This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
B. Bentley 1977. Extrafloral nectaries and protection by pugnacious bodyguards. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematies 8:407–427.
D. H. Benzing 1970. An investigation of two bromeliad myrmecophytes: Tillandsia butzii Mez., T. caputmedusae. E. Morren and their ants. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 97:109–115.
D. W. Davidson 1988. Ecological studies of neotropical ant gardens. Ecology 69:138–1152.
D. W. Davidson & W. W. Epstein 1989. Epiphytic associations with ants. Pp. 200–233 in U. Luttge (ed.). Vascular plants as epiphytes. Springer Verlag, Berlin.
T. L. Erwin 1983. Tropical forest canopies: the last biotic frontier. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of America 29:14–19.
B. L. Fisher , L. D. L. Sternberg & D. Price 1990. Variation in the use of extrafloral nectar by ants. Oecologia (Berl.) 83:263–266.
C. C. Horvitz & D. W. Schemske 1984. Effects of ant-mutualists and an ant-sequestering herbivore on seed production of a tropical herb Calathea ovandensis (Marantaeeae). Ecology 65:1369–78.
C. R. Huxley 1978. The ant-plant Myrmecodia and Hydnophytum (Rubiaceae) and the relationships between their morphology, ant occupants, physiology and ecology. New Phytologist 80:231–268.
D. H. Janzen 1972. Protection of Barteria (Passifloraceae) by Pachysima ants (Pseudomyrmecinae) in a Nigerian rain forest. Ecology 53:885–892.
F. R. Rickson 1979. Absorption of animal tissue breakdown products into a plant stem – the feeding of a plant by ants. American Journal of Botany 66:87–90.
V. Rico-Gray , J. T. Barber , L. B. Thien , E. G. Ellgaard & J. J. Tonky 1989. An unusual animal-plant interaction: feeding of Schomburgkia tibicinis (Orchidaceae) by ants. American Journal of Botany 76:603–608.
E. W. Schupp 1986. Aztecaprotection of Cecropia: ant occupation benefits juvenile trees. Oecologia (Berl.) 70:379–385.
E. O. Wilson 1987. The arboreal ant fauna of Peruvian Amazon forest: a first assessment. Biotropica 19:245–251.