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1. Koselleck, Reinhart, “Über die Theoriebedürftigkeit der Geschichtswissenschaft” [originally published in 1972], in Zeitschichten: Studien zur Historik (Berlin: Suhrkamp, 2000), 302.
2. Rabinowitz, Adam, “It's About Time: Historical Periodization and Linked Ancient World Data,” Institute for the Study of the Ancient World Papers 7 (2014): 20.
3. The “seamless web” reference is drawn from Pollock, Sir Frederick and Maitland, Frederic William, The History of English Law (Carmel: Liberty Fund 1898), 1.
4. Koskenniemi, Martti, “Vitoria and Us. Thoughts on Critical Histories of International Law,” Rechtsgeschichte- Legal History 22 (2014): 119–38, at 119.
5. For use of the term “legal consciousness,” see Kennedy, Duncan, “Toward an Historical Understanding of Legal Consciousness: The Case of Classical Legal Thought in America, 1850–1940,” Research in Law & Society 3 (1980): 3–24, at 3.
6. Diggelmann, Oliver, “The Periodization of the History of International Law,” in The Oxford Handbook of the History of International Law, ed. Fassbender, Bardo and Peters, Anne (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012), 997–1011, at 998.
7. Jouannet, Emmanuelle and Peters, Anne, “The Journal of the History of International Law: A Forum for New Research,” Journal of the History of International Law 16 (2014): 1–8, at 2.
8. Thomas Skouteris, “The Turn to History in International Law,” in Oxford Bibliographies of International Law, June 27, 2017. http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780199796953/obo-9780199796953-0154.xml. Macdonald, Ronald St. John, “Editorial,” Journal of the History of International Law 1 (1999): 1–6.
9. Vadi, Valentina “International Law and Its Histories: Methodological Risks and Opportunities,” Harvard International Law Journal 58 (2017): 1–34, at 3.
10. See the classic Morgenthau, Hans, Politics Among Nations. The Struggle for Power and Peace (New York: Alfred Knopf, 1948), 243, noting that decentralization “seems to be of the essence of international law” “with regard to the three basic functions which any legal system must fulfill: legislation, adjudication, and enforcement.”
11. See Koskenniemi, Martti, “The Politics of International Law,” European Journal of International Law 1 (1990): 4–32. See also Koskenniemi, Martti, “The Politics of International Law—20 Years Later,” European Journal of International Law 20 (2009): 7–19.
12. To the best of my knowledge, only two specific works have been solely devoted to the study of periodization in the international legal literature. These are the already mentioned Diggelmann, “The Periodization of the History of International Law,” and Butler, William, “Periodization and International Law,” in Research Handbook on the Theory and History of International Law, ed. Orakhelashvili, Alexander (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2011), 379–93.
13. Stearns, Peter N., “Periodization in World History Teaching: Identifying the Big Changes,” The History Teacher 20 (1987): 561–80, at 561–62.
14. Bentley, Jerry H, “Cross-Cultural Interaction and Periodization in World History,” American Historical Review 101 (1996): 749–70, at 749; Stearns, “Periodization,” 562.
15. Lesaffer, Randall, “The End of the Cold War: An Epochal Event in the History of International Law?” Tilburg Working Paper Series on Jurisprudence and Legal History 10 (2010): 1–25, at 1, 5.
16. Wilhelm Grewe, The Epochs of International Law (Berlin: De Gruyter 2000 ), 1–6. For Grewe, it is important to “recognise and demarcate the close connection between legal theory and State practice, and to comprehend that both are forms of expression of the same power, which characterise the political style of an epoch just as much as its principles of social, economic and legal organisation” (6).
17. Lesaffer, “The End of the Cold War,” 16, 23.
18. Koskenniemi, Martti, “Review of The Epochs of International Law,” International and Comparative Law Quarterly 51 (2002): 746–51, at 747.
19. Koskenniemi, Martti, “Introduction: International Law and Empire—Aspects and Approaches,” in International Law and Empire—Historical Explorations, ed. Koskenniemi, Martti, Rech, Walter, and J., Manuel Fonseca (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017), 4.
20. See Anghie, Antony, Imperialism, Sovereignty and the Making of International Law (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005), 28. Anghie took his cue from a similar interpretation of Vitoria put forward by Tzvetan Todorov in the early 1980s, Todorov, Tzvetan, La Conquête de l'Amérique: La Question de l'autre (Paris: Seuil, 1982).
21. Chimni, Bhupinder S., “International Institutions Today: An Imperial Global State in the Making,” European Journal of International Law 15 (2004): 1–37, at 1.
22. Orford, Anne, Reading Humanitarian Intervention: Human Rights and the Use of Force in International Law (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), 39. Moreover, a more nuanced understanding of the limitations of epochal periodization derives, as will be discussed subsequently, from the consideration of other factors and historical lenses as a basis for alternative periodizations of the history of international law.
23. Lesaffer, “The End of the Cold War,” 6.
24. Steiger, Heinhard, “From the International Law of Christianity to the International Law of the World Citizen—Reflections on the Formation of the Epochs of the History of International Law,” Journal of the History of International Law 3 (2001): 180–93.
26. Koskenniemi, Martti, “On the Idea and Practice for Universal History with a Cosmopolitan Purpose” in Terror, Peace and Universalism. Essays on the Philosophy of Immanuel Kant, ed. Puri, Bindu and Sievers, Heiko (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007), 122–48.
27. See also Skouteris, Thomas, “Engaging History in International Law,” in New Approaches to International Law, The European and American Experiences, ed. Kennedy, David and Beneyto, Jose Maria (Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2011), 99–121.
28. Altwicker, Thomas and Diggelmann, Oliver, “How is Progress Constructed in International Legal Scholarship?” European Journal of International Law 25 (2014): 425–44.
29. Lesaffer, “The End of the Cold War,” 7.
30. Military and Paramilitary Activities (Nicaragua v. United States of America), Merits (1986) ICJ Rep 14, para. 263.
31. Beaulac, Stéphane, The Power of Language in the Making of International Law: The Word Sovereignty in Bodin and Vattel and the Myth of Westphalia (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 2004).
32. See Ignacio de la Rasilla, “History of International Law, 1550–1700,” Oxford Bibliographies of International Law, February 22, 2018. http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780199796953/obo-9780199796953-0036.xml.
33. Kolb, Robert, Esquisse d'un droit international public des anciennes cultures extra-européennes. Amérique precolombienne. Iles Polynésiennes. Afrique Noire. Sous-continent indien. Chine et régions limitrophes (Paris: Pédone, 2010).
34. Preiser, Wilhelm, “Die Epochen der antiken Volkerrechtsgeschichte,” Juristenzeitung 11 (1956): 737–44.
35. For a selected bibliography, see Ignacio de la Rasilla, “Medieval International Law,” Oxford Bibliographies of International Law, June 30, 2014. http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780199796953/obo-9780199796953-0112.xml.
36. See de la Rasilla, Ignacio, “The Shifting Origins of International Law,” Leiden Journal of International Law 28 (2015): 419–40, at 419, 424.
37. Chernilo, Daniel, “The Critique of Methodological Nationalism: Theory and History,” Thesis Eleven 106 (2011) 98–117, at 106.
38. Ruskola, Teemu, “Raping Like a State,” UCLA Law Review 57 (2010): 1477, 1485.
39. Benton, Lauren and Ford, Lisa, Rage for Order: The British Empire and the Origins of International Law, 1800–1850 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2016).
40. Koskenniemi, Martti, “What use for Sovereignty Today?” Asian Journal of International Law 1 (2011): 61–70, 61.
41. See Lesaffer, noting that “most individual periodizations (of the history of international law) are based on a very few foundational assumptions that are shared among historians of international law and international lawyers alike.” Lesaffer, “The End of the Cold War,” 5.
42. Koskenniemi, Martti, “Histories of International Law: Significance and Problems for a Critical View,” Temple International and Comparative Law Journal 27 (2013): 215–40, at 215.
43. Koskenniemi, Martti, “Constitutionalism as Mindset: Reflections on Kantian Themes About International Law and Globalization,” Theoretical Inquiries in Law 8 (2007): 9–36, at 1, 12.
44. Jouannet, Emmanuelle, Emmer de Vattel et l’émergence doctrinale du droit international classique (Paris: Pédone 1998).
45. Koskenniemi, Martti, The Gentle Civilizer of Nations: The Rise and Fall of International Law 1870–1960 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001).
46. See, as representative of the New Haven School, Laswell, Harold D. and McDougal, Myres, Jurisprudence for a Free Society: Studies in Law, Science and Policy (Berlin: Springer, 1992). See as an early representative of postcolonial voices, Abi-Saab, Georges, “The Newly Independent States and the Rules of International Law: An Outline,” Howard Law Journal 8 (1962): 95–121, at 95.
47. See Orford, Anne and Hoffmann, Florian, eds., The Oxford Handbook of the Theory of International Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016).
48. See Kadelbach, Stefan, Kleinlein, Thomas, and Roth-Isigkeit, David, eds., System, Order, and International Law. The Early History of International Legal Thought from Machiavelli to Hegel (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017).
49. Cavallar, Georg, “Vitoria, Grotius, Pufendorg, Wolff and Vattel: Accomplices of European Colonialism and Exploitation or True Cosmopolitans?” Journal of the History of International Law 10 (2008): 181–209.
50. Weststeijn, Arthur, “Provincializing Grotius. International Law and Empire in a Seventeenth-Century Malay Mirror,” in International Law and Empire. Historical Explorations, ed. Koskenniemi, Martti, Rech, Walter, and Jiménez, Manuel Fonseca (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017), 21–38, at 21–22.
51. Fitzmaurice, Andrew, “The Problem of Eurocentrism in the Thought of Francisco de Vitoria,” in At the Origins of Modernity, Francisco de Vitoria and the Discovery of International Law, ed. Beneyto, Jose Maria and Varela, Justo Corti (Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2017), 77–93.
52. See Armitage, David and Pitts, Jeniffer, “This Modern Grotius: An Introduction to the Life and Thought of C.H. Alexandrowicz,” in The Law of Nations in Global History, ed. H., Charles Alexandrowicz (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017).
53. This move has been greatly inspired by Martti Koskenniemi's efforts to infuse the “study of international law with a sense of historical motion and political, even personal, struggle.” Koskenniemi, The Gentle Civilizer, 10.
54. See Johns, Fleur, Skouteris, Thomas, and Werner, Wourner, eds., “The Periphery Series: Alejandro Álvarez,” Leiden Journal of International Law 19 (2006): 875–1040; and Johns, Fleur, Skouteris, Thomas, and Werner, Wourner, eds., “The Periphery Series, Taslim Olawale Elias,” Leiden Journal of International Law 21 (2008): 289–90.
55. Skinner, Quentin, “Meaning and Understanding in the History of Ideas,” History and Theory 8 (1969): 3–53.
56. Tuck, Richard, The Rights of War and Peace: Political Thought and the International Order from Grotius and Kant (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999); and van Ittersum, Martine Julia, Profit and Principle: Hugo Grotius, Natural Rights Theories and the Rise of Dutch Power in the East Indies, 1595–1605 (The Hague: Brill, 2006).
57. Koskenniemi, Martti, “Law of Nations and the Conflict of the Faculties,” History of the Present. A Journal of Critical History 8 (2018): 4–28.
58. Capoccia, Giovanni, “Critical Junctures,” in The Oxford Handbook on Historical Institutionalism, ed. Fioretos, Orfeo, Falleti, Tulia G., and Sheingate, Adam (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016).
59. Kennedy, David, “The Move to Institutions,” Cardozo Law Review 8 (1987): 841–988, 841.
60. See Kolb, Robert, ed., Commentaire sur le Pacte de la Société des Nations (Brussels: Bruylant, 2015).
61. Shany, Yuval, “No Longer A Weak Department of Power? Reflection on the Emergence of a New International Judiciary,” European Journal of International Law 20 (2009): 73–91, at 73.
62. Scott, James Brown, “Preface,” in The Classics of International Law, Richard Zouche, Iuris et iudicii fecialis, sive, iuris inter gentes, et quaestionum de eodem explication, ed. Erskine, Thomas (Washington, DC: Carnegie Institution, 1911), 2.
63. Cesare Romano, “International Courts,” Oxford Bibliographies in International Law, March 23, 2012. http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780199796953/obo-9780199796953-0046.xml.
64. Rose Sydney Parfitt, “The League of Nations,” Oxford Bibliographies in International Law, February 28, 2017. http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780199796953/obo-9780199796953-0151.xml.
65. Pedersen, Susan, The Guardians: The League of Nations and the Crisis of Empire (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015).
66. See Mazower, Mark, No Enchanted Palace: The End of Empire and the Ideological Origins of the United Nations (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2013).
67. Fioretos, Orfeo, Falleti, Tulia G., and Sheingate, Adam, “Historical Institutionalism in Political Science,” in The Oxford Handbook of Historical Institutionalism, ed. Fioretos, Orfeo, Falleti, Tulia G., and Sheingate, Adam (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016), 3.
68. Ibid., 6–11.
69. Katzenstein, Suzanne, “In the Shadow of Crisis: The Creation of International Courts in the Twentieth Century,” Harvard International Law Journal 55 (2014): 151–209.
70. Fioretos, Falleti, and Sheingate, “Historical Institutionalism,” 11, 14.
71. Sinclair, Guy Fiti, To Reform the World. International Organizations and the Making of Modern States (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017) 1, noting that the main aim of the book is “to develop a critical historical account of the role that legal ideas, arguments, routines and techniques have played in making IO expansion practically feasible and normatively desirable.”
72. William Butler, “Periodization and International Law,” 391.
73. Ibid., 391.
74. Described as one cultivated by international lawyers who “tend to be interested in the past for the light it throws on the present and consider it as a self-contained universe, tracing the genealogy of given concepts with little if any attention to context.” Vadi, “International Law and Its Histories,” 2.
75. Bianchi, Andrea, International Law Theories: An Inquiry into Different Ways of Thinking (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016), 21.
76. For a critique, see Bernstorff, Jochen von, “International Legal History and Its Methodologies: How (Not) To Tell the Story of the Many Lives and Deaths of the ius ad bellum,” Völkerrechtsgeschichte(n), Historische Narrative und Konzepte im Wandel, Veröffentlichungen des Walther-Schücking-Instituts für Internationales Recht an der Universität Kiel 196 (2017): 39–52.
77. Skinner, Quentin, “Meaning and Understanding in the History of Ideas,” History and Theory 8 (1969): 3–53, at 3.
78. Lesaffer, Randal, “International Law and Its History: The Story of an Unrequited Love,” in Time, History and International Law, ed. Craven, Matthew, Fitzmaurice, Malgosia, and Vogiatzi, Maria (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 2008), 27–41.
79. Southgate, Beverley, “Postmodernism,” in A Companion to the Philosophy of History and Historiography, ed. Tucker, Aviezer (Hoboken, NJ: Blackwell Publishing, 2009).
80. Oliver Diggelmann, “Periodization,” 1002.
81. For a selected bibliography, see Thomas Skouteris, “New Approaches to International Law,” Oxford Bibliographies of International Law, March 23, 2012. http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780199796953/obo-9780199796953-0012.xml.
82. For the influence of “critical theory” in the development of the “historical turn” or “turn to history” in international law, see, for example, Galindo, Georges R. Bandeira, “Force Field: On History and Theory of International Law,” Zeitschrift des Max-Planck-Instituts fur europaische Rechtsgeschichte 20 (2012): 86–103.
83. Skouteris, “The Turn to History in International Law.” According to Skouteris, the “turn to history” could be said to comprise at least six trends: “a re-reading of the history of international law which provincializes the present state of international law; a move away from grand Eurocentric narratives and towards global, micro and subaltern histories; a renewed interest in sociological accounts of the profession; a turn to the archive; a reflection on epistemic questions and recognition of the significance of the field's historical consciousness for its legitimacy and vitality.”
84. Orford, Anne, “On International Legal Method,” London Review of International Law 1 (2013): 166–97, at 171.
85. Ibid., 171. Also, Koskenniemi, “Histories of International Law,” 229–32.
86. Jones, Henry, “The Radical Use of History in the Study of International Law,” Finnish Yearbook of International Law 23 (2012–2013): 309–50.
87. Koskenniemi, The Gentle Civilizer, 7.
88. Gross, Aeyal, “After the Falls: International Law Between Post-Modernity and Anti-Modernity,” in Regards d'une génération de juristes sur le droit international, ed. Jouannet, Emmanuelle, Ruiz-Fabri, Helene, and Marc, Jean Sorel (Paris: Pédone, 2008), 183–208, at 207.
89. Chimni, Bhupinder Singh, “The Past, Present and Future of International Law: A Critical Third World Approach,” Melbourne Journal of International Law 8 (2007): 499, 513.
90. Lyotard, Jean-Francois, The Postmodern Condition. A Report on Knowledge, (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1984) (describing the “post-modern” turn as “incredulity toward meta-narratives,” and its replacement by a “multiplicity of justices”).
91. Koskenniemi, Martti, “Between Context and Telos: Reviewing the Structures of International Law,” in Historical Teleologies in the Modern World, ed. Trüper, Henning, Chakrabarty, Dipesh, and Subrahmanyam, Sanjay (London: Bloomsbury, 2015), 216.
92. See Foucault, Michel, “Nietzsche, Genealogy, History,” in Language, Counter-memory, Practice: Selected Essays and Interviews, ed. Bouchard, Donald F. (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1980), 139. See also Golder, Ben, “Foucault and the Incompletion of Law,” Leiden Journal of International Law 21 (2008): 747–63, at 747, 750.
93. Berman, Nathaniel, Passions et Ambivalences: le colonialisme, le nationalisme et le droit international (Paris: Pédone, 2008), 88. On Nathaniel Berman's historiographical method, see de la Rasilla, Ignacio, “International Law in the Historical Present Tense,” Leiden Journal of International Law 22 (2009): 629–49, at 629.
94. Diggelmann, “Periodization,” 999.
95. Ibid., 1010, noting, relying on Benedetto Croce's classic historiographical axiom according to which “all history is contemporary history,” that “periodization of the past is always also contemporary history.”
96. Ibid., 1000.
97. Cajani, Luigi, “Periodization,” in The Oxford Handbook of World History, ed. Bentley, Jerry H. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012), 1, 16; Peters, Anne, “A Century after the Russian Revolution: Its Legacy in International Law,” Journal of the History of International Law 19 (2017): 133–46.
98. Orford, Anne, ed., International Law and its Others (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009).
99. Lorca, Arnulf Becker, “Eurocentrism in the History of International Law,” in The Oxford Handbook of the History of International Law, ed. Fassbender, Bardo and Peters, Anne (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012), 1034–57, at 1035.
100. See Mutua, Makau, “What is TWAIL?” Proceedings of the American Society of International Law 94 (2000): 31–38; and Koskenniemi, Martti, “Expanding Histories of International Law,” American Journal of Legal History 56 (2016): 104–12.
101. See, for example, respectively, Anghie, Imperialism, Sovereignty and the Making of International Law; Craven, Matthew “Between Law and History: The Berlin Conference of 1884–1885 and the Logic of Free Trade,” London Review of International Law 23 (2015): 31–59, at 31; Anghie, Antony, “Nationalism, Development and the Postcolonial State: The Legacies of the League of Nations,” Texas Journal of International Law 41 (2016): 447–63, at 447; Pahuja, Sundhya, Decolonising International Law: Development, Economic Growth and the Politics of Universality (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011); Eslava, Luis, Nesiah, Vasuki, and Fakhri, Michael, Bandung, Global History and International Law: Critical Pasts and Pending Futures (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016); and Bedjaoui, Mohammed, Towards a New International Economic Order (New York: Holmes & Maier, 1979), 123.
102. Kennedy, Duncan, Rise and Fall of Classical Legal Thought unpublished manuscript, 1975; reformatted 1998, published with a new preface by the author, “Thirty Years Later” (Washington: Beard Books, 2006). For what is widely seen as the first comprehensive survey of American legal history, see Friedman, Lawrence M., A History of American Law (New York: Simon & Schuster 1973), with subsequent revised editions in 1985 and 2005.
103. Duncan Kennedy built on this earlier periodization of American legal thought to frame what he called the three globalizations of law and legal thought years later. Kennedy, Duncan, “Three Globalizations of Law and Legal Thought: 1850–2000,” in The New Law and Economic Development. A Critical Appraisal, ed. Trubek, David and Santos, Alvaro (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006).
104. Koskenniemi, The Gentle Civilizer, 4.
105. Jouannet and Peters, “The Journal of the History,” 2.
106. Dupuy, Pierre Marie, “Un débat doctrinal à l′ère de la globalisation: sur la fragmentation du droit international,” European Journal of Legal Studies 1 (2007): 1–19.
107. Fragmentation of International Law: Difficulties Arising from the Diversification and Expansion of International Law, 58th Session of the International Law Commission, Report of the Study Group on the Fragmentation of International Law, finalized by Martti Koskenniemi. U.N. Doc A/CN.4/L.682, Commission (2006).
108. See, for example, respectively, Megret, Frederic and Talgrenn, Immi, eds., The Dawn of a Discipline. International Criminal Justice and its Early Exponents (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018); Miles, Karen, The Origins of International Investment Law: Empire, Environment, and the Safeguarding of Capital (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013); and Sand, Peter H., ed., The History and Origin of International Environmental Law (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2015).
109. See, for example, Bohrer, Ziv, “International Criminal Law's Millennium of Forgotten History,” Law and History Review 34 (2016): 393–485.
110. Moyn, Samuel, The Last Utopia. Human Rights in History (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2012); and Koskenniemi, Martti, “Foreword: History of Human Rights as Political Intervention in the Present,” in Revisiting the Origins of Human Rights, ed. Slotte, Pamela and Halme, Miia Tuomisaari (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015), ix–xviii.
111. Gong, Gerrit W., The Standard of Civilization and the International Society (Oxford: Clarendon Press 1984).
112. Lorimer, James, The Institutes of the Law of Nations: A Treatise of the Jural Relations of Separate Political Communities (Edinburgh: William Blackwood & Sons, 1883). On Lorimer, James, see more recently, various authors, “Symposium on the European Tradition in International Law: James Lorimer,” European Journal of International Law 26 (2016): 409.
113. Orué, Jose R. y Arregui, “Regionalism in the International Organization,” Collected Courses of The Hague Academy of International Law 53 (1935): 1–96, at 1.
114. Anghie, Antony, “Identifying Regions and Sub-Regions in the History of International Law,” in The Oxford Handbook of the History of International Law, ed. Fassbender, Bardo and Peters, Anne (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012).
115. Alvarez, Alejandro, Le droit international américain (Paris: Pédone, 1910).
116. The seminal account is Wallerstein, Immanuel, The Modern World-System: Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World-Economy in the Sixteenth Century (New York: Academic Press, 1976).
117. Verosta, Stephan, “Regionen und Perioden der Geschichte des Volkerrechts,” Osterreichische Zeitschrift für Offentliches Recht und Volkerrecht 30 (1979): 1–21.
118. Lorca, Arnulf Becker, Mestizo International Law. A Global Intellectual History 1842–1933 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015).
119. Scarfi, Juan Pablo, The Hidden History of International Law in the Americas. Empire and Legal Networks (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017), xvii.
120. Diggelmann, “Periodization,” 1001.
121. Chan, Phil C. W., “China's Approaches to International Law since the Opium War,” Leiden Journal of International Law 27 (2014): 859–92.
122. Scobbie, Iain, “Redefining European Tradition,” Proceedings of the American Society of International Law 107 (2013): 382–85.
123. See, for example, de la Rasilla, Ignacio, In the Shadow of Vitoria. A History of International Law in Spain (1770–1953) (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 2017).
124. Bentley, “Cross-Cultural Interaction,” 750.
125. See United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)’s efforts to promote world peace through a new non-nationalistic world history, de Berrêdo Carneiro, Paulo Estêvão, ed., The History of Mankind: Cultural and Scientific Development (Paris: UNESCO 1963–69).
126. Bentley, “Cross-Cultural Interaction,” 750.
127. Conrad, Sebastian, What is Global History? (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2017), 5.
128. Kemmerer, Alexandra, “Towards a Global History of International Law? Editor's Note,” European Journal of International Law 25 (2014): 287–95, at 287.
129. See Özsu, Umut and Skouteris, Thomas, “International Legal Histories of the Ottoman Empire: An Introduction to the Symposium,” Journal of the History of International Law 19 (2016): 1–4, at 1.
130. Bentley, “Cross-Cultural Interaction,” 750.
131. de la Rasilla, Ignacio and Shahid, Ayesha, eds., International Law and Islam. Historical Explorations (The Hague: Brill/Martinus Nijhoff, 2018).
132. Rechid, Ahmed, “L'Islam et le droit des gens,” Recueil de Cours de l'Academie de Droit International de la Haye 60 (1937): 371, 385.
133. Ibid., 386.
134. Cardinal, Pierre-Alexandre and Mégret, Frederic, “The Other ‘Other’: Moors, International Law and the Origin of the Colonial Matrix,” in International Law and Islam. Historical Explorations, ed. de la Rasilla, Ignacio and Shahid, Ayesha (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 2018).
135. Thomas Duve, Global Legal History: A Methodological Approach, Max Planck Institute for European Legal History, Research Paper Series No. 2016-04. http://ssrn.com/abstract=2781104 (accessed June 10, 2018).
136. Ibid., 11.
137. International law has been traditionally understood as the body of legal rules governing interactions between sovereign states as these have emerged over time from those very same interactions.
138. Koskenniemi, Martti, “A History of International Law Histories,” in The Oxford Handbook of the History of International Law, ed. Fassbender, Bardo and Peters, Anne (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012).
140. de la Rasilla, Ignacio, “A Very Short History of International Law Journals, 1869–2018,” European Journal of International Law 29 (2018): 137–68.
141. These, as has been discussed, were built on international institutions, international legal theory, international norms, Marxist economic theory, events of colonial or postcolonial significance, the growing academic subdisciplinary diversification and specialization of the field of international law and of its history, geographical factors, cross-cultural interactions, and, also, hitherto neglected research topics, respectively.
142. Okihiro, Gary Y., The Columbia Guide to Asian American History (New York: Columbia University Press, 2001), 34.
143. Diggelmann, “Periodization,” 1001.
144. See Cryer, Robert, Hervey, Tamara, and Sokhi-Bulley, Bal, eds., Research Methodologies in EU and International Law (Oxford: Hart, 2011), 5, presenting a list of “theories, methodology, approaches” with reference to both European Union Law and International Law. This list includes: “Natural Law, Legal Positivism, Liberalism, Cosmopolitanism, Constitutionalism, New Governance, Idealist, Marxism, Feminism, Queer Theory, Postcolonial Theory, Critical Theory, Law and International Relations/Political Science (including the sub-variants of both Liberalism and Constructivism) Law and Economics, Law and Sociology, Law and History, Law and Geography and Law and Literature.”
145. See, for example, Ruskola, “Raping Like a State,” 1485, noting that “in historical analysis, periodization is inevitable, but never innocent.”
146. Koskenniemi, “Histories of International Law,” 226.
147. Kennedy, David, “When Renewal Repeats: Thinking Against the Box,” New York Journal of International Law and Politics 32 (2000): 335–500, at 335.
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