Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

Planning domain definition using GIPO

  • R. M. SIMPSON (a1), D. E. KITCHIN (a1) and T. L. McCLUSKEY (a1)

In this paper an object-centric perspective on planning domain definition is presented along with an overview of GIPO (graphical interface for planning with objects), a supporting tools environment. It is argued that the object-centric view assists the domain developer in conceptualizing the domain’s structure, and we show how GIPO enables the developer to capture that conceptualization at an appropriate and matching conceptual level. GIPO is an experimental environment which provides a platform for exploring and demonstrating the range and scope of tools required to support the knowledge engineering aspects of creating and validating planning systems, both for classical pre-condition planning and hierarchical planning. GIPO embodies the object-centric view, leading to a range of benefits typically associated with object-oriented methods in other fields of software engineering such as highly visual development methods, code reuse and efficient, reliable development.

Hide All
Backstrom C. and Nebel B. 1995 Complexity results for sas+ planning. Computational Intelligence 11(4), 625656.
Blythe J., Kim J., Ramachandran S., Gil Y. 2001 An integrated environment for knowledge acquisition. Proceedings of the Interenational Conference on User Interfaces. ACM Press.
Edelkamp S. and Mehler T. 2005 Knowledge acquisition and knowledge engineering in the ModPlan workbench. InProceedings of the First International Competition on Knowledge Engineering for AI Planning, Monterey, California, USA.
Fikes RE., and Nilsson NJ. 1971 STRIPS: A new approach to the application of theorem proving to problem solving. Artificial Intelligence 2, 189208.
Fox M., and Long D. 1997 The automatic inference of state invariants in TIM. JAIR 9, 367421.
Fox M.,  and Long D. 2001 PDDL2.1: an extension to PDDL for expressing temporal planning domains. In Technical Report, Dept of Computer Science, University of Durham.
Garagnani M. 2004 A framework for planning with hybrid models. In Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Automated Planning and Scheduling Workshop on Connecting Planning Theory with Practice.
Gennari JH., Musen MA., Fergerson RW., Grosso WE., Crubezy M., Eriksson H., Noy NF. and Tu SW. 2003 The evolution of protege: an environment for knowledge-based systems development. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 58, 89123.
Gerevini A. and Serina I. 2002 LPG: a planner based on local search for planning graphs. In The Sixth International Conference on Artificial Intelligence Planning Systems. AAAI.
Ghallab M., Howe A., Knoblock C., McDermott D., Ram A., Veloso M., Weld D., and Wilkins D. 1998 Pddl — the planning domain definition language. Technical Report CVC TR-98-003/DCS TR-1165, Yale Center for Computational Vision and Control.
Ghallab M., Nau D. and Traverso P. 2004 Automated Planning: Theory and Practice. CA, USA: Morgan Kaufmann ISBN 1-55860-856-7.
Hoffmann J. 2000 A heuristic for domain independent planning and its use in an enforced hill-climbing algorithm. In Proceedings of the 14th Workshop on Planning and Configuration—New Results in Planning, Scheduling and Design.
Manzano M. 1993 Introduction to many sorted logic. In Meinke K. and Tucker J., (ed.), Many Sorted Logic and Its Applications. New York, NY, USA: Wiley pp. 3–81.
McCluskey TL. and Kitchin DE. 1998 A tool-supported approach to engineering HTN planning models. In Proceedings of 10th IEEE International Conference on Tools with Artificial Intelligence. IEEE Press.
McCluskey TL. and Porteous JM. 1997 Engineering and compiling planning domain models to promote validity and efficiency. Artificial Intelligence 95, 165.
McCluskey TL. and Simpson RM. 2005 The use of an integrated tool to support teaching and learning in artificial intelligence. Journal of Innovations in Teaching And Learning in Information and Computer Sciences: Special Issue on Teaching Artificial Intelligence and Intelligent Agents: Challenges and Perspectives 4(3).
McCluskey TL., Kitchin DE., and Porteous JM. 1996 Object-centred planning: lifting classical planning from the literal level to the object level. In Proceedings of 8th IEEE International Conference on Tools with Artificial Intelligence. IEEE Press.
McCluskey TL., Richardson NE. and Simpson RM. 2002 An interactive method for inducing operator descriptions. In The 6th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence Planning and Scheduling. AAAI.
McCluskey TL., Liu D. and Simpson RM. 2003 GIPO II: HTN planning in a tool-supported knowledge engineering environment. In The 13th International Conference on Automated Planning and Scheduling. AAAI.
Nau D., Cao Y., Lotem A. and Munoz-Avila H. 1999 SHOP: simple hierarchical ordered planner. In Proceedings of the 16th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence. CA, USA: Morgan Kaufmann.
Nebel B. 2000 On the compilability and expressive power of propositional planning formalisms. Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research 12, 271315.
Simpson RM., McCluskey TL., Liu D. and Kitchin DE. 2000 Knowledge representation in planning: A PDDL to OCLh translation. In Proceedings of the 12th International Symposium on Methodologies for Intelligent Systems. London: Springer Verlag.
Tate A., Drabble B. and Kirby R. 1994 O-Plan2: an open architecture for command, planning and control. In Fox M. and Zweben M., (ed). Intelligent Scheduling. Palo Alto, CA, USA: Morgan Kaufmann.
Tate A., Dalton J., Levine J., Polyak S. and Wickler G. 2005 O-plan - open planning architecture.
Vacquero TS., Tonidanel F. and Silva JR. 2005 The itSIMPLE tool for modelling planning domains. In Proceedings of the First International Competition on Knowledge Engineering for AI Planning, Monterey, California, USA.
Wilkins D. 1999 Using the SIPE-2 planning system: a manual for SIPE-2, version5.0. SRI International, Artificial Intelligence Center.
Wilkins D. 2000 SIPE-2: System for interactive planning and execution.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The Knowledge Engineering Review
  • ISSN: 0269-8889
  • EISSN: 1469-8005
  • URL: /core/journals/knowledge-engineering-review
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 13 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 85 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 24th October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.