Simulations of full impact of the Large Hadron Collider beam with a solid graphite target
Published online by Cambridge University Press: 13 July 2009
The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will operate with 7 TeV/c protons with a luminosity of 1034 cm−2 s−1. This requires two beams, each with 2808 bunches. The nominal intensity per bunch is 1.15 × 1011 protons and the total energy stored in each beam is 362 MJ. In previous papers, the mechanisms causing equipment damage in case of a failure of the machine protection system was discussed, assuming that the entire beam is deflected onto a copper target. Another failure scenario is the deflection of beam, or part of it, into carbon material. Carbon collimators and beam absorbers are installed in many locations around the LHC close to the beam, since carbon is the material that is most suitable to absorb the beam energy without being damaged. In case of a failure, it is very likely that such absorbers are hit first, for example, when the beam is accidentally deflected. Some type of failures needs to be anticipated, such as accidental firing of injection and extraction kicker magnets leading to a wrong deflection of a few bunches. Protection of LHC equipment relies on the capture of wrongly deflected bunches with beam absorbers that are positioned close to the beam. For maximum robustness, the absorbers jaws are made out of carbon materials. It has been demonstrated experimentally and theoretically that carbon survives the impact of a few bunches expected for such failures. However, beam absorbers are not designed for major failures in the protection system, such as the beam dump kicker deflecting the entire beam by a wrong angle. Since beam absorbers are closest to the beam, it is likely that they are hit first in any case of accidental beam loss. In the present paper we present numerical simulations using carbon as target material in order to estimate the damage caused to carbon absorbers in case of major beam impact.
- Research Article
- Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2009