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The First Liability Insurance Cartel in America, 1896–1906


This article studies the rise and fall of the first liability insurance cartel in the United States. In 1886, insurance companies in America began selling liability insurance for personal injury accidents, primarily to cover business tort liability for employee accidents at work and non-employee injuries occasioned by their business operations. In 1896, the leading liability insurers agreed to fix premium rates and share information on policyholder losses. In 1906, this cartel fell apart.

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Naomi R. Lamoreaux , The Great Merger Movement in American Business, 1895–1904 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985)

Martin J. Sklar , The Corporate Reconstruction of American Capitalism, 1890–1916 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988), 159–63

Herbert Hovenkampf , Enterprise and American Law, 1836–1937 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1991), 241–67

Gerald Berk , Louis D. Brandeis and the Making of Regulated Competition, 1900–1932 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009), 714

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Law and History Review
  • ISSN: 0738-2480
  • EISSN: 1939-9022
  • URL: /core/journals/law-and-history-review
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