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Ontologies: principles, methods and applications

  • Mike Uschold (a1) and Michael Gruninger (a2)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 July 2009

This paper is intended to serve as a comprehensive introduction to the emerging field concerned with the design and use of ontologies. We observe that disparate backgrounds, languages, tools and techniques are a major barrier to effective communication among people, organisations and/or software understanding (i.e. an “ontology”) in a given subject area, can improve such communication, which in turn, can give rise to greater reuse and sharing, inter-operability, and more reliable software. After motivating their need, we clarify just what ontologies are and what purpose they serve. We outline a methodology for developing and evaluating ontologies, first discussing informal techniques, concerning such issues as scoping, handling ambiguity, reaching agreement and producing definitions. We then consider the benefits and describe, a more formal approach. We re-visit the scoping phase, and discuss the role of formal languages and techniques in the specification, implementation and evalution of ontologies. Finally, we review the state of the art and practice in this emerging field, considering various case studies, software tools for ontology development, key research issues and future prospects.

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A Gómez-Pérez , 1995. “Some ideas and examples to evaluate ontologies”. In: Proceedings of the Eleventh Conference on Artificial intelligence Applications. IEEE Press.

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T Gruber , 1995. “Towards principles for the design of ontologies used for knowledge sharing”. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 43(5/6) 907928.

N Guarino and R Poli , 1995. “The role of formal ontology in the information technology”. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 43(5/6) 623624.

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J Sowa , 1995. “Top-level ontological categories”. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 43(5/6): 669686.

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