Skip to main content
×
×
Home

A comparative study of location-based recommendation systems

  • Faisal Rehman (a1), Osman Khalid (a1) and Sajjad Ahmad Madani (a1)
Abstract

Recent advancements in location-based recommendation system (LBRS) and the availability of online applications, such as Twitter, Instagram, Foursquare, Path, and Facebook have introduced new research challenges in the area of LBRS. Use of content, such as geo-tagged media, point location-based, and trajectory-based information help in connecting the gap between the online social networking services and the physical world. In this article, we present a systematic review of the scientific literature of LBRS and summarize the efforts and contributions proposed in the literature. We have performed a qualitative comparison of the existing techniques used in the area of LBRS. We present the basic filtration techniques used in LBRS followed by a discussion on the services and the location features the LBRS utilizes to perform the recommendations. The classification of criteria for recommendations and evaluation metrics are also presented. We have critically investigated the techniques proposed in the literature for LBRS and extracted the challenges and promising research topics for future work.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Abbas, A., Bilal, K., Zhang, L. & Khan, S. U. 2015. A cloud based health insurance plan recommendation system: a user centered approach. Future Generation Computer Systems 43, 99109.
Adomavicius, G. & Kwon, Y. 2012. Improving aggregate recommendation diversity using ranking-based techniques. IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering 24(5), 896911.
Adomavicius, G. & Zhang, J. 2012. Stability of recommendation algorithms. ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS) 30(4), 23.
Arora, G., Kumar, A., Devre, G. S. & Ghumare, A. 2014. Movie recommendation system based on users similarity. International Journal of Computer Science and Mobile Computing 3(4), 765770.
Avazpour, I., Pitakrat, T., Grunske, L. & Grundy, J. 2014. Dimensions and metrics for evaluating recommendation systems. In Recommendation Systems in Software Engineering, Robillard, M. P., Maalej, W., Walker, R. J. & Zimmermann, T. (eds). Springer, 245–273.
Balakrishnan, S. & Chopra, S. 2012. Collaborative ranking. In Proceedings of the Fifth ACM International Conference on Web Search and Data Mining, 143–152. ACM.
Baltrunas, L., Makcinskas, T. & Ricci, F. 2010. Group recommendations with rank aggregation and collaborative filtering. In Proceedings of the Fourth ACM Conference on Recommender systems, 119–126. ACM.
Bao, J., Zheng, Y. & Mokbel, M. F. 2012. Location-based and preference-aware recommendation using sparse geo-social networking data. In Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Advances in Geographic Information Systems, 199–208. ACM.
Bao, J., Zheng, Y., Wilkie, D. & Mokbel, M. 2015. Recommendations in location-based social networks: a survey. Geoinformatica, 19(3), 525–565.
Bedi, P. & Sharma, R. 2012. Trust based recommender system using ant colony for trust computation. Expert Systems with Applications 39(1), 11831190.
Bellogín, A., Castells, P. & Cantador, I. 2013. Improving memory-based collaborative filtering by neighbour selection based on user preference overlap. In Proceedings of the 10th Conference on Open Research Areas in Information Retrieval, 145–148. LE CENTRE DE HAUTES ETUDES INTERNATIONALES D’INFORMATIQUE DOCUMENTAIRE.
Berjani, B. & Strufe, T. 2011. A recommendation system for spots in location-based online social networks. In Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on Social Network Systems, 4. ACM.
Bobadilla, J., Ortega, F., Hernando, A. & Alcalá, J. 2011. Improving collaborative filtering recommender system results and performance using genetic algorithms. Knowledge-Based Systems 24(8), 13101316.
Bobadilla, J., Ortega, F., Hernando, A. & Gutiierrez, A. 2013. Recommender systems survey. Knowledge-Based Systems 46, 109132.
Bobrow, J. 2014. Representation and Understanding: Studies in Cognitive Science. Elsevier.
Bostandjiev, S., O’Donovan, J. & Höllerer, T. 2012. TasteWeights: a visual interactive hybrid recommender system. In Proceedings of the Sixth ACM Conference on Recommender Systems, 35–42. ACM.
Burke, R., OMahony, M. P. & Hurley, N. J. 2011. Robust collaborative recommendation. In Recommender Systems Handbook, 805–835. Springer.
Cacheda, F., Carneiro, V., Fernandez, D. & Formoso, V. 2011. Comparison of collaborative filtering algorithms: limitations of current techniques and proposals for scalable, high-performance recommender systems. ACM Transactions on the Web (TWEB) 5(1), 2.
Cantador, I., Castells, P. & Bellogín, A. 2011. An enhanced semantic layer for hybrid recommender systems: application to news recommendation. International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems (IJSWIS) 7(1), 4478.
Cao, X., Cong, G. & Jensen, C. S. 2010. Mining significant semantic locations from GPS data. Proceedings of the VLDB Endowment 3(1–2), 10091020.
Cechinel, C., Sicilia, M.-Á., SáNchez-Alonso, S. & GarcíA-Barriocanal, E. 2013. Evaluating collaborative filtering recommendations inside large learning object repositories. Information Processing & Management 49(1), 3450.
Chang, K.-P., Wei, L.-Y., Yeh, M.-Y. & Peng, W.-C. 2011. Discovering personalized routes from trajectories. In Proceedings of the 3rd ACM SIGSPATIAL International Workshop on Location-Based Social Networks, 33–40. ACM.
Chen, L. & Pu, P. 2012. Critiquing-based recommenders: survey and emerging trends. User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction 22(1-2), 125150.
Chen, X., Zheng, Z., Liu, X., Huang, Z. & Sun, H. 2013. Personalized QoS-aware web service recommendation and visualization. IEEE Transactions on Services Computing 6(1), 3547.
Cheng, C., Yang, H., King, I. & Lyu, M. R. 2012. Fused matrix factorization with geographical and social influence in location-based social networks. In AAAI, 12, 17–23.
Cheng, X., Yao, Q., Wen, M., Wang, C.-X., Song, L.-Y. & Jiao, B.-L. 2013. Wideband channel modeling and intercarrier interference cancellation for vehicle-to-vehicle communication systems. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 31(9), 434448.
Chiang, H.-S. & Huang, T.-C. 2015. User-adapted travel planning system for personalized schedule recommendation. Information Fusion 21, 317.
Chon, J. & Cha, H. 2011. Lifemap: a smartphone-based context provider for location-based services. IEEE Pervasive Computing 10(2), 5867.
Chow, C.-Y., Bao, J. & Mokbel, M. F. 2010. Towards location-based social networking services. In Proceedings of the 2nd ACM SIGSPATIAL International Workshop on Location Based Social Networks, 31–38. ACM.
Christensen, I. A. & Schiaffino, S. N. 2014. A hybrid approach for group profiling in recommender systems. Journal of Universal Computer Science 20(4), 507533.
Cremonesi, P., Garzotto, F., Negro, S., Papadopoulos, A. & Turrin, R. 2011. Comparative evaluation of recommender system quality. In CHI’11 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 1927–1932. ACM.
Dakhel, G. M. & Mahdavi, M. 2011. A new collaborative filtering algorithm using k-means clustering and neighbors’ voting. In 2011 11th International Conference on Hybrid Intelligent Systems (HIS), 179–184. IEEE.
Denstadli, J. M. & Jacobsen, J. K. S. 2011. The long and winding roads: perceived quality of scenic tourism routes. Tourism Management 32(4), 780789.
DeScioli, P., Kurzban, R., Koch, E. N. & Liben-Nowell, D. 2011. Best friends alliances, friend ranking, and the MySpace social network. Perspectives on Psychological Science 6(1), 68.
Desrosiers, C. & Karypis, G. 2011. A comprehensive survey of neighborhood-based recommendation methods. In Recommender Systems Handbook, 107–144. Springer.
Doytsher, Y., Galon, B. & Kanza, Y. 2011. Storing routes in socio-spatial networks and supporting social-based route recommendation. In Proceedings of the 3rd ACM SIGSPATIAL International Workshop on Location-Based Social Networks, 49–56. ACM.
Esparza, S. G., OMahony, M. P. & Smyth, B. 2012. Mining the real-time web: a novel approach to product recommendation. Knowledge-Based Systems 29, 311.
Evangelopoulos, N., Zhang, X. & Prybutok, V. R. 2012. Latent semantic analysis: five methodological recommendations. European Journal of Information Systems 21(1), 7086.
Felfernig, A., Jeran, M., Ninaus, G., Reinfrank, F. & Reiterer, S. 2013. Toward the next generation of recommender systems: applications and research challenges. In Multimedia Services in Intelligent Environments, 81–98. Springer.
Gan, M. & Jiang, R. 2013. Improving accuracy and diversity of personalized recommendation through power law adjustments of user similarities. Decision Support Systems 55(3), 811821.
Gao, H., Tang, J., Hu, X. & Liu, H. 2015. Content-aware point of interest recommendation on location-based social networks. In AAAI, 1721–1727. Citeseer.
Golbandi, N., Koren, Y. & Lempel, R. 2011. Adaptive bootstrapping of recommender systems using decision trees. In Proceedings of the Fourth ACM International Conference on Web Search and Data Mining, 595–604. ACM.
Gong, S. 2013. Research on attack on collaborative filtering recommendation systems. Advances in Information Sciences and Service Sciences 5(10), 938.
Guo, G., Zhang, J. & Yorke-Smith, N. 2013. A novel Bayesian similarity measure for recommender systems. In IJCAI.
Guy, I. 2015. Social recommender systems. In Recommender Systems Handbook, Ricci, F., Rokach, L. & Shapira, B. (eds). Springer, 511–543.
Hao, F., Li, S., Min, G., Kim, H.-C., Yau, S. S. & Yang, L. T. 2015. An efficient approach to generating location-sensitive recommendations in ad-hoc social network environments. IEEE Transactions on Services Computing 8(3), 520533.
Hernando, A., Bobadilla, J., Ortega, F. & Tejedor, J. 2013. Incorporating reliability measurements into the predictions of a recommender system. Information Sciences 218, 116.
Hoens, T. R., Blanton, M., Steele, A. & Chawla, N. V. 2013. Reliable medical recommendation systems with patient privacy. ACM Transactions on Intelligent Systems and Technology (TIST) 4(4), 67.
Hoffman, M., Bach, F. R. & Blei, D. M. 2010. Online learning for latent Dirichlet allocation. In Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems, 856–864.
Hsu, F.-M., Lin, Y.-T. & Ho, T.-K. 2012. Design and implementation of an intelligent recommendation system for tourist attractions: the integration of EBM model, Bayesian network and Google Maps. Expert Systems with Applications 39(3), 32573264.
Hurley, N. & Zhang, M. 2011. Novelty and diversity in top-n recommendation-analysis and evaluation. ACM Transactions on Internet Technology (TOIT) 10(4), 14.
Jannach, D., Zanker, M., Felfernig, A. & Friedrich, G. 2010. Recommender Systems: An Introduction. Cambridge University Press.
Jäschke, R., Hotho, A., Mitzlaff, F. & Stumme, G. 2012. Challenges in tag recommendations for collaborative tagging systems. In Recommender Systems for the Social Web, 65–87. Springer.
Javari, A. & Jalili, M. 2015. A probabilistic model to resolve diversity-accuracy challenge of recommendation systems. Knowledge and Information Systems 44(3), 609627.
Kaleli, C. 2014. An entropy-based neighbor selection approach for collaborative filtering. Knowledge-Based Systems 56, 273280.
Khalid, O., Khan, M. U. S., Khan, S. U. & Zomaya, A. Y. 2014. Omnisuggest: a ubiquitous cloud-based context-aware recommendation system for mobile social networks. IEEE Transactions on Services Computing 7(3), 401414.
Khribi, M. K., Jemni, M. & Nasraoui, O. 2015. Recommendation systems for personalized technology-enhanced learning. In Ubiquitous Learning Environments and Technologies, 159–180. Springer.
Kim, H.-N., Ji, A.-T., Ha, I. & Jo, G.-S. 2010. Collaborative filtering based on collaborative tagging for enhancing the quality of recommendation. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications 9(1), 7383.
Kolomvatsos, K., Anagnostopoulos, C. & Hadjiefthymiades, S. 2014. An efficient recommendation system based on the optimal stopping theory. Expert Systems with Applications 41(15), 67966806.
Konstan, J. A. & Riedl, J. 2012. Recommender systems: from algorithms to user experience. User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction 22(1-2), 101123.
Lampropoulos, A. S., Lampropoulou, P. S. & Tsihrintzis, G. A. 2012. A cascade-hybrid music recommender system for mobile services based on musical genre classification and personality diagnosis. Multimedia Tools and Applications 59(1), 241258.
Le, Q. T. & Pishva, D. 2016. An innovative tour recommendation system for tourists in Japan. In 2016 18th International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology (ICACT), 717–729. IEEE.
Lemke, A. 2014. Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution. GRIN Verlag.
Levandoski, J. J., Sarwat, M., Eldawy, A. & Mokbel, M. F. 2012. LARS: a location-aware recommender system. In 2012 IEEE 28th International Conference on Data Engineering, 450–461. IEEE.
Lewis, D. D. 2014. Learning in intelligent information retrieval. In Machine Learning: Proceedings of the Eighth International Workshop, 235–239.
Liu, L., Xu, J., Liao, S. S. & Chen, H. 2014. A real-time personalized route recommendation system for self-drive tourists based on vehicle to vehicle communication. Expert Systems with Applications 41(7), 34093417.
Liu, Q. 2014. Accurate and diverse recommendations via integrated communities of interest and trustable neighbors. In 2014 International Conference on Management of e-Commerce and e-Government (ICMeCG), 132–137. IEEE.
Lops, P., De Gemmis, M. & Semeraro, G. 2011. Content-based recommender systems: state of the art and trends. In Recommender Systems Handbook, Ricci, F., Rokach, L., Shapira, B. & Kantor, P. B. (eds). Springer, 73–105.
, L., Medo, M., Yeung, C. H., Zhang, Y.-C., Zhang, Z.-K. & Zhou, T. 2012. Recommender systems. Physics Reports 519(1), 149.
Lyakhov, A. O., Oganov, A. R. & Valle, M. 2010. How to predict very large and complex crystal structures. Computer Physics Communications 181(9), 16231632.
Majid, A., Chen, L., Chen, G., Mirza, H. T., Hussain, I. & Woodward, J. 2013. A context-aware personalized travel recommendation system based on geotagged social media data mining. International Journal of Geographical Information Science 27(4), 662684.
Marin, A. & Wellman, B. 2011. Social network analysis: an introduction. In The SAGE Handbook of Social Network Analysis, Scott, J. & Carrington, P. J. (eds). 11–25. Sage.
Masthoff, J. 2011. Group recommender systems: combining individual models. In Recommender Systems Handbook, Ricci, F., Rokach, L., Shapira, B. & Kantor, P. B. (eds). Springer, 677–702.
Middleton, B., Bloomrosen, M., Dente, M. A., Hashmat, B., Koppel, R., Overhage, J. M., Payne, T. H., Rosenbloom, S. T., Weaver, C. & Zhang, J. 2013. Enhancing patient safety and quality of care by improving the usability of electronic health record systems: recommendations from AMIA. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 20(e1), e2e8.
Noulas, A., Scellato, S., Lathia, N. & Mascolo, C. 2012. A random walk around the city: new venue recommendation in location-based social networks. In 2012 International Conference on Social Computing (SocialCom) and 2012 International Conference on Privacy, Security, Risk and Trust (PASSAT) and, 144–153. IEEE.
Noulas, A., Scellato, S., Mascolo, C. & Pontil, M. 2011. Exploiting semantic annotations for clustering geographic areas and users in location-based social networks. The Social Mobile Web 11, 2.
Oh, J., Jeong, O.-R. & Lee, E. 2013. Collective intelligence based place recommendation system. In Advanced Infocomm Technology, 169–176. Springer.
Park, D. H., Kim, H. K., Choi, I. Y. & Kim, J. K. 2012. A literature review and classification of recommender systems research. Expert Systems with Applications 39(11), 1005910072.
Parra, D., Brusilovsky, P. & Trattner, C. 2014. See what you want to see: visual user-driven approach for hybrid recommendation. In Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces, 235–240. ACM.
Pirasteh, P., Hwang, D. & Jung, J. J. 2015. Exploiting matrix factorization to asymmetric user similarities in recommendation systems. Knowledge-Based Systems 83, 5157.
Preoţiuc-Pietro, D. & Cohn, T. 2013. Mining user behaviours: a study of check-in patterns in location based social networks. In Proceedings of the 5th Annual ACM Web Science Conference, 306–315. ACM.
Pu, P., Chen, L. & Hu, R. 2011. A user-centric evaluation framework for recommender systems. In Proceedings of the Fifth ACM Conference on Recommender Systems, 157–164. ACM.
Pu, P., Chen, L. & Hu, R. 2012. Evaluating recommender systems from the users perspective: survey of the state of the art. User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction 22(4–5), 317355.
Rana, C. & Jain, S. K. 2015. A study of the dynamic features of recommender systems. Artificial Intelligence Review 43(1), 141153.
Ren, G., Long, T. & Juebo, W. 2011. A novel recommender system based on fuzzy set and rough set theory. Advances in Information Sciences and Service Sciences 3(4), 100109.
Rikitianskii, A., Harvey, M. & Crestani, F. 2014. A personalised recommendation system for context-aware suggestions. In European Conference on Information Retrieval, 63–74. Springer.
Sarwat, M., Levandoski, J. J., Eldawy, A. & Mokbel, M. F. 2013. LARS*: a scalable and efficient location-aware recommender system. In IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering (TKDE).
Shani, G. & Gunawardana, A. 2011. Evaluating recommendation systems. In Recommender Systems Handbook, Ricci, F., Rokach, L., Shapira, B. & Kantor, P. B. (eds). Springer, 257–297.
Sharma, L. & Gera, A. 2013. A survey of recommendation system: research challenges. International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) 4(5), 19891992.
Shi, Y., Larson, M. & Hanjalic, A. 2014. Collaborative filtering beyond the user-item matrix: a survey of the state of the art and future challenges. ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR) 47(1), 3.
Su, H., Zheng, K., Huang, J., Jeung, H., Chen, L. & Zhou, X. 2014. Crowdplanner: a crowd-based route recommendation system. In 2014 IEEE 30th International Conference on Data Engineering, 1144–1155. IEEE.
Symeonidis, P., Ntempos, D. & Manolopoulos, Y. 2014. Location-based social networks. In Recommender Systems for Location-Based Social Networks, 35–48. Springer.
Tang, K. P., Lin, J., Hong, J. I., Siewiorek, D. P. & Sadeh, N. 2010. Rethinking location sharing: exploring the implications of social-driven vs. purpose-driven location sharing. In Proceedings of the 12th ACM International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing, 85–94. ACM.
Vanetti, M., Binaghi, E., Carminati, B., Carullo, M. & Ferrari, E. 2010. Content-based filtering in on-line social networks. In International Workshop on Privacy and Security Issues in Data Mining and Machine Learning, 127–140. Springer.
Vargas, S. & Castells, P. 2011. Rank and relevance in novelty and diversity metrics for recommender systems. In Proceedings of the Fifth ACM Conference on Recommender Systems, 109–116. ACM.
Verbert, K., Manouselis, N., Ochoa, X., Wolpers, M., Drachsler, H., Bosnic, I. & Duval, E. 2012. Context-aware recommender systems for learning: a survey and future challenges. IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies 5(4), 318335.
Wang, H., Terrovitis, M. & Mamoulis, N. 2013. Location recommendation in location-based social networks using user check-in data. In Proceedings of the 21st ACM SIGSPATIAL International Conference on Advances in Geographic Information Systems, 374–383. ACM.
Wei, L.-Y., Zheng, Y. & Peng, W.-C. 2012. Constructing popular routes from uncertain trajectories. In Proceedings of the 18th ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, 195–203. ACM.
Wei, S., Ye, N., Zhang, S., Huang, X. & Zhu, J. 2012. Item-based collaborative filtering recommendation algorithm combining item category with interestingness measure. In 2012 International Conference on Computer Science & Service System (CSSS), 2038–2041. IEEE.
Whitley, D. 2014. An executable model of a simple genetic algorithm. Foundations of Genetic Algorithms 2(1519), 4562.
Wiesner, M. & Pfeifer, D. 2014. Health recommender systems: concepts, requirements, technical basics and challenges. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 11(3), 25802607.
Xia, P., Zhang, L. & Li, F. 2015. Learning similarity with cosine similarity ensemble. Information Sciences 307, 3952.
Xiao, X., Zheng, Y., Luo, Q. & Xie, X. 2010. Finding similar users using category-based location history. In Proceedings of the 18th SIGSPATIAL International Conference on Advances in Geographic Information Systems, 442–445. ACM.
Xiao, X., Zheng, Y., Luo, Q. & Xie, X. 2014. Inferring social ties between users with human location history. Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Humanized Computing 5(1), 319.
Yang, D., Zhang, D., Yu, Z. & Wang, Z. 2013. A sentiment-enhanced personalized location recommendation system. In Proceedings of the 24th ACM Conference on Hypertext and Social Media, 119–128. ACM.
Ye, M., Yin, P. & Lee, W.-C. 2010. Location recommendation for location-based social networks. In Proceedings of the 18th SIGSPATIAL International Conference on Advances in Geographic Information Systems, 458–461. ACM.
Ye, M., Yin, P., Lee, W.-C. & Lee, D.-L. 2011. Exploiting geographical influence for collaborative point-of-interest recommendation. In Proceedings of the 34th International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval, 325–334. ACM.
Yin, H., Cui, B., Li, J., Yao, J. & Chen, C. 2012. Challenging the long tail recommendation. Proceedings of the VLDB Endowment 5(9), 896907.
Ying, J. J.-C., Lu, E. H.-C., Lee, W.-C., Weng, T.-C. & Tseng, V. S. 2010. Mining user similarity from semantic trajectories. In Proceedings of the 2nd ACM SIGSPATIAL International Workshop on Location Based Social Networks, 19–26. ACM.
Zarrinkalam, F. & Kahani, M. 2012. A multi-criteria hybrid citation recommendation system based on linked data. In 2012 2nd International eConference on Computer and Knowledge Engineering (ICCKE), 283–288. IEEE.
Zhang, D., He, T., Liu, Y., Lin, S. & Stankovic, J. A. 2014. A carpooling recommendation system for taxicab services. IEEE Transactions on Emerging Topics in Computing 2(3), 254266.
Zhang, W., Wang, J. & Feng, W. 2013. Combining latent factor model with location features for event-based group recommendation. In Proceedings of the 19th ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, 910–918. ACM.
Zheng, V. W., Zheng, Y., Xie, X. & Yang, Q. 2010. Collaborative location and activity recommendations with GPS history data. In Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on World Wide Web, 1029–1038. ACM.
Zheng, V. W., Zheng, Y., Xie, X. & Yang, Q. 2012. Towards mobile intelligence: learning from GPS history data for collaborative recommendation. Artificial Intelligence 184, 1737.
Zheng, Y. 2012. Tutorial on location-based social networks In Proceedings of International conference on World Wide Web.
Zheng, Y., Zhang, L., Ma, Z., Xie, X. & Ma, W.-Y. 2011. Recommending friends and locations based on individual location history. ACM Transactions on the Web (TWEB) 5(1), 5.
Zuva, T., Ojo, S. O., Ngwira, S. & Zuva, K. 2012. A survey of recommender systems techniques, challenges and evaluation metrics. International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering 2(11), 382386.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The Knowledge Engineering Review
  • ISSN: 0269-8889
  • EISSN: 1469-8005
  • URL: /core/journals/knowledge-engineering-review
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed