Anderson, NH, 1991. Information Integration Theory, Erlbaum.
Bass, BM, Cascio, WF and O'Connor, EJ. 1974. “Magnitude estimation of expressions of frequency and amount” Journal of Applied Psychology 59 313–320.
Behn, RD and Vaupel, JW, 1982. Quick Analysis for Busy Decision Makers, Basic.
Beyth-Marom, R, 1982. “How probable is probable? A numerical translation of verbal probability expressions” Journal of Forecasting 1 257–269.
Bonissone, PP and Decker, KS, 1987. “Selecting uncertainty calculi and granularity: An experiment in trading off precision and complexity” In: Kanal, LN and Lemmer, JF (eds.), Uncertainty and Artificial Intelligence, Elsevier.
Bortolan, G and Degani, R, 1985. “A review of some methods for ranking fuzzy subsets” Fuzzy Sets and Systems 15 1–19.
Brackner, JW, 1985. “How to report contingent losses in financial statements?” Journal of Business Forecasting 4 13–18.
Bradburn, NM and Miles, C, 1979. “Vague quantifiers” Public Opinion Quarterly 43 92–101.
Brun, W and Teigen, KH, 1988. “Verbal probabilities: Ambiguous, context-dependent, or both?” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 41 390–404.
Bryant, and Norman, , 1980. “Expressions of probability: Words and Numbers” New England Journal of Medicine 302 411.
Budescu, DV and Wallsten, TS, 1985. “Consistency in interpretation of probabilistic phrases” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 36 391–405.
Budescu, DV and Wallsten, TS 1987. “Subjective estimation of precise and vague uncertainties In: Wright, G and Ayton, P. (eds.), Judgmental Forecasting, pp 63–81, Wiley.
Budescu, DV and Wallsten, TS, 1990. “Dyadic decisions with verbal and numerical probabilities” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 46 240–263.
Budescu, DV and Wallsten, TS (in press). “Processing linguistic probabilities: general principles and empirical evidence” In: Busemeyer, JR, Hastie, R and Medin, DL (eds.), Decision Making from the Perspective of Cognitive Psychology, Academic Press.
Budescu, DV, Weinberg, S and Wallsten, TS, 1988. “Decisions based on numerically and verbally expressed uncertainties” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 14 281–294.
Budescu, DV, Zwick, R, Wallsten, TS and Erev, I, 1990. “Integration of linguistic probabilities” International Journal of Man–Machine Studies 33 657–676.
Camerer, C and Weber, M, 1992. “Recent developments in modeling preferences: Uncertainty and ambiguity” Journal of Risk and Uncertainty 5 325–370.
Chesley, GR, 1985. “Interpretation of uncertainty expressions” Contemporary Accounting Research 2 179–199.
Clark, DA, 1990. “Verbal uncertainty expressions: A review of two decades of research” Current Psychology: Research and Reviews 9 203–235.
Clarke, VA, Ruffin, CL, Hill, DJ and Beamen, AL, 1992. “Ratings of orally presented verbal expressions of probability by a heterogeneous sample” Journal of Applied Social Psychology 22 638–656.
Cliff, N, 1959. “Adverbs as multipliers” Psychological Review 66 27–44.
Cohen, BL and Wallsten, TS, 1992. “The effect of constant outcome value on judgments and decision making given linguistic probabilities” Journal of Behavioral Decision Making 5 53–72.
Curley, SP and Yates, JF, 1985. “The center and range of the probability interval as factors affecting ambiguity preferences” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 36 273–287.
Degani, R and Bortolan, G, 1988. “The problem of linguistic approximation in clinical decision making” International Journal of Approximate Reasoning 2 143–162.
DeGroot, MH, 1970. Optimal Statistical Decisions, McGraw-Hill.
Einhorn, HJ and Hogarth, RM, 1985. “Ambiguity and uncertainty in probabilistic inference” Psychological Review 92 433–461.
Ellsberg, D, 1961. “Risk, ambiguity, and the Savage axioms” Quarterly Journal of Economics 75 643–669.
Erev, I and Cohen, BL, 1990. “Verbal versus numerical probabilities: Efficiency, biases, and the preference paradox” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 45 1–18.
Erev, I, Wallsten, TS and Budescu, DV, 1994. “Simultaneous over- and underconfidence: The role of error in judgment processes” Psychological Review 101 519–527.
Erev, I, Wallsten, TS and Neal, M, 1991. “Vagueness, ambiguity, and the cost of mutual understanding” Psychological Science 2 321–324.
Farkas, A and Makai-Csasar, M, 1988. “Communication or dialogue of deafs: Pitfalls of use of fuzzy quantifiers” In: Second Network Seminar of the International Union of Psychological Science, North- Holland.
Fillenbaum, S, Wallsten, TS, Cohen, B and Cox, JA, 1991. “Some effects of vocabulary and communication task on the understanding and use of vague probability expressions” American Journal of Psychology 104 35–60.
Gärdenfors, P and Sahlin, NE, 1982. “Unreliable probabilities, risk taking, and decision making” Synthese 53 361–386.
González-Vallejo, CC, Erev, I and Wallsten, TS, 1994. “Do decision quality and preference order depend on whether probabilities are verbal or numerical?” American Journal of Psychology 107 157–172.
González-Vallejo, CC and Wallsten, TS, 1992. “Effects of probability mode on preference reversal” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, ' Cognition 18 855–864.
Grether, DM and Plott, CR, 1979. “Economic theory of choice and the preference reversal phenomenon” American Economic Review 69 623–638.
Hamm, RM, 1991. “Selection of verbal probabilities: A solution for some problems of verbal probability expression” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 48 193–223.
Hammerton, M, 1976. “How much is a large part?” Applied Ergonomics 7 10–12.
Holyoak, KJ, 1978. “Comparative judgments with numerical reference points” Cognitive Psychology 10 203–243.
Holyoak, KJ and Glass, AL, 1978. “Recognition confusions among quantifiers” Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 17 249–264.
Jaffe-Katz, A, Budescu, DV and Wallsten, TS, 1989. “Timed magnitude comparisons of numerical and nonnumerical expressions of uncertainty” Memory and Cognition 17 249–264.
Johnson, EM, 1973. “Numerical encoding of qualitative expressions of uncertainty” (Tech. paper No. 250), U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences.
Johnson, EM and Huber, GP, 1977. “The technology of utility assessment IEEE Translations oil Systems, Man and Cybernetics 7 311–325.
Kadane, JB, 1990. “Comment: Codifying chance” Statistical Science 5 18–20.
Keynes, JM, 1921. A Treatise on Probability, Macmillan.
Knight, FH, 1921. Risk, Uncertainty, and Profit, University of Chicago Press.
Kong, A, Barnett, GO, Mosteller, F and Youtz, C, 1986. “How medical professionals evaluate expressions of probability” The New England Journal of Medicine 315 740–744.
Lichtenstein, S, Fischhoff, B and Phillips, LD, 1982. “Calibration of probabilities: The state of the art to 1980” In: Kahneman, D, Slovic, P and Tversky, A (eds.), Judgment under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases, pp 306–334, Cambridge University Press.
Lichtenstein, S and Newman, JR, 1967. “Empirical scaling of common verbal phrases associated with numerical probabilities” Psychonomic Science 9 563–564.
López de Mántaras, R, Meseguer, P, Sanz, F, Sierra, C and Verdaguer, A, 1988. “A fuzzy logic approach to the management of linguistically expressed uncertainty” IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and cybernetics 144–151.
Krause, P and Clark, D, 1993. Representing Uncertain Knowledge: An artificial intelligence approach, Intellect.
Mapes, , 1979. “Verbal and numerical estimates of probability terms” Journal of General Internal Medicine 6 237.
Marshall, E, 1986. “Feynman issues his own shuttle report, attacking NASA's risk estimates” Science 232 1596.
Marshall, E, 1988. “Academy panel faults NASA's safety analysis” Science 239 1233.
Merz, JF, Druzdzel, MJ and Mazur, DJ, 1991. “Verbal expressions of probability in informed consent litigation” Journal of Medical Decision Making 11 273–281.
Moore, PG, 1977. “The manager's struggle with uncertainty” Journal of the Royal Statistical Society 140 129–165.
Moore, PG and Thomas, H, 1975. “Measuring uncertainty” The International Journal of Managememu Science 3 657.
Mosier, CI, 1941. “A psychometric study of meaning” Journal of Social Psychology 39 31–36.
Mosteller, F and Youtz, C, 1990. “Quantifying probabilistic expressions” Statistical Science 5 2–16.
Moxey, LM and Sanford, AJ, 1993. Communicating Quantities: A Psychological Perspective, Lawrence Erlbaum.
Mullet, E, and Rivet, I, 1991. “Comprehension of verbal probability expressions in children and adolescents” Language and Communication 11 217–225.
Murphy, AH and Brown, BG, 1983. “Forecast terminology: Composition and interpretation of public weather forecasts” Bulletin of tile American Meteorological Society 64 13–22.
Murphy, AH, Lichtenstein, S, Fischhoff, B and Winkler, RL, 1980. “Misinterpretations of precipitation probability forecasts” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 61 695–701.
Nakao, and Axelrod, , 1983. “Numbers are better than words: Verbal specifications of frequency have no place in medicine” American Journal of Medicine 74 1061.
National Weather Service, 1984. Weather Service Operations Manual. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
Newstead, SE, 1988. “Quantifiers as fuzzy concepts” In: Zetenyl, T (eds.), Fuzzy Sets in Psychology, pp 51–72, Elsevier Science.
Norwich, AM and Turksen, IB, 1984. “A model for the measurement of membership and the consequences of its empirical implementation” Fuzzy Sets and Systems 12 1–25.
Parciucci, A, 1968. “How often is often” American Psychologist 23 828.
Pepper, S, 1981. “Problems in the quantification of frequency expression” In: Fiske, DW (ed.), New Directions for Methodology of Social and Behavioral Science Jossey- Bass.
Pepper, S and Prytulak, LS, 1974. “Sometimes frequently means seldom: Context effects in the interpretation of quantitative expressions Journal of Research in Personality 8 95–101.
Rapoport, A, Wallsten, TS and Cox, JA, 1987. “Direct and indirect scaling of membership functions of probability phrases” Mathematical Modelling 9 397–417.
Rapoport, A, Wallsten, TS, Erev, I and Cohen, BL, 1990. “Revision of opinion with verbally and numerically expressed uncertainties” Acta Psychologica 74 61–79.
Reagan, RT, Mosteller, F and Youtz, C, 1989. “Quantitative meanings of verbal probability expressions” Journal of Applied Psychology 74 433–442.
Reyna, VF, 1981. “The language of possibility and probability: Effects of negation on meaning” Memory ' Cognition 9 642–650.
Rubin, DC, 1979. “On measuring fuzziness: A comment on 'a fuzzy set approach to modifiers and vagueness in natural language” Journal of Experimeiital Psychology: General 108 486–489.
Schkade, DA and Kleinmuntz, DN, 1994. “Information displays and choice processes: Differential effects of organization, form, and sequence” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 57 319–337.
Shapiro, AJ and Wallsten, TS, 1994. “Base rate effects on interpreting verbally and numerically communicated probabilities” Working paper.
Simpson, RH, 1944. “The specific meanings of certain terms indicating differing degrees of frequency Quarterly Journal of Speech 30 328–330.
Stone, DN and Schkade, DA, 1991. “Numeric and linguistic information representation in multiattribute choice” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 49 42–59.
Sutherland, HJ, Lockwood, GA, Tritchler, DL and Scm, F, 1991. “Communicating probabilistic information to cancer patients: Is there ‘noise’ on the line?” Social Science and Medicine 32 725–731.
Svenson, O and Karlson, G, 1986. “Attractiveness of decision alternatives characterized by numerical and non-numerical information Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 27 74–84.
Teigen, KH, 1988a. “When are low-probability events judged to be ‘probable’? Effects of outcome-set characteristics on verbal probability estimates” A cta Psychologica 67 157–174.
Teigen, KH, 1988b. “The language of uncertainty” Ada Psychologica 68 27–38.
Teigen, KH and Brun, W, 1993. “Yes, but it is uncertain: Direction and communicative intention of verbal probabilistic terms” SPUDM-14, Aix-en Provence, France.
Tsao, CJ and Wallsten, TS, 1994. “Effects of the number of outcomes on the interpretation and selection of verbal and numerical probabilities in dyadic decisions”. Working paper.
Tversky, A, Sattath, S and Slovic, P, 1988. “Contingent weighting in judgment and choice” Psychological Review 95 371–384.
Vesely, WE and Rasmuson, DM, 1984. “Uncertainties in nuclear probabilistic risk analysis” Risk Analysis 4 313–322.
von, Winterfeldt D and Edwards, W, 1986. Decision Analysis and Behavioral Research, Cambridge University Press.
Wallsten, TS, 1971. “Subjectively expected utility theory and subjects' probability estimates: Use of measurement-free techniques” Journal of Experimental Psychology 88 31–40.
Wallsten, TS, 1990. “Measuring vague uncertainties and understanding their use in decision making” In: Furstenberg, GM von (ed.), Acting under Uncertainty pp 377–398, Kluwer.
Wallsten, TS, Budescu, DV and Erev, I, 1988. “Understanding and using linguistic uncertainties” Acta Psychologica 68 39–52.
Wallsten, TS, Budescu, DV, Rapoport, A, Zwick, R and Forsyth, BH, 1986. “Measuring the vague meanings of probability terms” Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 115 348–365.
Wallsten, TS, Budescu, DV and Tsao, CJ, 1994. “Combining linguistic probabilities” Symposiumn on Qualitative Aspects of Decision Making, Regensburg, Germany, 07 20 1994.
Wallsten, TS, Budescu, DV and Zwick, R, 1993. “Comparing the calibration and coherence numerical and verbal probability judgments” Management Science 39 176–190.
Wallsten, TS, Budescu, DV, Zwick, R and Kemp, SM, 1993. “Preference and reasons for communicating probabilistic information in numerical or verbal terms” Bulletin of the Psychonomnic Society 31 135–138.
Wallsten, TS, Filenbaum, S and Cox, JA, 1986. “Base rate effects on the interpretations of probability and frequency expressions” Journal of Memory and Language 25 571–587.
Weber, EU, 1988. “A descriptive measure of risk” Acta Psychologica 69 185–203.
Weber, EU and Bottom, WP, 1989. “Axiomatic measures of perceived risk: Some tests and extensions” Journal of Behavioral Decision Making 2 113–131.
Webber, EU and Hilton, DJ, 1990 “Contextual effects in the interpretations of probability words: Perceived base rate and severity of events” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 16 781–789.
Wright, GN, Phillips, LD, Whalley, PC, Choo, GT, Ng, KO, Tan, I and Wisudha, A, 1978. “Cultural differences in probabilistic thinking” Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 9 285–299.
Wyden, P, 1979. Bay of Pigs, Simon & Schuster.
Yager, RR, 1981. “A procedure for ordering fuzzy sets on the unit interval” Information Sciences 24 143–161.
Yates, JF, Zhu, Y, Ronis, DL, Wang, DF, Shinotsuka, H and Toda, M, 1989. “Probability judgment accuracy: China, Japan, and the United States” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 43 145–171.
Zimmer, AC, 1983. “Verbal vs. numerical processing of subjective probabilities” In: RW, Scholz (ed.), Decision Making Under Uncertainty, Elsevier.
Zwick, R, 1987. “Combining stochastic uncertainty and linguistic inexactness: Theory kind experimental evaluation”. Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Zwick, R, Budescu, DV and Wallsten, TS, 1988. “An empirical study of the integration of linguistic probabilities” In: Zetenyi, T (ed.), Fuzzy Set Theory in Psychology, pp 91–125, North Holland.
Zwick, R, Carlstein, E and Budescu, DV, 1987. “Measures of similarity among fuzzy concepts: A comparative analysis” International Journal of Approximate Reasoning 1 221–242.
Zwick, R and Wallsten, TS, 1989. “Combining stochastic and linguistic inexactness: Theory and experimental evaluation of four fuzzy probability models” International Journal of Man–Machine Studies 30 69–111.