ANDERSON, G. D. & WALKER, B. H. 1974. Vegetation composition and elephant damage in the Sengwa Wildlife Research Area, Rhodesia. Journal of the South African Wildlife Management Association 4:1–14.
ANDERSON, J. M. & INGRAM, J. S. I. 1993. Tropical soil biology and fertility: a handbook of methods. CABI, Wallingford. 221 pp.
BEN-SHAHAR, R. 1996. Do elephants over-utilize mopane woodlands in northern Botswana? Journal of Tropical Ecology 12:505–515.
BRODY, A. K., PALMER, T. M., FOX-DOBBS, K. & DOAK, D. F. 2010. Termites, vertebrate herbivores, and the fruiting success of Acacia drepanolobium. Ecology 91:399–407.
COATES PALGRAVE, K. 2002. Trees of southern Africa. (Third edition.). Struik Publishers, Cape Town. 1212 pp.
COLEY, P. D., BRYANT, J. P. & CHAPIN, S. F. 1985. Resource availability and plant anti-herbivore defense. Science 230:895–899.
COOPER, S. M. & OWEN-SMITH, N. 1985. Condensed tannins deter feeding by browsing ruminants in a South African savanna. Oecologia 67:142–146.
DANGERFIELD, J., MCCARTHY, T. & ELLERY, W. 1998. The mound-building termite Macrotermes michaelseni as an ecosystem engineer. Journal of Tropical Ecology 14:507–520.
FLEMING, P. & LOVERIDGE, J. 2003. Miombo woodland termite mounds: resource islands for small vertebrates? Journal of Zoology 259:161–168.
FROST, P. G. H. 1997. The ecology of miombo woodlands. Pp. 11–58 in Campbell, B. M. (ed.). The miombo woodlands in transition: woodlands and welfare in Africa. Center for International Forestry Research, Bogor.
GRANT, C. C. & SCHOLES, M. C. 2006. The importance of nutrient hot-spots in the conservation and management of large wild mammalian herbivores in semi-arid savannas. Biological Conservation 130:426–437.
HARRIS, W. V. 1966. The role of termites in tropical forestry. Insectes Sociaux 13:255–266.
HOFMANN, R. R. 1989. Evolutionary steps of ecophysiological adaptation and diversification of ruminants: a comparative view of their digestive system. Oecologia 78:443–457.
HOLDO, R. M. 2003. Woody plant damage by African elephants in relation to leaf nutrients in western Zimbabwe. Journal of Tropical Ecology 19:189–196.
HOLDO, R. M. & MCDOWELL, L. R. 2004. Termite mounds as nutrient-rich food patches for elephants. Biotropica 36:231–239.
HOLT, J. A. & LEPAGE, M. 2000. Termites and soil properties. Pp. 389–407 in Abe, T., Bignell, D. E. & Higashi, M. (ed.). Termites: evolution, sociality, symbioses, ecology. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.
JACHMANN, H. 1989. Food selection in elephants in the ‘miombo’ biome, in relation to leaf chemistry. Biochemical Ecology and Systematics 17:15–24.
JACHMANN, H. & BELL, R. H. V. 1985. Utilization by elephants of the Brachystegia woodlands of the Kasungu National Park, Malawi. African Journal of Ecology 23:245–258.
KONATE, S., LE ROUX, X., TESSIER, D. & LEPAGE, M. 1999. Influence of large termitaria on soil characteristics, soil water regime, and tree leaf shedding pattern in a West African savanna. Plant and Soil 206:47–60.
LEE, K. E. & WOOD, T. G. 1971. Termites and soils. Academic Press, London. 251 pp.
LEVICK, S. R., ASNER, G. P., KENNEDY-BOWDOIN, T. & KNAPP, D. E. 2010. The spatial extent of termite influences on herbivore browsing in an African savanna. Biological Conservation 143:2462–2467.
LOVERIDGE, J. P. & MOE, S. R. 2004. Termitaria as browsing hotspots for African megaherbivores in miombo woodland. Journal of Tropical Ecology 20:337–343.
MATTSON, W. J. 1980. Herbivory in relation to plant nitrogen content. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 11:119–161.
MOBÆK, R., NARMO, A. K. & MOE, S. R. 2005. Termitaria are focal feeding sites for large ungulates in Lake Mburo National Park, Uganda. Journal of Zoology London 267:97–102.
MOE, S. R., MOBAEK, R. & NARMO, A. K. 2009. Mound building termites contribute to savanna vegetation heterogeneity. Plant Ecology 202:31–40.
O'CONNOR, T. G. 2013. Termite mounds as browsing hotspots: an exception to the rule. Journal of Vegetation Science 24:211–213.
OKALEBO, J. R., GATHMA, K. W. & WOOMER, P. L. 2002. Laboratory methods of soil and plant analysis: a working manual. (Second edition.). Soil Science Society of East Africa, Nairobi. 128 pp.
OKULLO, P. & MOE, S. R. 2012. Termite activity, not grazing, is the main determinant of spatial variation in savanna herbaceous vegetation. Journal of Ecology 100:232–241.
OWEN-SMITH, N. 1993. Woody plants, browsers and tannins in southern African savannas. South African Journal of Science 89:505–510.
OWEN-SMITH, N. & CHAFOTA, J. 2012. Selective feeding by a megaherbivore, the African elephant (Loxodonta africana). Journal of Mammalogy 93:698–705.
OWEN-SMITH, N. & COOPER, S. M. 1987.a Palatability of woody plants to browsing ungulates in a South African savanna. Ecology 68:319–331.
OWEN-SMITH, N. & COOPER, S. M. 1987b. Assessing food preferences of ungulates by acceptability indices. Journal of Wildlife Management 51:372–378.
POMEROY, D. E. 1977. The distribution and abundance of large termite mounds in Uganda. Journal of Applied Ecology 14:465–475.
PRETORIUS, Y., DE BOER, W. F., VAN DER WAAL, C., DE KNEGT, H. J., GRANT, R. C., KNOX, N. M., KOHI, E. M., MWAKIWA, E., PAGE, B. R., PEEL, M. J. S., SKIDMORE, A. K., SLOTOW, R., VAN WIEREN, S. E. & PRINS, H. H. T. 2011. Soil nutrient status determines how elephant utilize trees and shape environments. Journal of Animal Ecology 80:875–883.
PRINGLE, R. M., DOAK, D. F., BRODY, A. K., JOCQUE, R. & PALMER, T. M. 2010. Spatial pattern enhances ecosystem functioning in an African savanna. PLoS Biology 8:5, e1000377. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1000377.
SEARLE, K. R., HOBBS, N. T. & SHIPLEY, L. A. 2005. Should I stay or should I go? Patch departure decisions by herbivores at multiple scales. Oikos 111:414–424.
SILESHI, G. W. & ARSHAD, M. A. 2012. Application of distance decay models for inferences about termite mound induced patterns in dry land ecosystems. Journal of Arid Environments 77:138–148.
THOMAS, G. W. 1996. Soil pH and soil acidity. Pp. 475–490 in Sparks, D. L., Page, A. L., Helmke, P. A., Loeppert, R. H., Soltanpour, P. N., Tabatabai, M. A., Johnston, C. T. & Sumner, M. E. (eds.). Methods of soil analysis. Part 3 – chemical methods. University of Kentucky, Lexington.
THOMSON, P. J. 1975. The role of elephants, fire and other agents in the decline of a Brachystegia boehmii woodland. Journal of the South African Wildlife Management Association 5:11–18.
TRAORE, S., NYGARD, R., GUINKO, S. & LEPAGE, M. 2008. Impact of Macrotermes termitaria as a source of heterogeneity on tree diversity and structure in a Sudanian savannah under controlled grazing and annual prescribed fire (Burkina Faso). Forest Ecology and Management 255:2337–2346.
TURNER, S. J. 2000. Architecture and morphogenesis in the mound of Macrotermes michaelseni (Sjöstedt) (Isoptera: Termitidae, Macrotermitinae) in northern Namibia. Cimbebasia 16:143–175.
VAN DER PLAS, F., HOWISON, R., REINDERS, J., FOKKEMA, W. & OLFF, H. 2013. Functional traits of trees on and off termite mounds: understanding the origin of biotically-driven heterogeneity in savannas. Journal of Vegetation Science 24:227–238.
VAN DER WAAL, C., KOOL, A., MEIJER, S. S., KOHI, E., HEITKONIG, I. M. A., DE BOER, W. F., VAN LANGEVELDE, F., GRANT, R. C., PEEL, M. J. S., SLOTOW, R., DE KNEGT, H. J., PRINS, H. H. T. & DE KROON, H. 2011. Large herbivores may alter vegetation structure of semi-arid savannas through soil nutrient mediation. Oecologia 165:1095–1107.
VAN WYK, P. & FAIRALL, N. 1969. The influence of the African elephant on the vegetation of the Kruger National Park. Koedoe 12:57–89.
WOOD, S. L. 1982. The bark and ambrosia beetles of North and Central America (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), a taxonomic monograph. Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs 6:1–1359.
WOOD, T. G. & LEE, K. E. 1971. Abundance of mounds and competition among colonies of some Australian termite species. Pedobiologia 11:341–366.