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Village Size and Permanence in Amazonia: Two Archaeological Examples from Brazil

  • Michael J. Heckenberger (a1), James B. Petersen (a2) and Eduardo Goés Neves (a3)
Abstract

Recent archaeological investigations along the lower Negro and upper Xingu Rivers in the Brazilian Amazon provide important new evidence bearing on long-standing debates about the size and permanence of Amerindian settlements in the region. Preliminary regional surveys and more in-depth study of selected large (30-50 ha) sites, particularly analyses of the associations between structural features, anthropogenically altered soils, and artifact distributions, lead us to conclude that large, permanent settlements, likely associated with fairly dense regional populations, existed prehistorically in both areas. These findings cast doubt on the view that environmental limitations prevented sedentism and demographic growth among Amerindian populations throughout much or all of the region. Specifically, we conclude that fully sedentary and relatively large populations emerged in a variety of Amazonian settings prehistorically, not necessarily correlated with the distribution of one or another narrowly defined ecological variable (e. g., high fertility soils). Thus, a critical evaluation of core concepts in Amazonian anthropology, such as the várzea/terra firme dichotomy or tropical forest culture, is advised.

Resumen

Investigaciones arqueológicas recientes a lo largo de los ríos bajo Negro y alto Xingú, en la Amazonia brasileña, proporcionan nuevas e importantes evidencias para los prolongados debates acerca del tamaño y la permanencia de los asentamientos amerindios en la región. Relevamientos preliminares realizados en la región y estudios más profundos de sitios de 30 a 50 hectáreas, particularmente un análisis de la asociación entre rasgos estructurales, suelos antropogénicamente alterados y distribuciones de artefatos, nos llevan a concluir que estos asentamientos de gran tamaño y permanentes, probablemente asociados a poblaciones regionales bastante densas, existieron prehistóricamente en ambas áreas. estos hallazgos plantean serias dudas a la visión, sostenida por mucho tiempo, de que limitaciones medioambientales habrian impedido el sedentarismo y el crecimiento demográfico entre las poblaciones amerindias de la región. Concluímos, específicamente, que poblaciones plenamente sedentarias y relativamente amplias emergieron prehistóricamente en una variedad de escenarios amazónicos, no necesariamente correlacionadas con la distribución de ninguna variable ecológica estrechamente definida. Por consiguiente, se requiere una evaluación crítica de ciertos conceptos incorporados en la antropología amazona tales como la dicotomía valle/tierra firme o la cultura de la floresta tropical.

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