in response to climate changes from 1984 to 2006 in Sahel (Gourma, Mali). Journal of Hydrology 375, 103113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hirota, M, Holmgren, M, Van Nes, EH and Scheffer, M (2011) Global resilience of tropical forest and savanna to critical transitions. Science 334, 232235.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hoffmann, WA, Geiger, EL, Gotsch, SG, Rossatto, DR, Silva, LCR, Lau, OL, Haridasan, M and Franco, AC (2012) Ecological thresholds at the savanna-forest boundary: how plant traits, resources and fire govern the distribution of tropical biomes. Ecology Letters 15, 759768.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hopkins, B (1965) Forest and Savanna. London: Heinemann. 112 pp.Google Scholar
Hovestadt, T, Yao, P and Linsenmair, KE (1999) Seed dispersal mechanisms and the vegetation of forest islands in a West African forest-savanna mosaic (Comoé National Park, Ivory Coast). Plant Ecology 144, 125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huttel, Ch (1975) Récherches sur l’écosystème de la forêt subéquatoriale de basse Côte d’Ivoire. IV. Estimation du bilan hydrique. Terre Vie 29, 192–202.Google Scholar
Hyndman, RJ and Fan, Y (1996) Sample quantiles in statistical packages. American Statistician 50, 361365.Google Scholar
Issifu, H, Ametsitsi, G, Vries De, L, Djagbletey, GD, Adu-Bredu, S, Vergeer Langevelde Van, F and Veenendaal, EM (2019) Variation in vegetation cover and seedling performance of tree species in a forest-savanna ecotone. Journal of Tropical Ecology https://doi.org/10.1017/S0266467418000469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
IUSS (International Union Of Soil Science) Working Group WRB (2006) World reference base for soil resources 2006: A framework for international classification, correlation and communication. World Soil Resources Report 103. Rome: FAO.Google Scholar
Janssen, TAJ, Ametsitsi, GKJ, Collins, M, Adu-Bredu, S, Oliveras, I, Edward, TA, Mitchard, ETA and Veenendaal, EM (2018) Extending the baseline of tropical dry forest loss in Ghana (1984–2015) reveals drivers of major deforestation inside a protected area. Biological Conservation 218, 163172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Keay, RWJ (1960) An Example of Northern Guinea Zone Vegetation in Nigeria. Federal Department of Forest Research, Nigeria.Google Scholar
Keay, RWJ (1989) Trees of Nigeria: A Revised Version of Nigerian Trees (Keay et al., 1964). Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
Langevelde Van, F, Vijver Van De, CADM, Kumar, L, Koppel van de, J, Ridder De, N, Andel Van, J, Skidmore, AK, Hearne, JW, Stroosnijder, L, Bond, WJ, Prins, HHT and Rietkerk, M (2003) Effects of fire and herbivory on the stability of savanna ecosystems. Ecology 84, 337350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lehmann, CER, Anderson, TM, Sankaran, M, Higgins, SI, Archibald, S, Hoffmann, WA, Hanan, NP, Williams, RJ, Fensham, RJ, Felfili, J, Hutley, LB, Ratnam, J, San Jose, J, Montes, R, Franklin, D, Russell-Smith, J, Ryan, CM, Durigan, G, Hiernaux, P, Haidar, R, Bowman, DMJS and Bond, WJ (2014) Savanna vegetation-fire-climate relationships differ among continents. Science 343, 548552.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lloyd, J, Bird, MI, Vellen, L, Miranda, AC, Veenendaal, EM, Djagbletey, G, Miranda, HS, Cook, G and Farquhar, GD (2008) Contributions of woody and herbaceous vegetation to tropical savanna ecosystem productivity: a quasi-global estimate. Tree Physiology 28, 451468.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lloyd, J and Veenendaal, EM (2016) Are fire mediated feedbacks burning out of control? Biogeosciences Discussions. https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-2015-660.Google Scholar
Lloyd, J, Domingues, TF, Schrodt, F, Ishida, FY, Feldpausch, TR, Saiz, G, Quesada, CA, Schwarz, M, Torello-Raventos, Met al. (2015) Edaphic, structural and physiological contrasts across Amazon Basin forest–savanna ecotones suggest a role for potassium as a key modulator of tropical woody vegetation structure and function. Biogeosciences 12, 65296571.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Markham, RH and Babbedge, AJ (1979) Soil and vegetation catenas on the forest-savanna boundary in Ghana. Biotropica 11, 224234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maurin, O, Gere, J, van der Bank, M and Boatwright, JS (2017) The inclusion of Anogeissus, Buchenavia and Pteleopsis in Terminalia (Combretaceae: Terminaliinae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 184, 312325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McSweeney, C, New, M, Lizcano, G and Lu, X (2010) The UNDP Climate Change Country Profiles. https://journals.ametsoc.org/bams/article/91/2/157/59615/The-UNDP-Climate-Change-Country-ProfilesImproving.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mitchard, ETA, Saatchi, SS, Gerard, FF, Lewis, SL and Meir, P (2009) Measuring woody encroachment along a forest–savanna boundary in Central Africa. Earth Interactions 13, 129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mitchard, ETA, Saatchi, SS, Lewis, SL, Feldpausch, TR, Woodhouse, IH, Sonké, B, Rowland, C and Meir, P (2011) Measuring biomass changes due to woody encroachment and deforestation/degradation in a forest–savanna boundary region of central Africa using multi-temporal L-band radar backscatter. Remote Sensing of Environment 115, 28612873.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moore, AE and Attwell, CAM (1999) Geological controls on the distribution of woody vegetation in the central Kalahari, Botswana. South African Journal of Geology 102, 350362.Google Scholar
Nansen, C, Tchabi, A and Meikle, WG (2001) Successional sequence of forest types in a disturbed dry forest reserve in southern Benin, West Africa. Journal of Tropical Ecology 17, 525539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Novozamsky, I, Houba, VJG, Van Eck, R and Van Vark, W (1983) A novel digestion technique for multi-element plant analysis. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 14, 239248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oliveira, LB, Ribeiro, MR, Jacomine, PKT, Rodrigues, JJV and Marques, FA (2002) Funções de pedotransferência para predição da umidade retida a potenciais específicosem solos do estado de Pernambuco. Revista Brasiliera Ciencias do Solo 26, 315323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oliveras, I and Malhi, Y (2016) Many shades of green: the dynamic tropical forest–savannah transition zones. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, Biological Sciences 371, 20150308.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Olsen, SR (1954) Estimation of Available Phosphorus in Soils by Extraction with Sodium Bicarbonate. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
Owusu, K and Waylen, P (2009) Trends in spatio-temporal variability in annual rainfall in Ghana (1951–2000). Weather 64, 115120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pellegrini, AFA, Franco, AC and Hoffmann, WA (2016) Shifts in functional traits elevate risk of fire-driven tree dieback in tropical savanna and forest biomes. Global Change Biology 22, 12351243.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Promis, A, Gärtner, S, Butler-Manning, D, Durán-Rangel, C, Reif, A, Cruz, G and Hernández, L (2011) Comparison of four different programs for the analysis of hemispherical photographs using parameters of canopy structure and solar radiation transmittance. Waldokologie online 11, 1933.Google Scholar
Quesada, CA, Phillips, OL, Schwarz, M, Czimczik, CI, Baker, TR, Patiño, S, Fyllas, NM, Hodnett, MG, Herrera, R, Almeida, S, Alvarez Dávila, E, Arneth, A, Arroyo, L, Chao, KJ, Dezzeo, N, Erwin, T, Di Fiore, A, Higuchi, N, Honorio Coronado, E, Jimenez, EM, Killeen, T, Lezama, AT, Lloyd, G, López-González, G, Luizao, FJ, Malhi, Y, Monteagudo, A, Neill, DA, Núñez Vargas, P, Paiva, R, Peacock, J, Peñuela, MC, Peña Cruz, A, Pitman, N, Priante Filho, N, Prieto, A, Ramírez, H, Rudas, A, Salomao, R, Santos, AJB, Schmerler, J, Silva, N, Silveira, M, Vásquez, R, Vieira, I, Terborgh, J and Lloyd, J (2012) Basin-wide variations in Amazon forest structure and function are mediated by both soils and climate. Biogeosciences 9, 22032246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ratnam, J, Bond, WJ, Fensham, RJ, Hoffmann, WA, Archibald, S, Lehmann, CER, Anderson, MT, Higgins, SI and Sankaran, M (2011) When is a ‘forest’ a savanna, and why does it matter? Global Ecology and Biogeography 20, 653660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rodríguez Casal, A and Pateiro López, B (2010) Generalizing the convex hull of a sample: the R package alphahull. Journal of Statistical Software 34, 128.Google Scholar
Roy, DP, Boschetti, L, Justice, CO and Ju, J (2008) The collection 5 MODIS burned area product – global evaluation by comparison with the MODIS active fire product. Remote Sensing of Environment 112, 36903707.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ruggiero, PGC, Batalha, MA, Pivello, VR and Meirelles, ST (2002) Soil–vegetation relationships in cerrado (Brazilian savanna) and semideciduous forest, southeastern Brazil. Plant Ecology 160, 116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Saiz, G, Bird, MI, Domingues, T, Schrodt, F, Schwarz, M, Feldpausch, TR, Veenendaal, E, Djagbletey, G, Hien, F, Compaore, H, Diallo, A and Lloyd, J (2012). Variation in soil carbon stocks and their determinants across a precipitation gradient in West Africa. Global Change Biology 18, 16701683.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
San Jose, JJ and Farinas, MR (1983) Changes in tree density and species composition in a protected Trachypogon savanna, Venezuela. Ecology 64, 447453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schrodt, F, Domingues, TF, Feldpausch, TR, Saiz, G, Quesada, CA, Schwarz, M, Ishida, YF, Compaore, H, Diallo, A, Djagbletey, G, Hien, F, Sonké, B, Toedoumg, H, Zapfack, L, Hiernaux, P, Mougin, E, Bird, MI, Grace, J, Lewis, SL, Veenendaal, EM and Lloyd, J (2015) Foliar trait contrasts between African forest and savanna trees: genetic versus environmental effects. Functional Plant Biology 42, 6383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schwarz, GE (1978) Estimating the dimension of a model. Annals of Statistics 6, 461464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sleen van der, P, Groenendijk, P, Vlam, M, Anten, NPR, Boom, A, Bongers Pons, TL, Terburg, G and Zuidema, PA (2015) No growth stimulation of tropical trees by 150 years of CO2 fertilization but water-use efficiency increased. Nature Geoscience 8, 2428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sobey, DG (1978) Anogeissus groves on abandoned village sites in the Mole National Park, Ghana. Biotropica 10, 8799.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Staver, AC, Archibald, S and Levin, SA (2011) The global extent and determinants of savanna and forest as alternative biome states. Science 334, 230232.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stebbing, EP (1935) The encroaching Sahara: the threat to the West African colonies. The Geographical Journal 85, 506519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Swaine, MD (1992) Characteristics of dry forest in West Africa and the influence of fire. Journal of Vegetation Science 3, 365374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Swaine, MD (1996) Rainfall and soil fertility as factors limiting forest species distributions in Ghana. Journal of Ecology 84, 419428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Swaine, MD, Hall, JB and Lock, JM (1976) The forest–savanna boundary in west-central Ghana. Ghana Journal of Science 16, 3552.Google Scholar
Tomasella, J and Hodnett, M (2004) Pedotransfer functions for tropical soils. Developments in Soil Science 30, 10.1016/S0166-2481(04)30021-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Torello-Raventos, M, Feldpausch, TR, Veenendaal, E, Schrodt, F, Saiz, G, Domingues, TF, Djagbletey, G, Ford, A, Kemp, J, Marimon, BS, Marimon, BH, Lenza, E, Ratter, JA, Maracahipes, L, Sasaki, D, Sonke, B, Zapfack, L, Taedoumg, H, Villarroel, D., Schwarz, M, Quesada, CA, Ishida, FY, Nardoto, GB, Affum-Baffoe, K, Arroyo, L, Bowman, DMJS, Compaore, H, Davies, K, Diallo, A, Fyllas, NM, Gilpin, M, Hien, F, Johnson, M, Killeen, TJ, Metcalfe, D, Miranda, HS, Steininger, M, Thomson, J, Sykora, K, Mougin, E, Hiernaux, P, Bird, MI, Grace, J, Lewis, SL, Phillips, OL and Lloyd, J (2013) On the delineation of tropical vegetation types with an emphasis on forest/savanna transitions. Plant Ecology and Diversity 6, 101137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Trapnell, CG, Martin, JD and Allan, W (1950) Vegetation-Soil Map of Northern Rhodesia (2nd edn). Lusaka: Ministry of Agriculture.Google Scholar
Veenendaal, EM, Swaine, MD, Agyeman, VK, Blay, D, Abebrese, IK and Mullins, CE (1996 a) Differences in plant and soil water relations in and around a forest gap in West Africa during the dry season may influence seedling establishment and survival. Journal of Ecology 84, 8390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Veenendaal, EM, Swaine, MD, Blay, D, Yelifari, NB and Mullins, CE (1996 b) Seasonal and long-term soil water regime in West African tropical forest. Journal of Vegetation Science 7, 473482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Veenendaal, EM, Torello-Raventos, M, Feldpausch, T, Domingues, TF, Gerard, FF, Schrodt, F, Saiz, G, Quesada, CA, Djagbletey, G, Ford, A, Kemp, J, Marimon, BS, Marimon Junior, BH, Lenza, E, Ratter, JA, Maracahipes, L, Sasaki, D, Sonké, B, Zapfack, L, Villarroel, D, Schwarz, M, Ishida, FY, Gilpin, M, Nardoto, GB, Affum-Baffoe, K, Arroyo, L, Bloomfield, K, Gjeca, G, Compaore, H, Davies, K, Diallo, A, Fyllas, NM, Gignoux, J, Hien, F, Johnson, M, Mougin, E, Hiernaux, P, Killeen, TJ, Metcalfe, D, Miranda, HS, Steininger, M, Sykora, K, Bird, MI, Grace, J, Lewis Sl, Phillips Ol and Lloyd, J (2015) Structural, physiognomic and aboveground biomass variation in savanna-forest transition zones on three continents. How different are co-occurring savanna and forest formations? Biogeosciences 12, 29272951.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Veenendaal, EM, Torello-Raventos, M, Miranda, HS, Sato, NM, Oliveras, I, Van Langevelde, F, Asner, GP and Lloyd, J (2018) On the relationship between fire regime and vegetation structure in the tropics. New Phytologist 218, 153166.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wildlife Department Accra (1994) Kogyae Strict Nature Reserve: Development and Management Plan. Accra: Wildlife Department Accra.Google Scholar
Woodgate, W, Soto-Berelov, M, Suarez, L, Jones, SD, Hill, MJ, Wilkes, P, Axelsson, C, Haywood, A and Mellor, A (2012) Searching for the optimal sampling design for measuring LAI in an upland rainforest. In Proceedings of the Geospatial Science Research Symposium GSR2, Melbourne.Google Scholar
Yengoh, GT, Armah, FA, Onumah, EE and Odoi, JO (2010) Trends in agriculturally-relevant rainfall characteristics for small-scale agriculture in Northern Ghana. Journal of Agricultural Science. doi: 10.5539/jas.v2n3p3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhang, YQ, Chen, JM and Miller, JR (2005) Determining digital hemispherical photograph exposure for leaf area index estimation. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 133, 166181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
2
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Fixed or mixed? Variation in tree functional types and vegetation structure in a forest-savanna ecotone in West Africa
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Fixed or mixed? Variation in tree functional types and vegetation structure in a forest-savanna ecotone in West Africa
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Fixed or mixed? Variation in tree functional types and vegetation structure in a forest-savanna ecotone in West Africa
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *