1. See, especially, the essays and further sources in Christian Gerlach and Nicholas Werth, “State Violence—Violent Societies,” and Baberowski Jörg and Doering-Manteuffel Anself, “The Quest for Order and the Pursuit of Terror: National Socialist Germany and the Stalinist Soviet Union as Multiethnic Empires,” in Beyond Totalitarianism: Stalinism and Nazism Compared, ed. Geyer Michael and Fitzpatrick Sheila (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009), 133–227; and more generally, Weitz Eric D., A Century of Genocide: Utopias of Race and Nation (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2003).
2. Kelsen Hans on international law and the “primitive” legal order, in General Theory of Law and State (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1949), 338–41.
3. Solomon Peter H. Jr., Soviet Criminal Justice under Stalin (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996); and Gorlizki Yoram and Mommsen Hans, “The Political (Dis)Orders of Stalinism and National Socialism,” in Beyond Totalitarianism, 76.
4. At the same time, it is clear that political entities before the so-called “modern era” used distinctions of ethnicity or status in their construction of mastery, distinctions that could also make reference to “blood,” that is, biology.
5. Fraenkel Ernst, The Dual State: A Contribution to the Theory of Dictatorship (New York: Oxford University Press, 1941); Stolleis Michael, The Law under the Swastika: Studies on Legal History in Nazi Germany, translated by Dunlap Thomas (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998), 13.
6. Hyam Ronald, Britain's Declining Empire: The Road to Decolonization, 1918–1948 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006); and Cell John W., “Colonial Rule,” and Ronald Hyam, “Bureaucracy and ‘Trusteeship’ in Colonial Empire,” in The Oxford History of the British Empire, Vol. IV: The Twentieth Century, ed., Brown Judith M. and Louis Wm. Roger (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999), 232–79. On the tension between liberal adherence to law and colonial rule, see Wiener Martin J., An Empire on Trial: Race, Murder, and Justice under British Rule, 1870–1935 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009), with further citations.
7. Dudziak Mary L., Cold War Civil Rights: Race and the Image of American Democracy (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000); and Anderson Carol, Eyes off the Prize: The United Nations and the African American Struggle for Human Rights, 1944–1955 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003).