Skip to main content
×
Home

Ontologies: principles, methods and applications

  • Mike Uschold (a1) and Michael Gruninger (a2)
Abstract
Abstract

This paper is intended to serve as a comprehensive introduction to the emerging field concerned with the design and use of ontologies. We observe that disparate backgrounds, languages, tools and techniques are a major barrier to effective communication among people, organisations and/or software understanding (i.e. an “ontology”) in a given subject area, can improve such communication, which in turn, can give rise to greater reuse and sharing, inter-operability, and more reliable software. After motivating their need, we clarify just what ontologies are and what purpose they serve. We outline a methodology for developing and evaluating ontologies, first discussing informal techniques, concerning such issues as scoping, handling ambiguity, reaching agreement and producing definitions. We then consider the benefits and describe, a more formal approach. We re-visit the scoping phase, and discuss the role of formal languages and techniques in the specification, implementation and evalution of ontologies. Finally, we review the state of the art and practice in this emerging field, considering various case studies, software tools for ontology development, key research issues and future prospects.

Copyright
References
Hide All
ANSI, 1995. “Conceptual graphs, a presentation language for knowledge in conceptual models; working draft of proposed american national standard”. Technical Report X3T2/95–019r1, ANSI.
Embury S and Gray P, 1995. “Compiling a declarative high-level language for semantic integrity constraints”. Technical Report AUCS/TR9506, University of Aberdeen.
Farquhar A, Fikes R, Pratt W and Rice J, 1995. “Collaborative ontology construction for information integration”. Technical Report KSL-9563, Stanford University Knowledge Systems Laboratory.
Fikes R, Cutkosky M, Gruber T and van Baalen J, 1991. “Knowledge sharing technology project overview”. Technical Report KSL–91–71, Stanford University, Knowledge Systems Laboratory.
Fraser J, Tate A and Uschold M, 1995. “The enterprise toolset–an open enterprise architecture”. In: The Impact of Ontologies on Reuse, Interoperability and Distributed Processing pp. 4250. Unicom Seminars, London, 1995. (Further information about the Enterprise Project and Ontology is available on the World Wide Web from:http://www.aiai.ed.ac.uk/#entprise/enterprise/.)
Fuchs J and Wheadon J, 1995. “Prospective applications of ontologies for future space missions”. In: The Impact of Ontologies on Reuse, Interoperability and Distributed Processing pp. 8396. Unicorn Seminars.
Genesereth MR and Fikes RE, 1992. “Knowledge interchange format, version 3.0 reference manual”. Technical Report Logic-92−1, Computer Science Department, Stanford University.
Gómez-Pérez A, 1995. “Some ideas and examples to evaluate ontologies”. In: Proceedings of the Eleventh Conference on Artificial intelligence Applications. IEEE Press.
Gómez-Pérez A, 1996. “Guidelines to verify completeness and consistency in ontologies”. Third World Congress on Expert Systems.
Gómez-Pérez A, Juristo N and Pazos J, 1995. “Evaluation and assessment of knowledge sharing technology”. In: Mars NJ, (ed.), Towards Very Large Knowledge Bases–Knowledge Building and Knowledge Sharing 1995 pp. 289296. IOS Press.
Gruber T, 1993. “A translation approach to portable ontology specifications”. Knowledge Acquisition 5(2) 199220.
Gruber T, 1995. “Towards principles for the design of ontologies used for knowledge sharing”. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 43(5/6) 907928.
Gruninger M and Fox MS, 1995. “The logic of enterprise modelling”. In: Brown J and O'Sullivan D (eds), Reengineering the Enterprise pp. 8398. Chapman and Hall.
Gruninger M and Fox MS, 1995. “Methodology for the design and evaluation of ontologies”. In: Workshop on Basic Ontological Issues in Knowledge Sharing: International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence.
Guarino N, Carrara N and Giaretta P, 1994a. “Formalizing ontological committment”. In: Doyle J, Sandewall E and Torasso P (eds), National Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI-94). Morgan Kaufman.
Guarino N, Carrata M and Giaretta P, 1994b. “An ontology of meta-level categories”. In: Doyle J, Sandewall E and Torasso P (eds), Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning: Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference (KR94) pp. 270280. Morgan Kaufman.
Guarino N and Giaretta P, 1995. “Ontologies and knowledge bases–towards a terminalogical clarification”. In: Mars NJ (ed.) Towards Very Large Knowledge Bases–Knowledge Building and Knowledge Sharing 1995 pp. 2532. IOS Press.
Guarino N and Poli R, 1995. “The role of formal ontology in the information technology”. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 43(5/6) 623624.
IBM, 1990. “Introduction to business system development method”. Technical Report GE19–5387–01, International Business Machines Corporation.
ISO, 1994. Initial release of international standard (is) 10303. Technical Report IS 10303, International Standards Organization.
Jones M, Wheadon J, Whitgift D, Niezatte M, Timmermans R, Rodriguez I and Romero R, 1995. “An agent based approach to spacecraft mission operations”. In: Mars NJ (ed.) Towards Very Large Knowledges Bases–Knowledge Building and Knowledge Sharing 1995 pp. 259269. IOS Press.
King M, 1995. “Knowledge reuse in business domains: Experience with IBM BSDM”. In: The Impact of Ontologies on Reuse, Interoperability and Distributed Processing, pp. 97107. Unicorn Seminars.
Lakoff G, 1987. Women, Fire and Dangerous Things. University of Chicago Press.
Lee J and Malone T, 1990. “Partially shared views: A scheme for communicating among groups that use different type hierarchies”. ACM Trans Information Systems 8(1) 126.
Lee J, Yost G and PIF Working Group, 1995. “The pif process interchange format and framework”. Technical Report 180, MIT Center for Coordination Science.
Lehrer N, 1993. “Knowledge representation specification language”. Technical report, DARPA/Rome Laboratory Planning and Scheduling Initiative. Reference Manual.
Lenat D and Guha RV, 1990. Building Large Knowledge-based Systems: Representation and Inference in the CYC Project. Addison-Wesley.
Malone T, Crowston K, Lee J and Pentland D, 1993. “Tools for inventing organizations: Toward a handbook of organizational processes”. Technical Report 141, MIT Center for Coordination Science.
Mowbray TJ and Zahavi R, 1995. The ESSENTIAL COBRA: System Integration Using Distributed Objects. Wiley and Object Management Group.
Schreiber AT, Wielinga BJ, Akkermans JM, Van de Velde W and Anjewierden W, 1994. “Cml: The commonkads conceptual modelling language”. In: Steels L, Schreiber AT and de Velde W Van (eds) A Future for Knowledge Acquisition: Proceedings of the 8th European Knowledge Acquisition Workshop EKAW 94, pp. 125. Springer-Verlag.
Schreiber G, Wielinga B and Jansweijer W, 1995. “The kactus view on the ‘o’ word”. In: Workshop on Basic Ontological Issues in Knowledge Sharing: International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence.
Skuce D, 1995. “Conventions for reaching agreement on shared ontologies”. In: Proceedings of the 9th Knowledge Acquisition for Knowledge Based Systems Workshop.
Sowa J, 1984. Conceptual Structures: Information Processing in Mind and Machine. Addison-Wesley.
Sowa J, 1995. “Top-level ontological categories”. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 43(5/6): 669686.
Speel PH, van Raalte PE, van der Vet PE and Mars NJ, 1995. “Scalability of the performance of knowledge representation systems”. In: Towards Very Large Knowledge Bases–Knowledge Building and Knowledge Sharing 1995 pp. 173183. IOS Press.
Uschold M and King M, 1995. “Towards a methodology for building ontologies”. In: Workshop on Basic Ontological Issues in Knowledge Sharing: International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence. (Also available as AIAI-TR-183 from AIAI, The University of Edinburgh).
van der Vet P and Mars N, 1993. “Structured system of concepts for storing, retrieving, and manipulating chemical information”. Journal of Chemical Information and Computer Sciences 33 564568.
van der Vet PE, Speel PH and Mars N, 1995. “Ontologies for very large knowledge bases in materials science: a case study”. In: Mars NJ (ed.) Towards Very Large Knowledge Bases–Knowledge Building and Knowledge Sharing pp. 7383. IOS Press.
Wielinga R, Schreiber G, Jansweijer W, Anjewierden A and van Hamelen F, 1994. “Framework and formalism for expressing ontologies”. Technical report, University of Amsterdam, 1994. (Esprit Project 8145 Deliverable DO1b1, available from http://www.swi.psy.uva.nl/projects/Kactus/Reports.html.)
Workflow Management Coalition, 1994. “Glossary—a workflow management coalition specification”. Technical report, The Workflow Management Coalition.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The Knowledge Engineering Review
  • ISSN: 0269-8889
  • EISSN: 1469-8005
  • URL: /core/journals/knowledge-engineering-review
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 137 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 1538 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 14th December 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.