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Revisiting the Rights of Man: Georg Jellinek on Rights and the State

  • Duncan Kelly


A century has passed since the publication in Germany of a now famous essay on the rights of man by the Heidelberg professor of public law, Georg Jellinek. Over the course of that century, although a “rights revolution” has undoubtedly taken place, numerous practical problems remain in trying to enforce the basic proposition that “all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.” Such problems have led one recent commentator to suggest that perhaps the only meaningful defense of human rights is one based on “moral reciprocity” and secular humanism because any attempts to prioritize human rights on either religious grounds, for example, or that of intrinsic human value, are doomed to failure.



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1. Jellinek, Georg, The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen (1895; New York: Henry Holt. 1901). The first English translation appeared in 1901 and is the principal edition used in this study; the French edition appeared in 1902. See also Boutmy, Emile, “La Déclaration des droits de l'homme et du citoyen et M. Jellinek,” Annales des sciences politiques 17 (1902): 415–43; Jellinek, Georg, “La Déclaration des droits de l'homme et du citoyen et M. Boutmy,” repr. in his Ausgewählte Schriften und Reden, ed. Jellinek, Walter (Aalen: Scientia Verlag, [1911] 1970), 2:6581.

2. Ignatieff, Michael, Human Rights as Politics and Idolatry (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2001), 29, also 48, 64, 78ff.

3. Ibid., 82–92.

4. Schmale, Wolfgang, “Georg Jellinek et la Déclaration des Droits de l'Homme de 1789,” in Mélanges offerts à Claude Petitfrère: Regards sur les sociétés modernes (XVIe-XVIIe siècle), ed. Turrel, D. (Tours: CEHVI, Publication de l'Université de Tours, 1997), 303–11, esp. 304. See Jellinek, Georg, Allgemeine Staatslehre, 3rd ed. (Berlin: Julius Springer Verlag, [1900] 1921), esp. 416.

5. Jellinek, Georg, Die Erklärung der Menschen—und Bürgerrechte: Ein Beitrag zur modernen Verfassungsgeschichte, 2nd ed. (Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, 1904), vii–viii.

6. See Krieger, Leonard, The German Idea of Freedom (Boston: Beacon, 1959); cf. Anderson, Margaret Lavinia, “Reply to Volker Berghahn,” Central European History 35 (2002): 8390, who offers a stimulating critique of historiographical debates about a German Sonderweg in the light of her own recent research.

7. Schmale, “Georg Jellinek,” 306; Stolleis, Michael, “Georg Jellineks Beitrag zur Entwicklung der Menschen—und Bürgerrechte,” in Georg Jellinek—Beiträge zu Leben und Werk, ed. Paulson, Stanley and Schulte, Martin (Tübingen: J. C. B. Mohr [Paul Siebeck], 2000), 109.

8. Stolleis, Michael, Geschichte des öffentlichen Rechts in Deutschland, vol. 2, 1800–1914 (Munich: C. H. Beck, 1992), 450–55.

9. Pitkin, Hanna, “Are Freedom and Liberty Twins?Political Theory 16 (1988): 528–32, notes that the Indo-European origins of “liberty” are Greek and Latin, mediated later through French, while “freedom” is more Germanic and Anglo-Saxon. The distinction remains controversial etymologically, conceptually, and politically.

10. Hewitson, Mark, National Identity and Political Thought in Germany: Wilhelmine Depictions of the French Third Republic, 1890–1914 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2000), esp. chaps. 2–3; Böckenförde, Ernst-Wolfgang, “The German Type of Constitutional Monarchy in the Nineteenth Century,” in his State, Society and Liberty, ed. and trans. Underwood, J. A. (Leamington Spa: Berg, 1991), 87114, provides a good discussion of the conceptual affinities between the idea of the Rechtsstaat and modern liberalism.

11. See Iggers, Georg G., The German Conception of History: The National Tradition of Historical Thought from Herder to the Present, rev. ed. (Hanover, N.H.: Wesleyan University Press, [1968] 1988); Isbell, John Clairborne, The Birth of European Romanticism: Truth and Propaganda in Staël's “De l'Allemagne,” 1810–1813 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994), 124ff; Vick, Brian, Defining Germany: The 1848 Frankfurt Parliamentarians and National Identity (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2002), esp. chap. 1.

12. In a debate about the possibilities of parliamentarization in Germany initiated in the Viennese Neue Freie Presse in 1907 by Gustav Schmoller, Schmoller defended the German Beamtenstaat as superior in form to any parliamentary system. Jellinek wrote a critical reply (as had Alfred Weber, who pleaded for the introduction of a parliamentary system) that brought elements of the two sides together. He concluded that a federal structure and a parliamentary system of government, as things stood with a weak Bundesrat in Germany, were completely incompatible. See Christoph Schönberger, “Ein Liberaler zwischen Staatswille und Volkswille,” in Jellinek—Beiträge zu Leben und Werk, 21.

13. On the general philosophical problems with the idea of “influence” in the history of ideas, see Skinner, Quentin, “Meaning and Understanding in the History of Ideas,” repr. in his Visions of Politics, vol. 1, Regarding Method (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002), 5789; also Kelley, Donald R., The Descent of Ideas: The History of Intellectual History (Aldershot: Ashgate. 2002).

14. Jellinek. Declaration of the Rights of Man, 44.

15. Ibid., 11.

16. Ibid., esp. 18–21, 27–42. On p. 20, he wrote that “the French Declaration of Rights is for the most part copied from the American declarations or ‘bills of rights.’” In the second German edition of the essay, the Virginia Bill of Rights was printed as an appendix to the main text.

17. Ibid., 19, n. 12; Marx, Karl, “On the Jewish Question” [1843], repr. in Karl Marx: Early Writings, ed. Colletti, Lucio (London: Penguin, 1974), 227–31, had made similar points of comparison between the American Bill of Rights and the French Déclaration, linking them to ideas of individual freedom. Jellinek proably knew these, yet, when discussing Marx, he typically focused his criticism on the developmental implications of historical materialism. See Kersten, Jens, Georg Jellinek und die klassische Staatslehre (Tübingen: J. C. B. Mohr [Paul Siebeck], 2000), 153.

18. Jellinek, Declaration of the Rights of Man, 46.

19. Ibid., 49f.

20. Ibid., 50f.

21. Ibid., 49.

22. Ibid., 94.

23. Ibid., 53.

24. Ibid., 54.

25. See Freeman, E. A., Comparative Politics (London: Macmillan, 1873), 127ff., and Lecture II in general; Burrow, J. W., A Liberal Descent (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983), chap. 7.

26. Jellinek, Declaration of the Rights of Man, 53f.

27. Ibid., 54. Emphasis added.

28. Cf. Dunn, John, “The Politics of Locke in England and America in the Eighteenth Century,” in John Locke: Problems and Perspectives, ed. Yolton, John (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1969), 4580; Banning, Lance, “Some Second Thoughts on Virtue and the Course of Revolutionary Thinking,” in Conceptual Change and the Constitution, ed. Ball, Terence and Pocock, J. G. A. (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1988), 194212; Rahe, Paul A., Republics Ancient and Modern—Inventions of Prudence: Constituting the American Regime, vol. 3 (Chapel Hill and London: University of North Carolina Press, 1994).

29. Jellinek, Declaration of the Rights of Man, 91: “Locke's doctrines of a Law of Nature appear to have had no influence at all outside of England.” However, the “continental doctrines of a Law of Nature played their important part for the first time at the end of the eighteenth century in the great social transformation of the French Revolution.” (My emphasis.) Cf. Jellinek, “La Déclaration,” 74: “Que Locke, que Blackstone, que Montesquieu, que Rousseau aient exercé une influence sur la Déclaration française, que le Droit anglais, par l'intermédiare de l'Amérique, ait agi indirectement sur elle, je pense l'avoir démontré surabondamment.”

30. Hutson, James H., “The Bill of Rights and the American Revolutionary Experience,” in A Culture of Rights: The Bill of Rights in Philosophy, Politics, and Law—1791 and 1991, ed. Lacey, M. J. and Haakonssen, Knud (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992), 6674, 78–81. See also Jellinek, Declaration of the Rights of Man, 55.

31. Jellinek, Declaration of the Rights of Man, 68.

32. Ibid., 74, 78–89. On p. 77, Jellinek argued that “what has been held to be a work of the Revolution was in reality a fruit of the Reformation and its struggles”; see also Huston, “The Bill of Rights,” 80–91.

33. Jellinek, Declaration of the Rights of Man, 95.

34. On this, see Jennings, Jeremy, “The Déclaration des droits de l'homme et du Citoyen and Its Critics in France: Reaction and Idéologie,” The Historical Journal 35 (1992): 839–59.

35. Interestingly enough, therefore, Boutmy did not make the rhetorical countermove of locating the origins of liberty in France in a protonationalist interpretation of Tacitus's Germania, as Bodin, for example, had done. See Briggs, Robin, “From the German Forests to Civil Society: The Frankish Myth and the Ancient Constitution in France,” in Civil Histories: Essays Presented to Sir Keith Thomas, ed. Burke, Peter, Harrison, Brian, and Slack, Paul (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), 231–49. For the revolutionary reinterpretation of this myth, see Bell, David, The Cult of the Nation in France: Inventing Nationalism, 1680–1800 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2001).

36. Boutmy, “La Déclaration,” 421; and see also Baker, Keith Michael, “Transformations of Classical Republicanism in Eighteenth-Century France,” Journal of Modern History 73 (2001): 3253.

37. Jellinek, “La Déclaration,” 64–65.

38. See Skinner, Quentin, “Humanism, Scholasticism and Popular Sovereignty,” in his Visions of Politics, vol. 2, Renaissance Virtues (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2002), 245–63.

39. Jellinek, “La Déclaration,” 67.

40. Ibid., 74–75, 79.

41. See Boutmy, “La Déclaration,” 423, on Jellinek's analogies and claims of “influence.”

42. Pole, J. R., “Reflections on American Law and the American Revolution,” The William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser., 50 (1993): 123–59.

43. Jellinek, Declaration of the Rights of Man, 55.

44. Blackstone, William, Commentaries on the Laws of England (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 17651769), 1:4041, quoted in Knud Haakonssen, “From Natural Law to the Rights of Man,” in A Culture of Rights, 34, n. 26.

45. See the discussion of Quentin Skinner, “From the State of Princes to the Person of the State,” Visions of Politics, vol. 2, Renaissance Virtues, 409ff.

46. Digest i. 3. 32. 1. I have quoted from the variant reading in The Institutes of Justinian, ed. and trans. Sanders, T. C. (London: Longmans Green and Co., 1922), 13. For an illuminating account of Gaius's importance to the development of Western legal thought both before and after Niebuhr's discovery, see Kelley, Donald R., “Gaius Noster: Substructures of Western Legal Thought,” American Historical Review 84 (1979): 619–48.

47. The importance of this element has been restated recently by Quentin Skinner in his formulations of a largely submerged neo-Roman theory of liberty in British political thought of the seventeenth century. See Skinner, Quentin, Liberty before Liberalism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998).

48. See Brett, Annabel, “The Civil Philosophy of Hugo Grotius,” Historical Journal 45 (2002): 33, 41, 43.

49. See Haakonssen, “From Natural Law to the Rights of Man,” 35. The classic statement is Hobbes, Thomas, Leviathan [1651], ed. Tuck, Richard (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992), chap. 14. For discussion see Skinner, Quentin, “Hobbes on Rhetoric and the Construction of Morality,” Visions of Politics, vol. 3, Hobbes and Civil Science (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002), 87141.

50. See Hochstrasser, Tim, Natural Law Theories in the Early Enlightenment (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001), 97, 101; Hunter, Ian, Rival Enlightenments: Civil and Metaphysical Philosophy in Early Modern Germany (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001), 174; Hont, István, “Samuel Pufendorf and the Theoretical Origins of the Four-Stages Theory,” in The Languages of Political Theory in Early-Modern Europe, ed. Pagden, Anthony (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987), 253–76.

51. See Johnston, David, Roman Law in Context (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1999), 78, 106.Oakeshott, Michael, On Human Conduct (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1975), made the distinction between societas and universitas the background to his own theory of human association.

52. On Locke's debts to these traditions, see Tully, James, An Approach to Political Philosophy: Locke in Contexts (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), chap. 9.

53. Haakonssen, “From Natural Law to the Rights of Man,” 47. See also Ignatieff, Michael and Hont, István, eds., Wealth and Virtue (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983); Rahe, Republics Ancient and Modern, vol. 3.

54. Thompson, Martyn, “The History of Fundamental Law in Political Thought from the French Wars of Religion to the American Revolution,” American Historical Review 91(1986): 1110.

55. Ibid., 1127.

56. Cf. Jellinek, “La Déclaration,” 67; Kley, Dale van, “From the Lessons of History to Truths for All Times and All Peoples: The Historical Origins of an Anti-Historical Declaration,” in The French Idea of Freedom, ed. Kley, Dale van (Berkeley: Stanford University Press, 1994), 110ff; Keith Michael Baker, “The Idea of a Declaration of Rights,” in The French idea of Freedom, 154–58, 194ff.

57. See Clavreul, Collette, “Sieyès et la genèse de la representation modèrne,” Droits 6 (1986): 4556.

58. See Wokler, Robert, “Rousseau's Pufendorf: Natural Law and the Foundations of Commercial Society,” History of Political Thought 15 (1994): 373402; Rosenblatt, Helena, Rousseau and Geneva: From the First Discourse to the Social Contract, 1749–1762 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997), esp. 167, 177; Tuck, Richard, The Rights of War and Peace: Political Thought and the International Order from Grotius to Kant (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), 197207.

59. Klippel, Diethelm, “Reasonable Aims of Civil Society: Concerns of the State in German Political Theory in the Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Centuries,” in Rethinking Leviathan: The Eighteenth-Century State in Britain and Germany, ed. Brewer, John and Hellmuth, Eckhart (Oxford University Press and the German Historical Institute: Oxford, 1999), 87. See also Klippel, Diethelm, “Legal Reforms: Changing the Law in Germany in the Ancien Régime and in the Vormärz,” Proceedings of the British Academy 100 (1999): 4359, esp. 53ff.

60. Tribe, Keith, “Natural Law and the Origins of Nationalökonomie: L. H. von Jakob,” in The Rise of the Social Sciences and the Formation of Modernity, ed. Heilbron, Johan, Magnusson, Lars, and Wittrock, Björn (Kluwer: Dordrecht, 1998), 202, discusses this movement in terms of the transformation of the concept of “needs” in German economic discourse in particular.

61. On Humboldt and liberalism, see Vogel, Ursula, “Liberty is Beautiful: Humboldt's Gift to Liberalism,” History of Political Thought 3 (1982): 77101. The classic discussion of Polizei remains that of Maier, Hans, Die ältere deutsche Staats—und Verwaltungslehre, 2nd ed. (Munich: C. H. Beck, 1980); for critical commentary, see Tribe, Keith, “From Cameralism to the Science of Government,” in his Strategies of Economic Order (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 831.

62. Raeff, Mark, “The Well-Ordered Police State and the Development of Modernity in Seventeenth- and Eighteenth-Century Europe: An Attempt at a Comparative Approach,” American Historical Review 80 (1975): 1230: “the instruments of administration were coming to be seen as important as the ends they served or promoted.” For wider reflections, see Raeff, Mark, The Weil-Ordered Police State: Social and Institutional Change through Law in the Germanies and Russia, 1600–1800 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1983), esp. part 2; and Axtmann, Roland, “‘Police’ and the Formation of the Modern State. Legal and Ideological Assumptions on State Capacity in the Austrian Lands of the Habsburg Empire, 1500–1800,” German History 10 (1992): esp. 43, 60f.

63. Moser, Johann Jakob, quoted in Walker, Mack, Johann Jakob Moser and the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1980), 306.

64. See Lindenfeld, David F., The Practical Imagination: The German Sciences of State in the Nineteenth Century (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1997).

65. See Walker, Mack, “Rights and Functions: The Social Categories of Eighteenth-Century German Jurists and Cameralists,” Journal of Modern History 50 (1978): 234–51; also Oz-Salzberger, Fania, “Scots, Germans, Republic and Commerce,” in Republicanism—A Shared European Heritage, ed. Gelderen, Martin van and Skinner, Quentin (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002), 2:215f., 226.

66. Klippel, “Reasonable Aims of Civil Society,” 97.

67. See Adams, Willi Paul, “German Translations of the American Declaration of Independence,” The Journal of American History 85 (1999): 1325–49, esp. 1327ff.

68. Ibid., 1333; cf. Vick, Defining Germany, chap. 4.

69. See Green, Abigail, Fatherlands: State Building and Nationhood in Nineteenth-Century Germany (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001), 9899. Cf. Nolte, Paul, “Bürgerideal, Gemeinde und Republik: ‘Klassischer Republikanismus’ im frühen deutschen Liberalismus,” Historische Zeitschrift 254 (1992): 609–56; in general on German republicanism, see Heideking, Jürgen and Henretta, James A., Republicanism and Liberalism in America and the German States, 1 750–1850 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002).

70. Dippel, Horst, Die amerikanische Verfassung in Deutschland im 19. Jahrhundert: Das Dilemma von Politik und Staatsrecht (Goldbach: Keip Verlag, 1994), 76ff.; Jellinek, Declaration of the Rights of Man, 1–7.

71. Jellinek, Declaration of the Rights of Man, 5; Stoìleis, “Georg Jellineks Beitrag,” 11 Of.

72. Adams, “German Translations,” 1337f.

73. Welcker, Carl, “Bund,” in Das Staats—Lexicon, ed. Rotteck, Carl von and Wekker, Carl (Altona, 1846), 2: 714–15, quoted in Dippel, Die amerikanische Verfassung, 113–16.

74. See Green, Fatherlands, esp. 292–96; also Brubaker, Rogers, Citizenship and Nationhood in Germany and France (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1992).

75. Dippel, Die amerikanische Verfassung, 59ff.

76. The general impact of Tocqueville, Alexis de, Democracy in America, ed. and trans. Mansfield, Harvey C. and Winthrop, Delba (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000), initially published in two volumes 1835/1840, should not be discounted here. Critical discussion of the work of Montesquieu was also central to the formation of early German liberalism. See Korioth, Stefan, ‘“Monarchisches Prinzip’ und Gewaltenteilung—Unvereinbar? Zur Wirkungsgeschichte der Gewaltenteilungslehre Montesquieus im deutschen Frühkonstitutionalismus,” Der Staat 37 (1998): 2755.

77. Schmale, Wolfgang, “La France, l'Allemagne et la constitution (1789–1815),” Annales Historiques de la Révolution Française 4 (1991): 471; also Schmale, “Georg Jellinek,” 307, 309f.

78. Cf. Blanning, T. C. W., The French Revolution in Germany (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983); see also Rowe, Michael, “Between Empire and Home Town: Napoleonic Rule on the Rhine, 1799–1814,” Historical Journal 42 (1999): 643–74, who emphasizes the character of elite manipulation and cooption for the maintenance of Napoleonic rule. Cf. Kelley, Donald R., “What Pleases the Prince: Justinian, Napoleon and the Lawyers,” History of Political Thought 23 (2002): 294–97.

79. See Yack, Bernard, “Popular Sovereignty and Nationalism,” Political Theory 29 (2001): 517–36.

80. See Schmale, “Georg Jellinek,” 306.

81. See Böckenförde, Ernst-Wolfgang, “Organ, Organismus, Organisation, politischer Körper,” Geschichtliche Grundbegriffe (Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta, 1982), 4:561; Michael Stolleis, Geschichte des öffentlichen Rechts, 56.

82. Stollberg-Rillinger, Barbara, Der Staat ah Maschine (Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, 1986).

83. Müller, Adam, Die Elemente der Staatskunst (1808–1809: Berlin, 1936), 27. On these organic metaphors, see Böckenförde, “Organ, Organismus,” 587; Stolleis, Geschichte des öffentlichen Rechts, 368f; cf. Sedgwick, Sally, “The State as Organism: The Metaphysical Basis of Hegel's Philosophy of Right,” The Southern Journal of Philosophy 39 Supplement (2001): 171–88.

84. Kaufmann, Erich, Über den Begriff des Organismus in der Staatslehre des 19. Jahrhunderts (Heidelberg: Carl Winters Universitätsbuchhandlung, 1908), 11, 16. See also Stolleis, Geschichte des öffentlichen Rechts, 107, 153; Böckenförde, “Organ, Organismus,” 600, 608ff.

85. Schönberger, Christoph, Das Parlament im Anstaltstaat. Zur Theorie parlamentarischer Repräsentation in der Staatsrechtslehre des Kaiserreichs (1871–1918) (Frankfurt am Main: Vittorio Klostermann, 1997), 62f. More generally, see Bluntschli, Johann Kaspar, The Theory of the State, authorized translation from the 6th German edition (Kitchener: Batoche Books, 2000), 282ff.

86. Böckenförde, “Organ, Organismus,” 598f., 606f.; see also Böckenförde, “Rechtsstaat,” 93ff” 103.

87. Böckenförde, “Organ, Organismus,” 589; Kaufmann, Begriff des Organismus, 16.

88. Cf. Roben, Betsy Baker, “The Method behind Bluntschli's ‘Modern’ International Law,” Journal of the History of International Law 4 (2002): 250–56; Ross, Dorothy, The Origins of American Social Science (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991). On Bluntschli's impact in Oxford, where his General Theory of the State was a standard political science text in 1851/2, see Stapleton, Julia, Englishness and the Study of Politics: The Social and Political Thought of Ernest Barker (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994), 59.

89. Georg Jellinek, “Johan Caspar Bluntschli,” Ausgewählte Schriften und Reden, 1:292; see also the generous discussion in Koskenniemi, Martti, The Gentle Civilizer of Nations: The Rise and Fall of International Law, 1870–1969 (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 2002), 4251.

90. Roben, “The Method behind Bluntschli's ‘Modern’ International Law,” 267.

91. Lipp, Martin, “‘Persona Morális,’ ‘Juristische Person’ und ‘Personenrecht’—Eine Studie zur Dogmengeschichte der ‘Juristischen Person’ im Naturrecht und frühen 19. Jahrhundert,” Quaderni Fiorentini 11–12 (1983): 237, 258, 220ff. For the condensed critique of Thibaut concerning the necessity of a constitutional code, see Savigny, Friedrich Karl von, Vom Beruf unsrer Zeit für Gesetzgebung und Rechtswissenschaft (Heidelberg: Mohr und Zimmer, 1814), esp. 155–60.

92. Stein, Peter, Roman Law in European History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999), 117; see also Whitman, James Q., The Legacy of Roman Law in the German Romantic Age (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990).

93. Stolleis, Geschichte des öffentlichen Rechts, 431f.; also Stolleis, Michael, “Die Allgemeine Staatslehre im 19. Jahrhundert,” in Naturrecht im 19. Jahrhundert: Kontinuität, Inhalt-Funktion-Wirkung, ed. Klippel, Diethelm (Goldbach: Keip Verlag, 1997), 16; Klippel, Diethelm, “Politische und juristische Funktionen des Naturrechts in Deutschland im 18. und 19. Jahrhundert: Zur Einführung,” Zeitschrift für neuere Rechtsgeschichte 22 Sonderdruck (2000): 310.

94. Bluntschli, Theory of the State, 13.

95. Roben, “Method behind Bluntschli's ‘Modern’ International Law,” 272ff.

96. See Jellinek, Georg, Die rechtliche Natur der Staatenverträge. Ein Beitrag zur juristischen Construction des Völkerrechts (Vienna: Alfred Holder, 1880), 43f.

97. This therefore resembles Hans Kelsen's later theory, perhaps itself unsurprising, given Jellinek's deep engagement with Southwest German neo-Kantianism. See Paulson, Stanley, “The Neo-Kantian Dimension of Kelsen's Legal Theory,” Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 12 (1992): 325–26; “On the Puzzle Surrounding Hans Kelsen's Basic Norm,” Ratio Juris 13 (2000): 279–93.

98. Roben, “Method behind Bluntschli's ‘Modern’ International Law,” 272; see also Koskemienni, Gentle Civilizer, 49: “Bluntschli's law was neither fixed on sovereign will nor drawn from Roman law or moral theory but emerged spontaneously through the lives of (European) peoples.”

99. Koskemienni, Gentle Civilizer, 200.

100. Hübinger, Gangolf, “Staatstheorie und Politik als Wissenschaft im Kaiserreich,” in Politik, Philosophie, Praxis: Festschrift für Wilhelm Hennis zum 65. Geburtstag, ed. Maier, Hans, Matz, Ulrich, Sontheimer, Kurt, Weinacht, Paul-Ludwig (Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta, 1988), 143–61; “Historicism and the ‘Noble Science of Politics’ in Germany,” in British and German Historiography, 1750–1950: Traditions, Perceptions and Transfers, ed. Stuchtey, Benedikt and Wende, Peter (Oxford: The German Historical Institute/Oxford University Press, 2000), 191209.

101. The argument of this section builds upon the discussion of Kelly, Duncan, The State of the Political: Conceptions of Politics and the State in the Thought of Max Weber, Carl Schmitt and Franz Neumann (Oxford: Oxford University Press A The British Academy, 2003).

102. Jouanjan, Olivier, “Carl Friedrich Gerber et la constitution d'une science du droit public allemand,” in La science juridique française et la science juridique allemande de 1870 à 1918, ed. Beaud, Olivier and Wachsmann, Patrick (Strasbourg: Presses Universitaires de Strasbourg, 1997), esp. 1619.

103. Ibid., 57.

104. See Kersten, Jetiinek und die klassische Staatslehre, 53.

105. Stolleis, Geschichte des öffentlichen Rechts, 334.

106. Ibid., 336.

107. Ibid., 344; Lindenfeld, The Practical Imagination, 257.

108. Between 1880 and 1918 Laband occupied positions as professor and then rector at the Kaiser Wilhelm University in Strasbourg and was a member of the Staatsrat. See Stolleis, Geschichte des öffentlichen Rechts, 347; Friedrich, Manfred, “Paul Laband und die Staatsrechtswissenschaft seiner Zeit,” Archiv des öffentlichen Rechts 111 (1986): 205–9; Schlink, Bernhard, “Laband als Politiker,” Der Staat 31 (1992): 553.

109. Stolleis, Geschichte des öffentlichen Rechts, 344f.

110. See Torre, Massimo La, “Rechtsstaat’ and Legal Science. The Rise and Fall of the Concept of Subjective Right,” Archiv für Rechts- und Sozialphilosophie 76 (1990): 6063; Caldwell, Peter C., Popular Sovereignty and the Crisis of German Constitutional Law (Durham and London: Duke University Press, 1997), 16.

111. Laband, Paul, Das Staatsrecht des deutschen Reiches, 5th ed. (1876–82; Tübingen: J. C. B. Mohr [Paul Siebeck], 1911), 1: ix, quoted in Lindenfeld, The Practical Imagination, 158. Otto Gierke was the most outspoken critic of this position. See Gierke, Otto von, “Labands Staatsrecht und die deutsche Rechtswissenschaft,” Jahrbuch für Gesetzgebung, Verwaltung und Volkswirtschaft im deutschen Reich, ed. Schmoller, Gustav, vol. 7 (Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, 1883): 7 [1103], 17 [1113]

112. For two recent discussions, see Runciman, David, Pluralism and the Personality of the State (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997), 36; Caldwell, Popular Sovereignty, 14.

113. Kersten, Jellinek und die klassische Staatslehre, 275.

114. Ibid., 131.

115. Jellinek, Allgemeine Staatslehre, esp. 262; see also Kersten, Jellinek und die klassische Staatslehre, 106.

116. Jellinek, Allgemeine Staatslehre, 63.

117. Ibid., 408ff.

118. Caldwell, Popular Sovereignty, 34–35.

119. Dietmar Kettler, Die Drei-Elemente Lehre. Ein Beitrag zu Georg Jellineks Staatsbegriff, seiner Fortführung und Kritik, Inaugural Dissertation, Rechtswissenschaftliche Fakultät der Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität zu Munster (Vorgelegt von Dietmar Kettler aus Rahden, 1995), 26–30.

120. Jellinek, Georg, System der subjektiven öffentlichen Rechte, 2nd ed. (1892; Tübingen: J. C. B. Mohr [Paul Siebeck], 1921); Allgemeine Staatslehre, 417f. See the discussion in Kersten, Jellinek und die klassische Staatslehre, 286f; Robert Alexy, “Grundrecht und Status,” in Jellinek—Beiträge zu Leben und Werk, 221–25; Stolleis. “Georg Jellineks Beitrag,” in ibid., 106.

121. Schmale, “Georg Jellinek,” 304.

122. Caldwell, Popular Sovereignty. See also Jellinek, Allgemeine Staatslehre, 11, 62.

123. Jellinek, Allgemeine Staatslehre, esp. 10ff., 50; Lindenfeld, The Practical Imagination. 307.

124. Kettler, Die Drei-Elemente Lehre, 2Iff.

125. Kersten, Jellinek und die klassische Staatslehre, 206.

126. Jellinek, Allgemeine Staatslehre, 159; see also Hübinger, “Staatstheorie und Politik als Wissenschaft,” 149.

127. Jellinek, Allgemeine Staatslehre, 180: “im Begriff des Politischen hat man bereits den Begriff des Staates gedacht.” Cf. Schmitt, Carl, The Concept of the Political, 1932 ed., trans. Schwab, George (1927; Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996), 19. I am most grateful to one of the referees of Law and History Review for picking up on this point among many others.

128. Jellinek, Allgemeine Staatslehre, 11–13, 15; Anter, Andreas, “Georg Jellineks wissenschaftliche Politik. Positionen, Kontexte, Wirkungslinien,” Politische Vierteljahresschrift 39 (1998): 509.

129. Jellinek, Die rechtliche Natur, 5, 7.

130. Jellinek, Allgemeine Staatslehre, 97; Anter, “Georg Jellineks wissenschaftliche Politik,” 508; Hübinger, “Staatstheorie und Politik,” 155.

131. Georg Jellinek, “Adam in der Staatslehre” [1893], in his Ausgewählte Schriften und Reden, 2:28.

132. Jellinek, Allgemeine Staatslehre, 180f” 183.

133. Breuer, Georg Jellinek und Max Weber, 14. See also Breuer, “Max Webers Staatssoziologie,” 213; Hübinger, “Staatstheorie und Politik als Wissenschaft,” 148.

134. Jellinek, Allgemeine Staatslehre, 338; Kersten, Jellinek und die klassische Staatslehre, 273–78.

135. Anter, “Georg Jellineks wissenschaftliche Politik,” 521.

136. Ibid.

137. Jhering, Rudolf, Der Zweck im Recht, 4th ed. (1877; Leipzig, 1904), 1:240, quoted in Anter, “Georg Jellineks wissenschaftliche Politik,” 522. Jhering's writings on law were nevertheless underpinned by a complex account of the nature of the individual and were highly critical of contemporary jurisprudence. See Klippel, Diethelm, “Juristische Begriffshimmel und Funktionale Rechtswelt,” Colloquia für Dieter Schwab zum 65. Geburtstag, ed. Klippel, Diethelm (Bielefeld: Gieseking Verlag, 2000), 129–34.

138. Dyson, Kenneth, The State Tradition in Western Europe (Oxford: Martin Robertson, 1980), 175.

139. Kersten, Jellinek und die klassische Staatslehre, 193.

140. Ibid., 409f.

141. Dyson, State Tradition, 113.

142. Armitage, David, “The Declaration of Independence and International Law,” William and Mary Quarterly 59 (2002): 43ff. On the reliance upon international law doctrines in The Federalist, see also Helfman, Tara, “The Law of Nations in The Federalist Papers,” Legal History 23 (2002): 107–28.

143. Armitage, “Declaration of Independence,” 64, also 58ff.

144. Jellinek, Allgemeine Staatslehre, 274.

145. See Joachen von Bernstorff, “Völkerrecht als modernes öffentliches Recht,” in Beiträge zu Leben und Werk, 187.

146. Georg Jellinek, “Die Staatsrechtslehre und ihre Vertreter,” in his Ausgewählte Schriften und Reden, 2:335–39.

147. The issue of how codified law deals with “founding” has remained pertinent to political theory. See Honig, Bonnie, “Declarations of Independence: Arendt and Derrida on the Problem of Founding a Republic,” American Political Science Review 85 (1991): 97113.

148. See Hamm, Berndt, “What Was the Reformation Doctrine of Justification?” in The German Reformation, ed. Dixon, C. Scott (Oxford: Blackwell. 1999), 5690; see also Weber, Wolfgang, “The Absolutist Making of the Individual,” in The Individuai in Political Theory and Practice, ed. Coleman, Janet (Clarendon Press: Oxford, 1996), 198f.

149. See recently Ghosh, Peter, “Max Weber's Idea of ‘Puritanism’: A Case Study in the Empirical Construction of the Protestant Ethic,” History of European Ideas 29 (2003): 193. Ghosh assesses Jellinek's discussion of the rights of man as part of a broader Germanic tradition, seeking the roots of individual rights within “liberal Protestantism” rather than the French Revolution.

150. For engaging recent reflections on this theme, see Kim, Sung Ho, “‘In Affirming Them, He Affirms Himself: Max Weber's Politics of Civil Society,” Political Theory 28 (2000): 197229.

151. Jellinek, Declaration of the Rights of Man, 90–98.

152. Ibid., 97, n. 6.

153. See J. G. A. Pocock, “States, Republics and Empires: The American Founding in Early Modern Perspective,” in Conceptual Change and the Constitution, 70f.; Pole, J. R., Political Representation and the Origins of the American Republic (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1971). On English reason of state, see Pincus, Steve, “To Protect English Liberties': The English Nationalist Revolution of 1688–89,” in Protestantism and National Identity, ed. Claydon, Terry and McBride, Ian (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998). 75104; “From Holy Cause to Economic Interest: The Study of Population and the Invention of the State,” in A Nation Transformed: England after the Restoration, ed. Houston, Alan and Pincus, Steve (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001), 272–98.

154. See also Dippel, Horst, “Die Konstitutionalisierung des Bundesstaats in Deutschland 1849–1949 und die Rolle des amerikanischen Modells,” Der Staat 38 (1999): 221–39.

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Law and History Review
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