Skip to main content
×
Home

Data mining for building knowledge bases: techniques, architectures and applications

  • Alfred Krzywicki (a1), Wayne Wobcke (a1), Michael Bain (a1), John Calvo Martinez (a1) and Paul Compton (a1)...
Abstract
Abstract

Data mining techniques for extracting knowledge from text have been applied extensively to applications including question answering, document summarisation, event extraction and trend monitoring. However, current methods have mainly been tested on small-scale customised data sets for specific purposes. The availability of large volumes of data and high-velocity data streams (such as social media feeds) motivates the need to automatically extract knowledge from such data sources and to generalise existing approaches to more practical applications. Recently, several architectures have been proposed for what we call knowledge mining: integrating data mining for knowledge extraction from unstructured text (possibly making use of a knowledge base), and at the same time, consistently incorporating this new information into the knowledge base. After describing a number of existing knowledge mining systems, we review the state-of-the-art literature on both current text mining methods (emphasising stream mining) and techniques for the construction and maintenance of knowledge bases. In particular, we focus on mining entities and relations from unstructured text data sources, entity disambiguation, entity linking and question answering. We conclude by highlighting general trends in knowledge mining research and identifying problems that require further research to enable more extensive use of knowledge bases.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Agarwal A., Chapelle O., Dudík M. & Langford J. 2014. A reliable effective terascale linear learning system. Journal of Machine Learning Research 15, 11111133.
Aggarwal C. C. & Zhai C. 2012. Mining Text Data. Springer.
Agichtein E. & Gravano L. 2000. Snowball: extracting relations from large plain-text collections. In Proceedings of the Fifth ACM Conference on Digital Libraries, 85–94.
Agrawal R. & Srikant R. 1995. Mining sequential patterns. In Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Data Engineering, 3–14.
Althoff T., Dong X. L., Murphy K., Alai S., Dang V. & Zhang W. 2015. TimeMachine: timeline generation for knowledge-base entities. In Proceedings of the 21st ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, 19–28.
Angeli G., Gupta S., Premkumar M. J., Manning C. D., C., Tibshirani J., Wu J. Y., Wu S. & Zhang C. 2014. Stanford’s distantly supervised slot filling systems for KBP 2014. In Proceedings of the Seventh Text Analysis Conference.
Antoniou G. & van Harmelen F. 2009. Web ontology language (OWL). In Handbook on Ontologies, Staad S. & Studer R. (eds). Springer, 91110.
Asr F. T., Sonntag J., Grishina Y. & Stede M. 2014. Conceptual and practical steps in event coreference analysis of large-scale data. In Proceedings of the Second Workshop on EVENTS: Definition, Detection, Coreference and Representation, 35–44.
Baena-García M., del Campo-Ávila J., Fidalgo R., Bifet A., Gavaldà R. & Morales-Bueno R. 2004. Early drift detection method. In Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Knowledge Discovery from Data Streams, 77–86.
Becker H., Iter D., Naaman M. & Gravano L. 2012. Identifying content for planned events across social media sites. In Proceedings of the Fifth ACM International Conference on Web Search and Data Mining, 533–542.
Becker H., Naaman M. & Gravano L. 2011. Beyond Trending Topics: Real-World Event Identification on Twitter. Technical report CUCS-012-11, Department of Computer Science, Columbia University.
Beltagy I., Erk K. & Mooney R. 2014. Probabilistic soft logic for semantic textual similarity. In Proceedings of the 51st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, 1210–1219.
Berant J., Chou A., Frostig R. & Liang P. 2013. Semantic parsing on Freebase from question-answer pairs. In Proceedings of the 2013 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, 1533–1544.
Biemann C. 2005. Ontology learning from text: a survey of methods. Journal for Language Technology and Computational Linguistics 20, 7593.
Bifet A. & Gavaldà R. 2006. Learning from time-changing data with adaptive windowing. In Proceedings of the Sixth SIAM International Conference on Data Mining, 443–448.
Blei D. M., Ng A. Y. & Jordan M. I. 2003. Latent Dirichlet allocation. Journal of Machine Learning Research 3, 9931022.
Bollacker K., Tufts P., Pierce T. & Cook R. 2007. A platform for scalable, collaborative, structured information integration. In Proceedings of the Sixth International Workshop on Information Integration on the Web, 22–27.
Bröcheler M., Mihalkova L. & Getoor L. 2010. Probabilistic similarity logic. In Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Annual Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence, 73–82.
Brunzel M 2008. The XTREEM methods for ontology learning from web documents. In Ontology Learning and Population: Bridging the Gap Between Text and Knowledge, Buitelaar P. & Cimiano P. (eds). IOS Press, 326.
Carlson A., Betteridge J., Kisiel B., Settles B., Hruschka E. R. & Mitchell T. M. 2010. Toward an architecture for never-ending language learning. In Proceedings of the Twenty-Fourth AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence, 1306–1313.
Chai X., Deshpande O., Garera N., Gattani A., Lam W., Lamba D. S., Liu L., Tiwari M., Tourn M., Vacheri Z., Prasad S. T. S., Subramaniam S., Harinarayan V., Rajaraman A., Ardalan A., Das S., Suganthan G. C. P. & Doan A. 2013. Social media analytics: the Kosmix story. IEEE Data Engineering Bulletin 36, 412.
Chen Y. & Wang D. Z. 2014. Knowledge expansion over probabilistic knowledge bases. In Proceedings of the 2014 ACM SIGMOD International Conference on Management of Data, 649–660.
Chen Z. & Ji H. 2011. Collaborative ranking: a case study on entity linking. In Proceedings of the 2011 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, 771–781.
Cheng Z., Caverlee J. & Lee K. 2010. You are where you tweet: a content-based approach to geo-locating Twitter users. In Proceedings of the 19th ACM International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management, 759–768.
Cimiano P., Lopez V., Unger C., Cabrio E., Ngomo A.-C. N. & Walter S. 2013. Multilingual Question Answering over Linked Data (QALD-3): lab overview. In Information Access Evaluation. Multilinguality, Multimodality, and Visualization, Forner P., Müller H., Paredes R., Rosso P. & Stein B. (eds). Springer-Verlag, 321332.
Clarke J., Merhav Y., Suleiman G., Zheng S. & Murgatroyd D. 2012. Basis technology at TAC 2012 entity linking. In Proceedings of the Fifth Text Analysis Conference.
Compton P. & Jansen R. 1990. A philosophical basis for knowledge acquisition. Knowledge Acquisition 2, 241258.
Cortes C. & Vapnik V. 1995. Support-vector networks. Machine Learning 20, 273297.
Curran J. R., Murphy T. & Scholz B. 2007. Minimising semantic drift with mutual exclusion bootstrapping. In Proceedings of the Tenth Conference of the Pacific Association for Computational Linguistics, 172–180.
Davis A., Veloso A., da Silva A. S., Meira W. J., & Laender A. H. F. 2012. Named entity disambiguation in streaming data. In Proceedings of the 50th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Long Papers , 1, 815–824.
Dellschaft K. & Staab S. 2006. On how to perform a gold standard based evaluation of ontology learning. In Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on the Semantic Web, 228–241.
Deshpande O., Lamba D. S., Tourn M., Das S., Subramaniam S., Rajaraman A., Harinarayan V. & Doan A. 2013. Building, maintaining, and using knowledge bases: a report from the trenches. In Proceedings of the 2013 ACM SIGMOD International Conference on Management of Data, 1209–1220.
Dong X., Gabrilovich E., Heitz G., Horn W., Lao N., Murphy K., Strohmann T., Sun S. & Zhang W. 2014. Knowledge vault: a web-scale approach to probabilistic knowledge fusion. In Proceedings of the 20th ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, 601–610.
Etzioni O., Cafarella M., Downey D., Popescu A.-M., Shaked T., Soderland S., Weld D. S. & Yates A. 2005. Unsupervised named-entity extraction from the web: an experimental study. Artificial Intelligence 165, 91134.
Fan J., Kalyanpur A., Gondek D. C. & Ferrucci D. A. 2012. Automatic knowledge extraction from documents. IBM Journal of Research and Development 56, 5:15:10.
Fayyad U., Piatetsky-Shapiro G. & Smyth P. 1996. From data mining to knowledge discovery in databases. AI Magazine 17, 3754.
Ferré S. 2013. Squall2sparql: a translator from controlled English to full SPARQL 1.1. In Proceedings of the Question Answering over Linked Data (QALD-3).
Ferrucci D. A. 2012. Introduction to ‘This is Watson’. IBM Journal of Research and Development 56, 1:11:15.
Fung G. P. C., Yu J. X., Yu P. S. & Lu H. 2005. Parameter free bursty events detection in text streams. In Proceedings of the 31st International Conference on Very Large Data Bases, 181–192.
Furht B. & Escalante A. 2011. Handbook of Data Intensive Computing. Springer Science & Business Media.
Gama J. 2012. A survey on learning from data streams: current and future trends. Progress in Artificial Intelligence 1, 4555.
Gama J., Medas P., Castillo G. & Rodrigues P. 2004. Learning with drift detection. In Advances in Artificial Intelligence, Bazzan A. L. C. & Labidi S. (eds). Springer-Verlag, 66112.
Gama J., Žliobaitė I., Bifet A., Pechenizkiy M. & Bouchachia A. 2014. A survey on concept drift adaptation. ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR) 46, 44.
Gao D., Li X. C. W., Zhang R. & Ouyang Y. 2014. Sequential summarization: a full view of Twitter trending topics. IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering 22, 296302.
Gattani A., Lamba D. S., Garera N., Tiwari M., Chai X., Das S., Subramaniam S., Rajaraman A., Harinarayan V. & Doan A. 2013. Entity extraction, linking, classification, and tagging for social media: a Wikipedia-based approach. Proceedings of the VLDB Endowment 6, 11261137.
Geng L. & Hamilton H. J. 2006. Interestingness measures for data mining: a survey. ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR) 38, 132.
Gruber T. R. 1993. A translation approach to portable ontology specifications. Knowledge Acquisition 5, 199220.
Guo W., Li H., Ji H. & Diab M. T. 2013. Linking tweets to news: a framework to enrich short text data in social media. In Proceedings of the 51st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, 239–248.
Gupta A., Mumick I. S. & Subrahmanian V. S. 1993. Maintaining views incrementally. ACM SIGMOD Record 22, 157166.
Han J., Kamber M. & Pei J. 2011. Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques. Elsevier.
He S., Liu S., Chen Y., Zhou G., Liu K. & Zhao J. 2013. CASIA@QALD-3: a question answering system over linked data. In Proceedings of the Question Answering over Linked Data (QALD-3).
Ho V. H., Wobcke W. & Compton P. 2003. EMMA: an e-mail management assistant. In Proceedings of the 2003 IEEE/WIC International Conference on Intelligent Agent Technology, 67–74.
Hoffart J., Suchanek F. M., Berberich K. & Weikum G. 2013. YAGO2: a spatially and temporally enhanced knowledge base from Wikipedia. Artificial Intelligence 194, 2861.
Hoffmann R., Zhang C., Ling X., Zettlemoyer L. & Weld D. S. 2011. Knowledge-based weak supervision for information extraction of overlapping relations. In Proceedings of the 49th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, 541–550.
Hua W., Wang Z., Wang H., Zheng K. & Zhou X. 2015. Short text understanding through lexical-semantic analysis. In 2015 IEEE 31st International Conference on Data Engineering (ICDE), 495–506.
Huang H., Cao Y., Huang X., Ji H. & Lin C.-Y. 2014. Collective tweet wikification based on semi-supervised graph regularization. In Proceedings of the 51st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, 380–389.
Huang R. & Riloff E. 2013. Multi-faceted event recognition with bootstrapped dictionaries. In Proceedings of the 2013 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, 41–51.
Hulten G., Spencer L. & Domingos P. 2001. Mining time-changing data streams. In Proceedings of the Seventh ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, 97–106.
Ji H. & Grishman R. 2011. Knowledge base population: successful approaches and challenges. In Proceedings of the 49th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, 1, 1148–1158.
Ji H., Grishman R. & Dang H. T. 2011. Overview of the TAC 2011 knowledge base population track. In Proceedings of the Fourth Text Analysis Conference.
Ji H., Grishman R., Dang H. T., Griffitt K. & Ellis J. 2010. Overview of the TAC 2010 knowledge base population track. In Proceedings of the Third Text Analysis Conference.
Kim M. H. & Compton P. 2012a. Improving open information extraction for informal web documents with ripple-down rules. In Knowledge Management and Acquisition for Intelligent Systems, Richards D. & Kang B. H. (eds). Springer-Verlag, 160174.
Kim M. H. & Compton P. 2012b. Improving the performance of a named entity recognition system with knowledge acquisition. In Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management, 97–113.
Kotov A., Zhai C. & Sproat R. 2011. Mining named entities with temporally correlated bursts from multilingual web news streams. In Proceedings of the Fourth ACM International Conference on Web Search and Data Mining, 237–246.
Koychev I. 2000. Gradual forgetting for adaptation to concept drift. In Proceedings of the ECAI Workshop Current Issues in Spatio-Temporal Reasoning, 101–106.
Krzywicki A. & Wobcke W. 2010. Exploiting concept clumping for efficient incremental e-mail categorization. In Advanced Data Mining and Applications, Cao L., Feng Y. & Zhong J. (eds). Springer-Verlag, 244258.
Krzywicki A. & Wobcke W. 2011. Exploiting concept clumping for efficient incremental news article categorization. In Advanced Data Mining and Applications, Tang J., King I., Chen L. & Wang J. (eds). Springer-Verlag, 353366.
Kumar R., Raghavan P., Rajagopalan S. & Tomkins A. 1999. Extracting large-scale knowledge bases from the web. In Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Very Large Data Bases, 639–650.
Lafferty J. D., McCallum A. & Pereira F. C. N. 2001. Conditional random fields: probabilistic models for segmenting and labeling sequence data. In Proceedings of the Eighteenth International Conference on Machine Learning, 282–289. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.
Levenshtein V. I. 1966. Binary codes capable of correcting deletions, insertions, and reversals. Soviet Physics Doklady 10, 707710.
Li J., Wang G. A. & Chen H. 2011. Identity matching using personal and social identity features. Information Systems Frontiers 13, 101113.
Li Y., Wang C., Han F., Han J., Roth D. & Yan X. 2013. Mining evidences for named entity disambiguation. In Proceedings of the 19th ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, 1070–1078.
Liu X., Li Y., Wu H., Zhou M., Wei F. & Lu Y. 2013. Entity linking for tweets. In Proceedings of the 51st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, 1304–1311.
Liu X., Zhang S., Wei F. & Zhou M. 2011. Recognizing named entities in tweets. In Proceedings of the 49th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, 1, 359–367.
Maynard D., Li Y. & Peters W. 2008. NLP techniques for term extraction and ontology population. In Ontology Learning and Population: Bridging the Gap Between Text and Knowledge, Buitelaar P. & Cimiano P. (eds). IOS Press, 107127.
McGarry K. 2005. A survey of interestingness measures for knowledge discovery. The Knowledge Engineering Review 20, 3961.
Mendes P. N., Jakob M. & Bizer C. 2012. DBpedia: a multilingual cross-domain knowledge base. In Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation, 1813–1817.
Mintz M., Bills S., Snow R. & Jurafsky D. 2009. Distant supervision for relation extraction without labeled data. In Proceedings of the Joint Conference of the 47th Annual Meeting of the ACL and the 4th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing of the AFNLP, 1003–1011.
Mitchell T., Cohen W., Hruschka E., Talukdar P., Betteridge J., Carlson A., Dalvi B., Gardner M., Kisiel B., Krishnamurthy J., Lao N., Mazaitis K., Mohamed T., Nakashole N., Platanios E., Ritter A., Samadi M., Settles B., Wang R., Wijaya D., Gupta A., Chen X., Saparov A., Greaves M. & Welling J. 2015. Never-ending learning. In Proceedings of the Twenty-Ninth AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence, 2302–2310.
Monahan S. & Brunson M. 2014. Qualities of eventiveness. In Proceedings of the Second Workshop on EVENTS: Definition, Detection, Coreference and Representation, 59–67.
Monahan S., Lehmann J., Nyberg T., Plymale J. & Jung A. 2011. Cross-lingual cross-document coreference with entity linking. In Proceedings of the Fourth Text Analysis Conference.
Napoles C., Gormley M. & Van Durme B. 2012. Annotated Gigaword. In Proceedings of the Joint Workshop on Automatic Knowledge Base Construction and Web-scale Knowledge Extraction, 95–100.
Nasukawa T. & Nagano T. 2001. Text analysis and knowledge mining system. IBM Systems Journal 40, 967984.
Nenkova A. & McKeown K. 2012. A Survey of Text Summarization Techniques. In Mining Text Data. Aggarwal C. C. and Zhai C. (eds). Springer Science+Business Media, 43–76.
Ottens K., Aussenac-Gilles N., Gleizes M. P. & Camps V. 2007. Dynamic ontology co-evolution from texts: principles and case study. In Proceedings of the International Workshop on Emergent Semantics and Ontology Evolution, 70–83.
Pan J. Z. 2009. Resource description framework. In Handbook on Ontologies, Staad S. & Studer R. (eds). Springer, 7190.
Park S. S., Kim Y. S. & Kang B. H. 2004. Personalized web document classification using MCRDR. In Proceedings of the Pacific Knowledge Acquisition Workshop 2004, 63–73.
Pham S. B. & Hoffmann A. 2005. Incremental knowledge acquisition for extracting temporal relations. In Proceedings of the 2005 IEEE International Conference on Natural Language Processing and Knowledge Engineering, 354–359.
Ramakrishnan N., Butler P., Muthiah S., Self N., Khandpur R., Saraf P., Wang W., Cadena J., Vullikanti A., Korkmaz G., Kuhlman C., Marathe A., Zhao L., Hua T., Chen F., Lu C.-T., Huang B., Srinivasan A., Trinh K., Getoor L., Katz G., Doyle A., Ackermann C., Zavorin I., Ford J., Summers K., Fayed Y., Arredondo J., Gupta D. & Mares D. 2014. ‘Beating the news’ with EMBERS: forecasting civil unrest using open source indicators. In Proceedings of the Twentieth ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, 1799–1808.
C., Sadeghian A. A., Shan Z., Shin J., Wang F., Wu S. & Zhang C. 2014. Feature Engineering for Knowledge Base Construction. Data Engineering Bulletin 37, 2640.
Riloff E. & Jones R. 1999. Learning dictionaries for information extraction by multi-level bootstrapping. In Proceedings of the Sixteenth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence and the Eleventh Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence Conference Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence, 474–479.
Ritter A., Clark S., Mausam & Etzioni O. 2011. Named entity recognition in tweets: an experimental study. In Proceedings of the Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, 1524–1534.
Roth B., Barth T., Wiegand M., Singh M. & Klakow D. 2013. Effective slot filling based on shallow distant supervision methods. In Proceedings of the Sixth Text Analysis Conference.
Rusu D., Hodson J. & Kimball A. 2014. Unsupervised techniques for extracting and clustering complex events in news. In Proceedings of the Second Workshop on EVENTS: Definition, Detection, Coreference and Representation, 26–34.
Schrodt P. A., Davis S. G. & Weddle J. L. 1994. Political science: KEDS—a program for the machine coding of event data. Social Science Computer Review 12, 561587.
Shin J., Wu S., Wang F., Sa C. D., Zhang C. & C. 2015. Incremental knowledge base construction using DeepDive. Proceedings of the VLDB Endowment 8, 13101321.
Silva L. D. & Riloff E. 2014. User type classification of tweets with implications for event recognition. In Proceedings of the Joint Workshop on Social Dynamics and Personal Attributes in Social Media, 98–108.
Stoyanov V., Xu J., Oard D., Lawrie D. & Finin T. 2012. A context-aware approach to entity linking. In Proceedings of the NAACL Joint Workshop on Automatic Knowledge Base Construction and Web-Scale Knowledge Extraction, 62–67.
Suganthan G. C, Sun P. C., Krishna Gayatri K., Zhang H., Yang F., Rampalli N., Prasad S., Arcaute E., Krishnan G., Deep R., Raghavendra V. & Doan A. 2015. Why big data industrial systems need rules and what we can do about it. In Proceedings of the 2015 ACM SIGMOD International Conference on Management of Data, 265–276.
Surdeanu M. 2013. Overview of the TAC 2013 knowledge base population evaluation: English slot filling and temporal slot filling. In Proceedings of the Sixth Text Analysis Conference.
Tudorache T., Noy N. F., Tu S. & Musen M. A. 2008. Supporting collaborative ontology development in protégé. In The Semantic Web − ISWC 2008, Sheth A., Staab S., Dean M., Paolucci M., Maynard D., Finin T. & Thirunarayan K. (eds). Springer-Verlag, 1732.
Unger C., Forascu C., Lopez V., Ngomo A.-C. N., Cabrio E., Cimiano P. & Walter S. 2014. Question Answering over Linked Data (QALD-4). CLEF 2014 Working Notes, 1172–1180.
Van Dyke Parunak H., Rohwer R., Belding T. & Brueckner S. 2007. Dynamic decentralized any-time hierarchical clustering. In Engineering Self-Organising Systems, Brueckner S., Hassas S., Jelasity M. & Yamins D. (eds). Springer-Verlag, 6681.
Veloso A., Meira W. Jr. & Zaki M. J. 2006. Lazy associative classification. In Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Data Mining, 645–654.
Volker J., Haase P. & Hitzler P. 2008. Learning expressive ontologies. In Ontology Learning and Population: Bridging the Gap Between Text and Knowledge, Buitelaar P. & Cimiano P. (eds). IOS Press, 4569.
Wang Z., Zhao K., Wang H., Meng X. & Wen J.-R. 2015. Query understanding through knowledge-based conceptualization. In Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, 3264–3270.
Widmer G. 1997. Tracking context changes through meta-learning. Machine Learning 27, 259286.
Witten I. H., Frank E. & Hall M. A. 2011. Data Mining: Practical Machine Learning Tools and Techniques, 3rd edition. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.
Wobcke W., Krzywicki A. & Chan Y.-W. 2008. A large-scale evaluation of an e-mail management assistant. In Proceedings of the 2008 IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Web Intelligence and Intelligent Agent Technology, 438–442.
Yang Y., Carbonell J. G., Brown R. D., Pierce T., Archibald B. T. & Liu X. 1999. Learning approaches for detecting and tracking news events. IEEE Intelligent Systems 14, 3243.
Yao X. & Van Durme B. 2014. Information extraction over structured data: question answering with Freebase. In Proceedings of the 51st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, 956–965.
Yu D., Li H., Cassidy T., Li Q., Huang H., Chen Z., Ji H., Zhang Y. & Roth D. 2013. RPI-BLENDER TAC-KBP2013 knowledge base population system. In Proceedings of the Sixth Text Analysis Conference.
Zacks J. M. & Tversky B. 2001. Event structure in perception and conception. Psychological Bulletin 127, 321.
Zhang W., Su J., Chen B., Wang W., Toh Z., Sim Y., Cao Y., Lin C. Y. & Tan C. L. 2011. I2R-NUS-MSRA at TAC 2011: entity linking. In Proceedings of the Fourth Text Analysis Conference.
Zhu J., Nie Z., Liu X., Zhang B. & Wen J.-R. 2009. StatSnowball: a statistical approach to extracting entity relationships. In Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on World Wide Web, 101–110.
Zou L., Huang R., Wang H., Yu J. X., He W. & Zhao D. 2014. Natural language question answering over RDF: a graph data driven approach. In Proceedings of the 2014 ACM SIGMOD International Conference on Management of Data, 313–324.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The Knowledge Engineering Review
  • ISSN: 0269-8889
  • EISSN: 1469-8005
  • URL: /core/journals/knowledge-engineering-review
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 13
Total number of PDF views: 184 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 859 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 22nd November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.