Skip to main content
×
×
Home

The Thorny Oyster and the Origins of Empire: Implications of Recently Uncovered Spondylus Imagery from Chan Chan, Peru

  • Joanne Pillsbury (a1)
Abstract

The acquisition and use of exotic, valuable, and ritually important elite goods is a prominent feature of many imperial political economies. After an extensive review of the archaeological and documentary sources on one specific valuable in the empire of Chimor, this paper analyzes the visual representation of such goods, an aspect seldom addressed by archaeologists. An architectural relief recently excavated at Chan Chan, the capital of Chimor, sheds new light on the use of exotic materials and long-distance trade and exchange along the Pacific coast of South America in the late Prehispanic period. This relief, named "Los Buceadores" (The Divers) for the principal imagery depicting Spondylus divers, is important for elucidating the role of this valuable in the early development of the Chimú empire. It is argued that the Chimú rulers sponsored a long-distance exchange network during an early stage of the expansion of the Chimú polity and that the fruits of this network, particularly Spondylus, formed a critical element in the formation and maintenance of the ritual and economic basis of power for the expanding state.

Uno rasgo importante de muchas economías políticas imperiales es la adquisición y uso de bienes exóticos de gran valor e importancia ritual para las élites. Después de reseñar los datos arqueológicos y las fuentes documentales que hay sobre uno de estos bienes en el imperio de Chimor, este trabajo analiza su representación visual, un procedimento poco abordado por los arqueólogos. Un relieve arquitectónico en barro recientemente descubierto en Chan Chan, la capital Chimú, provee nuevas perspectivas sobre el uso de bienes exóticos y sobre el comercio e intercambio a larga distancia durante el periodo Prehispánico tardío en el litoral Pacífico de Sudamérica. El relieve, llamado "Los Buceadores" por el tema principal que representa buscadores de Spondylus, es de gran relevancia para dilucidar el papel que esta concha desempeñó en el desarrollo temprano del imperio de Chimor. Se propone aquí que los gobernantes Chimú financiaban una red de intercambio a larga distancia durante un estadío temprano de la expansión del imperio, y que los beneficios de esa red comercial, y particularmente de la concha Spondylus, constituyeron un elemento de suma importancia en la formación y mantenimiento de las bases económicas y rituales del poder sobre el que se sustentaba la expansión del estado.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Abbott, R. T. 1974 American Seashells, The Marine Mollusca of the Atlantic and Pacific Coasts of North America. 2nd ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.
Andrews, A. 1972 A Preliminary Study of U-Shaped Structures in Chan Chan and Vicinity, Peru. Unpublished Bachelor’s honors thesis, Department of Anthropology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Andrews, A. 1974 The U-Shaped Structures at Chan Chan, Peru. Journal of Field Archaeology 1:241264.
Antze, G. 1930a Metallarbeiten aus dem nördlichen Peru: ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis ihrer Formen. Mitteilungen aus dem Museum für Völkerkunde in Hamburg 15. Friederichsen, De Gruyter, Hamburg.
Antze, G. 1930b Wasserfahrzeuge in der peruanischen Kunst. Der Erdball 5(10):371173.
Appadurai, A. 1986 Introduction: Commodities and the Politics of Value. In The Social Life of Things: Commodities in Cultural Perspective, edited by A. Appadurai, pp. 363. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Arntz, W. E. 1986 The Two Faces of El Niño 1982-83. Meeresforschung 31:146.
Bayly, C. A. 1986 The Origins of Swadeshi (Home Industry): Cloth and Indian Society, 1700–1930. In The Social Life of Things: Commodities in Cultural Perspective, edited by A. Appadurai, pp. 285321. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Bird, J. B. 1962 Art and Life in Old Peru: An Exhibition. Curator 5(2):145209.
Bruhns, K. O. 1994 Las culturas peruanas y el desarollo cultural en los Andes septentrionales. Memoria 4:251267.
Brumfiel, E. M., and Earle, T. J. (editors) 1987 Specialization, Exchange, and Complex Societies. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Cabello Valboa, M. 1951 [1586] Miscelánea Antártica: una historia del Peru antiguo. Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Letras, Instituto de Etnología, Lima.
Carrión Cachot, R. 1953 Un mito cultural del norte del Peró. Letras 49:185200. Facultad de Letras, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima.
Cobo, B. 1990 [1653] Inca Religion and Customs. Translated and edited by R. Hamilton. University of Texas Press, Austin.
Collier, D. 1948 Peruvian Stylistic Influences in Ecuador. In A Reappraisal of Peruvian Archaeology, assembled by W. C. Bennett, pp. 8086. Memoirs 4. Society for American Archaeology and the Institute of Andean Research, Menasha.
Collier, D., and Murra, J. V. 1943 Survey and Excavations in Southern Ecuador. Anthropological Series 35, Publication 528. Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago.
Conklin, W. J. 1990 Architecture of the Chimu: Memory, Function, and Image. In The Northern Dynasties: Kingship and Statecraft in Chimor: A Symposium at Dumbarton Oaks 12th and 13th October 1985, edited by M. E. Moseley and A. Cordy-Collins, pp. 4374. Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, D.C.
Conrad, G. W. 1974 Burial Platforms and Related Structures on the North Coast of Peru: Some Social and Political Implications. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Conrad, G. W. 1981 Cultural Materialism, Split Inheritance, and the Expansion of Ancient Peruvian Empires. American Antiquity 46:326.
Conrad, G. W. 1982 The Burial Platforms of Chan Chan: Some Social and Political Implications. In Chan Chan: Andean Desert City, edited by M. E. Moseley and K. C. Day, pp. 87117. School of American Research Advanced Seminar Series. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.
Cordy-Collins, A. 1972 The Tule Boat Theme in Moche Art: A Problem in Ancient Peruvian Iconography. Unpublished Master’s thesis, Institute of Archaeology, University of California, Los Angeles.
Cordy-Collins, A. 1990 Fonga Sigde, Shell Purveyor to the Chimu Kings. In The Northern Dynasties: Kingship and Statecraft in Chimor: A Symposium at Dumbarton Oaks 12th and 13th October 1985, edited by M. E. Moseley and A. Cordy-Collins, pp. 393417. Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, D.C.
Cornejo García, M. 1980 Estudio de los recintos ceremoniales en forma de U del palacio Tschudi en Chan Chan: una hipotesis de interpretación. Unpublished Licenciatura thesis, Archaeology program, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad Nacional de Trujillo, Trujillo, Peru.
Costin, C. L., and Earle, T. 1989 Status Distinction and Legitimation of Power as Reflected in Changing Patterns of Consumption in Late Prehispanic Peru. American Antiquity 54:691714.
Currie, E. J. 1995 Archaeology, Ethnohistory and Exchange Along the Coast of Ecuador. Antiquity 69:511526.
Dakin, W. J. 1928a The Anatomy and Phylogeny of Spondylus, with a Particular Reference to the Lamellibranch Nervous System. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 103:337354.
Dakin, W. J. 1928b The Eyes of Pecten, Spondylus, Amussium and Allied Lamellibranchs, with a Short Discussion on their Evolution. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 103:355365.
D’Altroy, T. N., and Earle, T. K. 1985 Staple Finance, Wealth Finance, and Storage in the Inka Political Economy. Current Anthropology 26(2):187206.
Davidson, J. R. 1980 The Spondylus Shell in Chimu Iconography. Unpublished Master’s thesis, Department of Anthropology, California State University, Northridge.
Davidson, J. R. 1981 El Spondylus en la cosmologáa Chimú. Revista del Museo Nacional 45:7587.
Davidson, J. R. 1982 Ecology, Art, and Myth: A Natural Approach to Symbolism. In Pre-Columbian Art History, Selected Readings, edited by A, Cordy-Collins, pp. 331343. Peek Publications, Palo Alto, California.
Day, K. C. 1973 Architecture of Ciudadela Rivero, Chan Chan, Peru. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Day, K. C. 1982a Ciudadelas: Their Form and Function. In Chan Chan: Andean Desert City, edited by M. E. Moseley and K. C. Day, pp. 5566. School of American Research Advanced Seminar Series. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.
Day, K. C. 1982b Storage and Labor Service: A Production and Management Design for the Andean Area. In Chan Chan: Andean Desert City, edited by M. E. Moseley and K. C. Day, pp. 333349. School of American Research Advanced Seminar Series. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.
de Acosta, J. 1962 [1590] Historia natural y moral de las indias, edited by E. O’Gorman. Fondo de Cultura Económica, Mexico, D.F.
de Arriaga, P. J. 1968 [1621] The Extirpation of Idolatry in Peru. Translated and edited by L. C. Keating. University of Kentucky Press, Lexington.
de la Calancha, A. 1977 [1638] Cronica moralizada del orden de San Augustín en el Peru. Transcribed by I. P. Pastor. Lima.
de Murúa, M. 1962 [c. 1613] Historia general del Perú, origen y descendencia de los incas. Introducción y notas por Manuel Ballesteros-Gaibrois. Colección Joyas Bibliográficas, Bibliotheca Americana Vetus I, Madrid.
de Oviedo y Valdés, G. F. 1855 [1535–1548] Historia general y natural de las indias, islas y tierra-firme del mar océano. Tercera parte, tomo IV. La Real Academia de la Historia, Madrid.
de Sámano, J. 1968 [1527] Relación de Sámano-Xerez. Biblioteca Peruana Primera Serie 1. Editores Tecnicos Asociados, Lima.
Edwards, C. R. 1965 Aboriginal Watercraft on the Pacific Coast of South America. Ibero-Americana 47. University of California Press, Berkeley.
Espinoza Soriano, W. 1987 Artesanos, transacciones, monedas y formas de pago en el mundo andino, siglos XV y XVI. 2 vols. Banco Central de Reserva del Perú, Lima.
Feldman, R. A. 1985 Preceramic Corporate Architecture: Evidence for the Development of Non-egalitarian Social Systems in Peru. In Early Ceremonial Architecture in the Andes: A Conference at Dumbarton Oaks 8th to 10th October 1982, edited by C. B. Donnan, pp. 7192. Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, D.C.
Fonseca, Z. O., and Richardson, J. B. 1978 South American and Mayan Cultural Contacts at the Las Huacas Site, Costa Rica. Annals of the Carnegie Museum 47:299317.
Gorin, S. S. 1989 Control of the Effects of Wind, Sand, and Dust by the Citadel Walls, in Chan Chan, Peru. Ed.D. thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg. University Microfilms, Ann Arbor.
Helms, M. W. 1993 Craft and the Kingly Ideal: Art, Trade, and Power. University of Texas Press, Austin.
Heyerdahl, T. 1952 American Indians in the Pacific, the Theory behind the Kon-Tiki Expedition. George Allen & Unwin, London.
Hocquenghem, A. M. 1993 Rutas de entrada del mullu en el extremo norte del Peró. Bulletin de l’Institut Français d’Études Andines 22(3):701719.
Hocquenghem, A. M., and Peña Ruiz, M. 1994 La talla del material malacológico en Tumbes. Bulletin de l’Institut Français d’Études Andines 23(2):209229.
Hornborg, A. 1989 Stratification and Exchange in the Pre-Columbian Andes: A Review Article. Ethnos 3–4:217228.
Isbell, W. H. 1981 Comment on Conrad. American Antiquity 46:2730.
Kamiya, H., and Hashimoto, Y. 1978 Occurrence of Saxitoxin and Related Toxins in Palauan Bivalves. Toxicon 16:303306.
Keatinge, R. W. 1977 Religious Forms and Secular Functions: The Expansion of State Bureaucracies as Reflected in Prehistoric Architecture on the Peruvian North Coast. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 293:229245.
Keatinge, R. W., and Day, K. C. 1973 Socio-Economic Organization of the Moche Valley, Peru, During the Chimu Occupation of Chan Chan. Journal of Anthropological Research 29:275295.
Keen, A. M. 1971 Sea Shells of Tropical West America. 2nd ed. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California.
Klymyshyn, A. M. U. 1987 The Development of Chimu Administration in Chan Chan. In The Origins and Development of the Andean State, edited by J. Haas, S. Pozorski, and T. Pozorski, pp. 97110. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Kolata, A. L. 1990 The Urban Concept of Chan Chan. In The Northern Dynasties: Kingship and Statecraft in Chimor: A Symposium at Dumbarton Oaks 12th and 13th October 1985, edited by M. E. Moseley and A. Cordy-Collins, pp. 107144. Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, D.C.
Kolb, C. C. 1987 Marine Shell Trade and Classic Teotihuacan, Mexico. BAR International Series 364. British Archaeological Reports, Oxford.
Lamprell, K. 1986 Spondylus, Spiny Oyster Shells of the World. Robert Brown, Bathurst, N.S.W., Australia.
Logan, A. 1974 Morphology and Life Habits of the Recent Cementing Bivalve Spondylus americanus Hermann from the Bermuda Platform. Bulletin of Marine Science 24(3):568594.
Lowe Art Museum 1990 Before Discovery, Artistic Development in the Americas Before the Arrival of Columbus. University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida.
Lumbreras, L. G. 1987 Childe and the Urban Revolution: The Central Andean Experience. In Studies in the Neolithic and Urban Revolutions: The V. Gordon Childe Colloquium, Mexico, 1986, edited by L. Manzanilla, pp. 327344, BAR International Series 349. British Archaeological Reports, Oxford.
Marcos, J. G. 1977–1978 Cruising to Acapulco and Back with the Thorny Oyster Set: A Model for a Lineal Exchange System. Journal of the Steward Anthropological Society 9(1/2):99132.
Marcos, J. G. 1986a De ida y vuelta a Acapulco con mercaderes de mullu. In Arqueología de la costa ecuatoriana: nuevos enfoques, edited by J. Marcos, pp. 163196. Biblioteca Ecuatoriana de Arqueología 1. Corporación Editora Nacional, Quito.
Marcos, J. G. 1986b Intercambio a larga distancia en América: el caso del Spondylus . In Arqueología de la costa ecuatoriana: nuevos enfoques, edited by J. Marcos, pp. 197206. Biblioteca Ecuatoriana de Arqueología. Corporaciön Editora Nacional, Quito.
Marcos, J. G., and Norton, P. 1981 Interpretación sobre la arqueología de la Isla de la Plata. Miscelánea Antropológica Ecuatoriana 1:136154.
Martínez Compañón, B. J. 1936 [1779–1790] Trujillo del Peru a fines del siglo XVIII. Biblioteca de Palacio, Madrid.
Mata, L., Abarca, G., Marranghello, L., and Víquez, R. 1990 Intoxicación paralítica por mariscos (IPM) por Spondylus calcifer contaminado con Pyrodinium bahamense, Costa Rica, 1989–1990. Revista de Biología Tropical 38(1): 129136.
McClelland, D. 1990 A Maritime Passage from Moche to Chimu. In The Northern Dynasties: Kingship and Statecraft in Chimor: A Symposium at Dumbarton Oaks 12th and 13th October 1985, edited by M. E. Moseley and A. Cordy-Collins, pp. 76106. Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, D.C.
Menzel, D., and Rowe, J. 1966 The Role of Chincha in Late Pre-Spanish Peru. Ñawpa Pacha 4:6376.
Mester, A. M. 1989 Marine Shell Symbolism in Andean Culture. In Proceedings of the 1986 Shell Bead Conference, Selected Papers, 1986, pp. 157167. Research Records No. 20, C. F. Hayes III, general editor. Research Division of the Rochester Museum and Science Center, Rochester, New York.
Mester, A. M. 1990 The Pearl Divers of Los Frailes: Archaeological and Ethnohistorical Explorations of Sumptuary Good Trade and Cosmology in the North and Central Andes. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. University Microfilms, Ann Arbor.
Miller, A. 1973 The Mural Painting of Teotihuacán. Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, D.C.
Moore, J. D. 1985 Household Economics and Political Integration: The Lower Class of the Chimu Empire. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of California, Santa Barbara.
Moore, J. D. 1992 Pattern and Meaning in Prehistoric Peruvian Architecture: The Architecture of Social Control in the Chimu State. Latin American Antiquity 3:95113.
Morgan, L. 1988 The Miniature Wall Paintings of Thera, A Study in Aegean Culture and Iconography. Cambridge Classical Studies, M. F. Burnyeat, M. K. Hopkins, M. D. Reeve, and A. M. Snodgrass, general editors. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Morris, C. 1986 Storage, Supply, and Redistribution in the Economy of the Inka State. In Anthropological History of Andean Politics, edited by J. A. Murra, N. Wachtel, and J. Revel, pp. 5968. University of Cambridge and Editions de la Maison des Sciences de l’Homme, Cambridge and Paris.
Moseley, M. E. 1975 Chan Chan: Andean Alternative of the Preindustrial City. Science 187:219225.
Moseley, M. E. 1982 Introduction: Human Exploitation and Organization on the North Andean Coast. In Chan Chan: Andean Desert City, edited by M. E. Moseley and K. C. Day, pp. 124. School of American Research Advanced Seminar Series. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.
Moseley, M. E. 1987 Punctuated Equilibrium: Searching the Ancient Record for El Nino. Quarterly Review of Archaeology 8(3):710.
Moseley, M. E. 1990 Structure and History in the Dynastic Lore of Chimor. In The Northern Dynasties: Kingship and Statecraft in Chimor: A Symposium at Dumbarton Oaks 12th and 13th October 1985, edited by M. E. Moseley and A. Cordy-Collins, pp. 141. Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, D.C.
Moseley, M. E., and Day, K. C. (editors) 1982 Chan Chan: Andean Desert City. School of American Research Advanced Seminar Series. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.
Moseley, M., E., Feldman, R. A., Ortloff, C. R., and Narváez, A. 1983 Principles of Agrarian Collapse in the Cordillera Negra, Peru. Annals of the Carnegie Museum 52(13):299327.
Moseley, M. E., and Mackey, C. J. 1974 Twenty-four Architectural Plans of Chan Chan, Peru: Structure and Form at the Capital of Chimor. Peabody Museum Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Murra, J. V. 1975 El tráfico de mullu en la costa del Pacífico. In Formaciones económicas y políticas del mundo andino, edited by J. Murra, pp. 255267. Instituto de Estudios Peruanos, Lima.
Murra, J. V. 1989 Cloth and its Function in the Inka State. In Cloth and Human Experience, edited by A. B. Wiener and J. Schneider, pp. 275302. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
Narváez Vargas, A. 1989 Chan Chan: Chronology and Stratigraphic Contents. In Andean Past, vol. 2, edited by D. H. Sandweiss, pp. 131174. Cornell University Latin American Studies Program, Ithaca, New York.
Netherly, P. J. 1977 Local Level Lords on the North Coast of Peru. Ph.D. dissertation, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. University Microfilms, Ann Arbor.
Nials, F. L., Deeds, E., Moseley, M. E., Pozorski, S. G., Pozorski, T. G., and Feldman, R. 1979a El Ñiño: The Catastrophic Flooding of Coastal Peru, Pt. I. Bulletin of the Field Museum of Natural History 50(7):414.
Nials, F. L., Deeds, E., Moseley, M. E., Pozorski, S. G., Pozorski, T. G., and Feldman, R. 1979b El Ñiño: The Catastrophic Flooding of Coastal Peru, Pt. II. Bulletin of the Field Museum of Natural History 50(8):410.
Norton, P. 1986 El señorio de Salangone y la liga de mercaderes, el cartel Spondylus-baha. Miscelánea Antropológica Ecuatoriana 6(6): 131143.
Norton, P., Lunnis, R., and Nayling, N. 1983 Excavaciones en Salango, provincia de Manabí, Ecuador. Miscelánea Antropológica Ecuatoriana 3:972. Published in “Cambio y continuidad en Salango,” Programa de Antropología para el Ecuador. Museo del Banco del Pacífico Guayaquil, June–August 1984.
Olsson, A. A. 1961 Mollusks of the Tropical Eastern Pacific. Paleontological Research Institution, Ithaca, New York.
Paredes Nuñez, A. 1987 Elementos para una evaluación de los términos Lambayeque y Sican. Yunga 1:90100.
Paulsen, A. C. 1974 The Thorny Oyster and the Voice of God: Spondylus and Strombus in Andean Prehistory. American Antiquity 39:597607.
Paulsen, A. C. 1981 The Archaeology of the Absurd: Comments on “Cultural Materialism, Split Inheritance, and the Expansion of Ancient Peruvian Empires.” American Antiquity 46:3137.
Pillsbury, J. 1992 Technical Evidence for Temporal Placement: Sculpted Adobe Friezes of Chan Chan, Peru. In Materials Issues in Art and Archaeology III, edited by P. Vandiver, J. Druzik, G. Wheeler, and I. Freestone, pp. 989995. Symposium Proceedings Vol. 267. The Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh.
Pillsbury, J. 1993 Sculpted Friezes of the Empire of Chimor, Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Columbia University, New York.
Pillsbury, J. 1995 Oysters and Empire: Spondylus at Chan Chan. Paper presented at the 35th Annual Meeting of the Institute of Andean Studies, Berkeley, California.
Pillsbury, J. (editor) 1991 Proyecto reconocimiento arqueológico de los frisos de Chan Chan: informe preliminar, temporada 1990. Unpublished report on file at the Instituto Regional de Cultura, La Libertad, Trujillo, Peru, and the Instituto Nacional de Cultura, Lima.
Polanyi, K. 1957 The Economy as Instituted Process. In Trade and Market in the Early Empires: Economies in History and Theory, edited by K. Polanyi, C. M. Arensberg, and H. W. Pearson, pp. 243270. The Free Press, New York.
Pozorski, T. 1979 The Las Avispas Burial Platform at Chan Chan, Peru. Annals of the Carnegie Museum 48:119137.
Ramírez (Horton), S. E. 1982 Retainers of the Lords or Merchants: A Case of Mistaken Identity? In El hombre y su ambiente en los Andes centrales, edited by L. Millones and H. Tomoeda, pp. 123136. Send Ethnological Studies 10. National Museum of Ethnology, Osaka, Japan.
Ramírez (Horton), S. E. 1990 The Inca Conquest of the North Coast: A Historian’s View. In The Northern Dynasties: Kingship and Statecraft in Chimor: A Symposium at Dumbarton Oaks 12th and 13th October 1985, edited by M. E. Moseley and A. Cordy-Collins, pp. 507537. Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, D.C.
Renfrew, C. 1975 Trade as Action at a Distance: Questions of Integration and Communication. In Ancient Civilization and Trade, edited by J. A. Sabloff and C. C. Lamberg-Karlovsky, pp. 359. School of American Research Advanced Seminar Series. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.
Richardson, J. B., McConaughy, M. A., Heaps de Peña, A., and Décima Zamecnik, E. B. 1990 The Northern Frontier of the Kingdom of Chimor: The Piura, Chira, and Tumbez Valleys. In The Northern Dynasties: Kingship and Statecraft in Chimor: A Symposium at Dumbarton Oaks 12th and 13th October 1985, edited by M. E. Moseley and A. Cordy-Collins, pp. 419445. Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, D.C.
Rostworowski de Diez Canseco, M. 1970 Mercaderes del Valle de Chincha en la época prehispánica: un documento y unos comentarios. Revista Española de Antropología Americana [Trabajos y Conferencias] 5:135–177 + 6 unpaginated illustrations. Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, Universidad de Madrid.
Rostworowski de Diez Canseco, M. 1975 Pescadores, artesanos y mercaderes costeños en el Peru prehispánico. Revista del Museo Nacional 41:311349.
Rowe, J. 1948 The Kingdom of Chimor. Acta Americana 6(1–2):2659.
Salomon, F. 1987 A North Andean Status Trader Complex under Inka Rule. Ethnohistory 34:6377.
Salomon, F., and Urioste, G. L. (translators) 1991 The Huarochirí Manuscript: A Testament of Ancient and Colonial Andean Religion, annotations and introductory essay by F. Salomon, transcription by G. L. Urioste. University of Texas Press, Austin.
Sandweiss, D. H. 1982 Material malacológico. In “Materiales arqueológicos de Garagay,” edited by R. Ravines, H. Engelstad, V. Palomino, and D. H. Sandweiss. Revista del Museo Nacional (Lima) 46:212224.
Sandweiss, D. H. 1985 Choromytilus chorus in Andean Prehistory. Paper presented at the 4th Annual Northeast Conference on Andean Archaeology and Ethnohistory, State University of New York, Albany.
Sandweiss, D. H. 1992 The Archaeology of Chincha Fishermen: Specialization and Status in Inka Peru. Bulletin of Carnegie Museum of Natural History 29.
Sandweiss, D. H., and Rodríguez, M. C. 1991 Moluscos marinos en la prehistoria peruana: breve ensayo. Boletín de Lima 75:5563.
Sarmiento de Gamboa, P. 1942 [1572] Historia indica. Espasa-Calpa Argentina, Buenos Aires.
Schaedel, R. P. 1966 The Huaca “El Dragón.” Journal de la Société des Américanistes 55(2):383496.
Schaedel, R. P. 1990 El comercio en el antiguo Perü. In Historia, antropología y político, homenaje a Angel Palerm 1, coordinated by M. Suárez, pp. 330372. Universidad Iberoamericana, Alianza Editorial Mexicana, México, D.F.
Schortman, E. M., and Urban, P. A. (editors) 1992 Resources, Power, and Interregional Interaction. Plenum, New York.
Shimada, I. 1982 Horizontal Archipelago and Coast-Highland Interaction in North Peru: Archaeological Models. In El Hombre y su ambiente en los Andes centrales, edited by L. Millones and H. Tomoeda, pp. 137210. Senri Ethnological Studies 10. National Museum of Ethnology, Osaka, Japan.
Shimada, I. 1987 Horizontal and Vertical Dimensions of Prehistoric States in North Peru. In The Origins and Development of the Andean State, edited by J. Haas, S. Pozorski, and T. Pozorski, pp. 130144. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Shimada, I. 1991 Pachacamac Archaeology: Retrospect and Prospect. In Pachacamac, edited by M. Uhle, pp. XVI–LXVI. Reprinted. Originally published 1903. Monograph 62. University Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia.
Shimada, I. 1994 Pampa Grande and the Mochica Culture. University of Texas, Austin.
Stanley, S. M. 1970 Relation of Shell Form to Life Habits of the Bivalvia (Mollusca). Memoir 125. Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colorado.
Topic, J. R. 1990 Craft Production in the Kingdom of Chimor. In The Northern Dynasties: Kingship and Statecraft in Chimor: A Symposium at Dumbarton Oaks 12th and 13th October 1985, edited by M. E. Moseley and A. Cordy-Collins, pp. 145176. Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, D.C.
Topic, J. R., and Moseley, M. E. 1983 Chan Chan: A Case Study in Urban Change in Peru. Ñawpa Pacha 21:153182.
Topic, T. L. 1990 Territorial Expansion and the Kingdom of Chimor. In The Northern Dynasties: Kingship and Statecraft in Chimor: A Symposium at Dumbarton Oaks 12th and 13th October 1985, edited by M. E. Moseley and A. Cordy-Collins, pp. 177194. Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, D.C.
Uceda Castillo, S., Cornejo García, M., and Hoyle Montalva, A. M. 1980 Informe de trabajos de excavación llevados a cabo por arqueólogos del CIRBM/RLL [Centro de Investigación y Restauración de Bienes Muebles, La Libertad], en la zona unidad sur 1, sector Chayhuac, Chan-Chan. Trazo de la carretera de evitamiento. Unpublished report on file at the Instituto Regional de Cultura, La Libertad, Trujillo, Perú.
Watson, H. 1930 On the Central Nervous System of Spondylus and What Happens to a Headless Mollusc’s Brain. Proceedings of the Malacological Society of London 19(1):3136.
Yonge, C. M. 1973–1974 Functional Morphology with Particular Reference to Hinge and Ligament in Spondylus and Plicatula and a Discussion on Relations within the Superfamily Pectinacea (Mollusca: Bivalvia). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B 267:173208.
Zeidler, J. A. 1991 Maritime Exchange in the Early Formative Period of Coastal Ecuador: Geopolitical Origins of Uneven Development. Research in Economic Anthropology 13:247268.
Zuidema, R. T. 1990 Dynastic Structure in Andean Culture. In The Northern Dynasties: Kingship and Statecraft in Chimor: A Symposium at Dumbarton Oaks 12th and 13th October 1985, edited by M. E. Moseley and A. Cordy-Collins, pp. 489505. Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, D.C.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Latin American Antiquity
  • ISSN: 1045-6635
  • EISSN: 2325-5080
  • URL: /core/journals/latin-american-antiquity
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed