Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Forest fragmentation and edge effects on the genetic structure of Clusia sphaerocarpa and C. lechleri (Clusiaceae) in tropical montane forests

  • Amira Apaza Quevedo (a1) (a2), Matthias Schleuning (a1) (a3), Isabell Hensen (a1), Fransisco Saavedra (a1) (a3) (a2) and Walter Durka (a4)...
Abstract
Abstract:

Fragmentation of tropical forests influences abiotic and biotic processes that affect the genetic structure of plant populations. In forest fragments, edge effects, i.e. changes of abiotic and biotic factors at forest edges, may be prevalent. In two forest fragments (c. 200 ha at c. 2450 m asl) of tropical montane forest in Bolivia, sympatric populations of the dioecious tree species Clusia sphaerocarpa and C. lechleri were used as case study species to compare genetic diversity and small-scale genetic structure (SGS) between edge and interior habitats. Eight microsatellite markers were employed to genotype 343 individuals including adults, juveniles and seedlings of C. sphaerocarpa and 196 of C. lechleri. Genetic differentiation was found between habitats in both species (ΦRT = 0.071 for C. sphaerocarpa and ΦRT = 0.028 for C. lechleri) and among ages in C. sphaerocarpaRT = 0.016). Overall, SGS was weak but significant with more pronounced SGS in C. lechleri (Sp = 0.0128) than in C. sphaerocarpa (Sp = 0.0073). However, positive spatial genetic autocorrelation extended only up to 10 m. For C. sphaerocarpa, SGS was stronger in seedling and juvenile stages than in adults and in the forest interior than at forest edges. Our results show that edge effects can extend to the genetic level by breaking-up local genetic structures, probably due to increased gene flow and enhanced pollination and seed-dispersal interactions at forest edges.

Copyright
Corresponding author
1Corresponding author. Email: amiraelvia@yahoo.es
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

P. R. ALDRICH , J. L. HAMRICK , P. CHAVARRIAGA & G. KOCHERT 1998. Microsatellite analysis of demographic genetic structure in fragmented populations of the tropical tree Symphonia globulifera. Molecular Ecology 7:933944.

S. C. BANKS & R. PEAKALL 2012. Genetic spatial autocorrelation can readily detect sex-biased dispersal. Molecular Ecology 21:20922105.

K. S. BAWA 1992. Mating systems, genetic differentiation and speciation in tropical rain forest plants. Biotropica 24:250255.

V. BITTRICH & M. C. E. AMARAL 1996. Flower morphology and pollination biology of some Clusia species from the Gran Sabana (Venezuela). Kew Bulletin 51:681694.

J. CHOO , T. E. JUENGER & B. B. SIMPSON 2012. Consequences of frugivore-mediated seed dispersal for the spatial and genetic structures of a neotropical palm. Molecular Ecology 21:10191031.

G. D. G. DEBOUT , J. L. DOUCET & O. J. HARDY 2011. Population history and gene dispersal inferred from spatial genetic structure of a Central African timber tree, Distemonanthus benthamianus (Caesalpinioideae). Heredity 106:8899.

R. F. DEL CASTILLO , S. TRUJILLO-ARGUETA , N. SÁNCHEZ-VARGAS & A. C. NEWTON 2011. Genetic factors associated with population size may increase extinction risks and decrease colonization potential in a keystone tropical pine. Evolutionary Applications 4:574588.

C. W. DICK , O. J. HARDY , F. A. JONES & R. J. PETIT 2008. Spatial scales of pollen and seed-mediated gene flow in tropical rain forest trees. Tropical Plant Biology 1:2033.

R. J. DYER 2007. Powers of discerning: challenges to understanding dispersal processes in natural populations. Molecular Ecology 16:48814882.

T. H. G. EZARD & J. M. J. TRAVIS 2006. The impact of habitat loss and fragmentation on genetic drift and fixation time. Oikos 114:367375.

N. FARWIG , K. BÖHNING-GAESE & B. BLEHER 2006. Enhanced seed dispersal of Prunus africana in fragmented and disturbed forests? Oecologia 147:238252.

N. FARWIG , C. BRAUN & K. BÖHNING-GAESE 2008. Human disturbance reduces genetic diversity of an endangered tropical tree, Prunus africana (Rosaceae). Conservation Genetics 9:317326.

C. B. FENSTER , X. VEKEMANS & O. J. HARDY 2003. Quantifying gene flow from spatial genetic structure data in a metapopulation of Chamaecrista fasciculata (Leguminosae). Evolution 57:9951007.

C. GARCÍA & D. GRIVET 2011. Molecular insights into seed dispersal mutualisms driving plant population recruitment. Acta Oecologica 37:632640.

E. GONZALES , J. L. HAMRICK , P. E. SMOUSE , D. W. TRAPNELL & R. PEAKALL 2010. The impact of landscape disturbance on spatial genetic structure in the guanacaste tree, Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Fabaceae). Journal of Heredity 101:133143.

M. L. HALE , J. SQUIRRELL , A. M. BORLAND & K. WOLFF 2002. Isolation of polymorphic microsatellite loci in the genus Clusia (Clusiaceae). Molecular Ecology Notes 2:506508.

J. HAMRICK 2004. Response of forest trees to global environmental changes. Forest Ecology and Management 197:323335.

J. L. HAMRICK & D. W. TRAPNELL 2011. Using population genetic analyses to understand seed dispersal patterns. Acta Oecologica 37:641649.

F. M. HANZAWA , A. J. BEATTIE & D. C. CULVER 1988. Directed dispersal: demographic analysis of an ant–seed mutualism. American Naturalist 131:113.

I. HENSEN , A. CIERJACKS , H. HIRSCH , M. KESSLER , K. ROMOLEROUX , D. RENISON & K. WESCHE 2012. Historic and recent fragmentation coupled with altitude affect the genetic population structure of one of the world's highest tropical tree line species. Global Ecology and Biogeography 21:455464.

S. H. HURLBERT 1971. The non concept of species diversity: a critique and alternative parameters. Ecology 52:577586.

S. KAMBACH , F. GUERRA , S. BECK , I. HENSEN & M. SCHLEUNING 2013. Human-induced disturbance alters pollinator communities in tropical montane forests. Diversity 5:114.

C. J. KETTLE , P. M. HOLLINGSWORTH , T. JAFFRÉ , B. MORAN & R. A. ENNOS 2007. Identifying the early genetic consequences of habitat degradation in a highly threatened tropical conifer, Araucaria nemorosa Laubenfels. Molecular Ecology 16:35813591.

C. J. KETTLE , P. M. HOLLINGSWORTH , D. F. R. P. BURSLEM , C. R. MAYCOCK , E. KHOO & J. GHAZOUL 2011. Determinants of fine-scale spatial genetic structure in three co-occurring rain forest canopy trees in Borneo. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 13:4756.

J. M. KIRIKA , B. BLEHER , K. BÖHNING-GAESE , R. CHIRA & N. FARWIG 2008. Fragmentation and local disturbance of forests reduce frugivore diversity and fruit removal in Ficus thonningii trees. Basic and Applied Ecology 9:663672.

L. KLOSS , M. FISCHER & W. DURKA 2011. Land-use effects on genetic structure of a common grassland herb: a matter of scale. Basic and Applied Ecology 12:440448.

A. T. KRAMER , J. L. ISON , M. V. ASHLEY & H. F. HOWE 2008. The paradox of forest fragmentation. Conservation Biology 22:878885.

W. F. LAURANCE , H. E. M. NASCIMENTO , S. G. LAURANCE , A. ANDRADE , R. M. EWERS , K. E. HARMS , R. C. C. LUIZÃO & J. E. RIBEIRO 2007. Habitat fragmentation, variable edge effects, and the landscape-divergence hypothesis. Plos ONE 2:e1017.

V. LEHOUCK , T. SPANHOVE , C. VANGESTEL , N. J. CORDEIRO & L. LENS 2009. Does landscape structure affect resource tracking by avian frugivores in a fragmented afrotropical forest? Ecography 32:789799.

B. A. LOISELLE , V. L. SORK , J. NASON & C. GRAHAM 1995. Spatial genetic structure of a tropical understory shrub, Psychotria officinalis (Rubiaceae). American Journal of Botany 82:14201425.

A. J. LOWE , D. BOSHIER , M. WARD , C. F. E. BACLES & C. NAVARRO 2005. Genetic resource impacts of habitat loss and degradation; reconciling empirical evidence and predicted theory for neotropical trees. Heredity 95:255273.

S. MENKE , K. BÖHNING-GAESE & M. SCHLEUNING 2012. Plant–frugivore networks are less specialized and more robust at forest–farmland edges than in the interior of a tropical forest. Oikos 121:15531566.

S. G. MICHALSKI & W. DURKA 2012. Assessment of provenance delineation by genetic differentiation patterns and estimates of gene flow in the common grassland plant Geranium pratense. Conservation Genetics 13:581592.

C. MURCIA 1995. Edge effects in fragmented forests: implications for conservation. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 10:5862.

N. MYERS , R. A. MITTERMEIER , C. G. MITTERMEIER , G. A. B. FONSECA & J. KENT 2000. Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403:853858.

L. PASSOS & P. S. OLIVEIRA 2002. Ants affect the distribution and performance of seedlings of Clusia criuva, a primarily bird-dispersed rain forest tree. Journal of Ecology 90:517528.

F. N. RAMOS , P. F. DE LIMA , M. I. ZUCCHI , C. A. COLOMBO & V. N. SOLFERINI 2010. Genetic structure of tree and shrubby species among anthropogenic edges natural edges and interior of an Atlantic forest fragment. Biochemical Genetics 48:215228.

D. A. SAUNDERS , R. J. HOBBS & C. R. MARGULES 1991. Biological consequences of ecosystem fragmentation: a review. Conservation Biology 5:1832.

M. SHI , S. G. MICHALSKI , X. Y. CHEN & W. DURKA 2011. Isolation by elevation: genetic structure at neutral and putatively non-neutral loci in a dominant tree of subtropical forest, Castanopsis eyrei. Plos ONE 6:e21302.

P. E. SMOUSE , R. PEAKALL & E. GONZALES 2008. A heterogeneity test for fine-scale genetic structure. Molecular Ecology 17:33893400.

A. VAN GEERT , F. VAN ROSSUM & L. TRIEST 2008. Genetic diversity in adult and seedling populations of Primula vulgaris in a fragmented agricultural landscape. Conservation Genetics 9:845853.

F. VAN ROSSUM & L. TRIEST 2006. Fine-scale genetic structure of the common Primula elatior (Primulaceae) at an early stage of population fragmentation. American Journal of Botany 93:12811288.

H. L. VASCONCELOS & F. J. LUIZÃO 2004. Litter production and litter nutrient concentrations in a fragmented Amazonian landscape. Ecological Applications 14:884892.

X. VEKEMANS & O. J. HARDY 2004. New insights from fine-scale spatial genetic structure analyses in plant populations. Molecular Ecology 13:921935.

G. M. WHITE , D. H. BOSHIER & W. POWELL 2002. Increased pollen flow counteracts fragmentation in a tropical dry forest: an example from Swietenia humilis Zuccarini. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 99:20382042.

A. YOUNG , T. BOYLE & T. BROWN 1996. The population genetic consequences of habitat fragmentation for plants. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 11:413418.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Tropical Ecology
  • ISSN: 0266-4674
  • EISSN: 1469-7831
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-tropical-ecology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 5
Total number of PDF views: 7 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 141 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 27th June 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.