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Life cycles in software and knowledge engineering: a comparative review

  • Michael Wilson (a1), David Duce (a1) and Dan Simpson (a2)

Progress in software engineering has led to system development following models of the system life cycle. These models incorporate the use of prototyping and formal methods of program verification. They are becoming supported by integrated project support environments and permit the planning and monitoring of software development projects.

In contrast, knowledge based systems (KBS) are developed using informal views of the system life cycle. Tools have been developed to support some stages of the life cycle in an undisciplined manner. The commercial use of KBS needs development projects to be planned and monitored. This requires methods and tools based on systematic life cycle models to be established for KBS.

This paper reviews the current state of life cycle approaches to software engineering and KBS development projects in order to provide a direction for the development of methodical KBS life cycle models.

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The references are grouped by subject and annotated to enhance their tutorial value.

The best practice in current KBS development

Cercone N and McCalla G, 1987. “What is knowledge representation” In: The Knowledge Frontier: Essays in the Representation of Knowledge Cercone N and McCalla G (Eds.) New York: Springer-Verlag. A review of knowledge representation techniques.
Frieling M, Alexander J, Messick S, Rehfuss S and Shulman S, 1985. “Starting a knowledge engineering project: a step-by-step approachAI Magazine 6(3) 150165. A guide to the Tektronix knowledge based system development methodology.
Hayes-Roth F, Waterman D A, and Lenet D B, 1983. Building Expert Systems Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley.
Laurent J-P, Ayel J, Thome F and Ziebelin D, 1986. “Comparative evaluation of three expert system development tools: KEE, Knowledge Craft, ArtThe Knowledge Engineering Review 1(4) 1829. A review of the larger toolkits to support knowledge representation and KBS development.
McGraw K L and Seale M R, 1988. “Knowledge elicitation with multiple experts: considerations and techniquesArtificial Intelligence Review 2(1) 3144.
Motta E, Eisenstadt M, West M, Pitman K and Evertsz R, 1986. “KEATS: the knowledge engineer's assistant” HCRL Report No. 20, Milton Keynes, U.K.: Open University. A description of one of the more advanced tools to support knowledge acquisition.
Neale I M, 1988. “First generation expert systems: a review of knowledge acquisition methodologiesThe Knowledge Engineering Review 3(2) 105145.
Peters L J, 1980. “Software representation and composition techniquesProceedings of the IEEE 68(9) 1085–93.
Prerau D S, 1985. “Selecting an appropriate domain for an expert systemAI Magazine 6(2) Summer 2630.
Rajan T, Motta E and Eisenstadt M, 1989. “ACQUIST: a tool for knowledge acquisition” In: Research and Development in Expert Systems V Kelly B and Rector A (Eds.) 113125, Cambridge University Press. This paper describes a part of the KEATS-2 suite of tools for KBS development.
Shaw M L G and Gaines B R, 1987. “Advances in interactive knowledge engineering” In: Research and Development in Expert Systems III Bramer M A (Ed.) 111122, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. This paper describes the interactive repertory grid elicitation and analysis tools for knowledge acquistion commercially available as RepGrid from the authors.
Williams A and Lambert S, 1988. “Expressive power and computability”. In: Approaches to Knowledge Representation: An Introduction, Ringland G A and Duce D A (Eds.) Letchworth, England: Research Studies Press.
Wyatt J, 1987. “The evaluation of clinical decision support systems: a discussion of the methodology in the ACORN project”. In: Proceedings of AIME '87, Fox J, Fieschi M and Engelbrecht R (Eds.), Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Young R, 1987. “Intermediate representations”. In: Research and Development in Expert Systems IV Bramer M A (Ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
ANSI/IEEE, 1984. “ANSI/IEEE standard 830–1984” IEEE Guide to Software Requirements Specifications, New York, NY, USA: IEEE Standards Board.
Ashworth C M, 1988. “Structured systems analysis and design method (SSADM)Information and Software Technology 30(3) 153163. This paper outlines the stages of the standard software development method used for UK government projects.
Boehm B W, 1981. Software Engineering Economics Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA: Prentice Hall. This is the standard text on the prediction of the time, effort and resources required for a software development project.
Cambell I, 1986. “PCTE proposal for a common tool interface”. In: Software Engineering Environments Sommerville I (Ed.), London: Peter Peregrinus on behalf of the Institution of Electrical Engineers. This is a description of the EEC sponsored interface for software development tools.
Cohen B, Harwood W T and Jackson M I, 1986. The Specification of Complex Systems Wokingham, UK: Addison-Wesley. This review describes several formal notations for the specification of systems, and the formal development approach which can follow from them.
Crispin R J, 1987. “Experience using VDM in STC”. In: VDM '87: A Formal Method at Work, VDM-Europe Symposium Berlin: Springer Verlag. VDM is the most advanced formal development method, which is described here in terms of its practical application and limitations.
Jackson M A, 1982. System Development Englewood Cliffs, NJ.: Prentice-Hall International. The Jackson Structured Design method is one of the most popular rigorous development methods along with that described by Yourdon.
Jones K D, 1987. “Support environments for VDM”. In: VDM '87: A Formal Method at Work, VDM-Europe Symposium Springer Verlag: Berlin. A description of advanced integrated project support environments for formal software engineering methods.
Macro A and Buxton J, 1987. The Craft of Software Engineering Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley. This is one of the best introductions to the area of software engineering.
Mascot , 1979. The Official Handbook of MASCOT MASCOT Suppliers Association MASCOT is a rigorous development method for time critical software systems, used by for UK government projects.
Myers G J, 1979. The Art of Software Testing John Wiley and Sons: New York, NY. Springer-Verlag (Pub.), 1984. Approaches to Prototyping Springer-Verlag: Berlin. The issues associated with prototyping within software engineering are addressed in depth in the papers in this collection.
STARTS Purchasers Groups, 1987. Supplement to the STARTS Purchasers Handbook Manchester: NCC Publications. The STARTS team recommended software tools for software development and the management of software projects in this text.
Yourdon E, 1972. Techniques of program structure and design Englewood Cliffs, NJ.: Yourdon Press. One of the most popular structured systems methods is described in this book.
Ford L, 1987. “Artificial intelligence and software engineering: a tutorial introduction to their relationshipArtificial Intelligence Review 1(4) 255273. An introduction to the role of software engineering in KBS development.
Green C J R and Keyes M M, 1987. “Verification and validation of expert systems”. In: WEST EX 87— Proceedings of the Western Conference on Expert Systems3843, Washington, D.C.:IEEE Comput. Soc. Press. A description of verification and validation procedures which could be applied to expert systems.
Martinez J, Munro P, Silva M, 1987. “Modelling, validation and software implementation of production systems using high level Petri Nets”, In: Proceedings of the 1987 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation11801185, Washington, D.C.:IEEE Computing Society Press. A technique for producing production rule systems which can be validated against user requirements.
Partridge D and Wilks Y, 1987. “Does AI have a methodology which is different from software engineering?Artificial Intelligence Review 1(2) 111121. A controversial defence of the differences between AI and software engineering methods.
Anjewierden A, 1987. “Knowledge acquisition toolsAICOM 0(1) 2938. This describes the tools being developed to support the KADS KBS development method.
Breuker J (Ed.) 1987. Model-Driven Knowledge Acquisition Interpretation Models ESPRIT Project 1098, Deliverable Task A1, University of Amsterdam. A thorough description of the models used in the KADS knowledge acquisition phase.
Breuker J and Wielinga B, 1987. “Use of models in the interpretation of verbal data”. In: Knowledge Aquisition for Expert Systems: a Practical Handbook Kidd A L (Ed.), New York: Plenum Press. A description of the KADS knowledge acquisition phase.
Hayward S, 1987. “How to build knowledge based systems: techniques, tools, and case studies”. In: ESPRIT '87: Proceedings of the Esprit Conference665687, Brussels:Commission of the European Economic Community. A brief overview of the complete KADS project.
Wielinga B and Breuker J, 1986. “Models of expertise”. In: Proceedings of ECAI 1986 Brighton. This paper provides an overview of the models used in the KADS knowledge acquisition phase.
Keller R, 1987. Expert System Technology: Development and Application. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA: Yourdon Press. A description of the Yourdon structured system development method as applied to KBS.
Montgomery A 1988. “GEMINI: government expert systems methodology initiative”. In: KBS in Government 88 Duffin P (Ed.), 7588, London: Blenheim OnLine Ltd.
Montgomery A, 1989. “GEMINI: government expert systems methodology initiative”. In: Research and Development in Expert Systems V Kelly B and Rector A (Eds.), 1424, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Worden R, 1988. “The GEMINI project: preliminary results”. In: KBS in Government 88 Duffin P (Ed.) 119130, London: Blenheim OnLine Ltd.
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The Knowledge Engineering Review
  • ISSN: 0269-8889
  • EISSN: 1469-8005
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