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Who Was the Author of Glanvill? Reflections on the Education of Henry II's Common Lawyers

  • Ralph V. Turner


The legal treatise called Glanvill is proof that by the end of Henry II's reign men capable of shaping the custom of the English curia regis into a systematic law book were present at Westminster. Glanvill is “the first textbook of the English common law.” This treatise was written near the end of Henry II's reign and since the thirteenth century, it has borne the name of his justiciar, Ranulf de Glanvill, although not many scholars today accept his authorship. Why, then, should we raise once more the question: Who was the author of Glanvill? It remains a valid question because it affords an opportunity for reflection on questions concerning schools, learning, and twelfth-century English society. It forces us to consider the connections among the emerging English common law, the schools, the Scholastic method, and the study of Roman and canon law. It requires us to consider the contributions of Roman and eccesiastical law to Henry II's legal reforms.



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1. Richardson, H. G. and Sayles, G. O., Law and Legislation from Aethelberht to Magna Carta (Edinburgh, 1966), 117; idem, The Governance of Mediaeval England (Edinburgh, 1963), 319.

2. Hall, G. D. G., ed., The Treatise on the Laws and Customs of the Realm of England commonly called Glanvill (London, 1965), 6991. Milsom's thesis is set forth in The Legal Framework of English Feudalism (Cambridge, 1976); also in his introduction to the reprint of Pollock, Frederick and Maitland, F. W., History of English Law (1898; reprint Cambridge, 1965). See Palmer, Robert C., “The Feudal Framework of English Law,” University of Michigan Law Review 79 (1981): 1130–64.

3. E.g., Jolliffe, J. E. A., Angevin Kingship (London, 1955).

4. Southern, R. W., “Master Vacarius and the Beginning of an English Academic Tradition,” in Medieval Learning and Literature, ed. Alexander, J. G. and Gibson, M. T. (Oxford, 1976), 257–86; idem, “From Schools to University,” in The Early Oxford Schools, ed. Catto, J. I., vol. 1 of History of the University of Oxford (Oxford, 1984), 910.

5. Hall, Glanvill, xxxiii.

6. Leaders of the 1166 circuits were Geoffrey de Mandeville (d. Oct. 1166) and Richard de Lucy (d. 1179). Those remaining from the 1176 eyres were Glanvill (d. 1190), William Basset (d. 1185), and Michael Belet (d. 1203).

7. Richard of Ilchester, bishop of Winchester (d. 1188); John of Oxford, bishop of Norwich (d. 1200); Geoffrey Ridel, bishop of Ely (d. 1189).

8. Hall, Glanvill, xxxi.

9. Ibid., xxxiii n. 2.

10. Ibid. 12.23, 14.8.

11. Ibid., xxii, books 1–10; Woodbine, George E., ed., Glanvill (New Haven, 1932), 294.

12. Pollock, and Maitland, , History of English Law 1:166.

13. Hall, Glanvill, xxvii. Book 7 particularly moves away from writs.

14. Hall, Glanvill, xxix–xxx; also Holt, J. C., “The Assizes of Henry II: The Texts,” in The Study of Medieval Records, ed. Bullough, D. A. and Storey, R. L. (Oxford, 1971), 85106.

15. Hall, Glanvill, xxxiv–xxxv; Ibid. 4.13 and 10.12 are echoes of the Constitutions of Clarendon.

16. Logan, F. Donald, “An Early Thirteenth-century Papal Judge-delegate Formulary of English Origin,” Studia Gratiana 14, Collectanea Stephani Kuttner 4 (1967): 7587.

17. M. Caillemer, “Le Droit civil dans les provinces anglo-normandes au XIIe siècle,” Memoires de l'Académie de Caen, (1883): 157–226.

18. Chief supporters of the ordines as Glanvill's model are Richardson and Sayles, Governance, 319; idem, Law and Legislation, 79, 105–7; a less enthusiastic supporter is Hyams, Paul, “The Common Law and the French Connection,” Proceedings of the Battle Conference on Anglo-Norman Studies 4 (1981): 80. Hyams's view is that Glanvill and the later French coutumiers share a common source. Hall rejects the ordines as a model. Glanvill, xxviii–xxix.

19. Hyams, “Common Law,” 80.

20. Kuttner, Stephan and Rathbone, Eleanor, “Anglo-Norman Canonists of the Twelfth Century,” Traditio 7 (19491951): 279339.

21. Hall, Glanvill, xxviii–xxix.

22. For the 1210 Register, see Brand, Paul, “Ireland and the Literature of the Early Common Law,” Irish Jurist, n.s., 16 (1981): 97, 112.

23. Plucknett, T. F. T., Early English Legal Literature (Cambridge, 1958), 33. See also Hall, Glanvill, xxxiii–xxxiv; de Haas, Elsa and Hall, G. D. G., eds., Early Registers of Writs (Selden Society 86, 1970): cxix–cxxi.

24. Hall, Glanvill 2.13.

25. Hyams, Paul, Kings, Lords and Peasants in Medieval England (Oxford, 1980), 166, finds two villeinage writs; Glanvill is silent on original warranty writs. Hyams, , “Warranty and Good Lordship in Twelfth-Century England,” Law and History Review, 5 (1987): 483–95 (Appendix I, “The Pre-history of the Action De Warantia Carte”).

26. Van Caenegem, R. C., Birth of Common Law (Cambridge, 1973), 30.

27. Van Caenegem, R. C., Royal Writs in England from the Conquest to Glanvill (Selden Society 77, 19581959), 377–78; Hall follows Van Caenegem. Glanvill, xxxvi.

28. Van Caenegem, Royal Writs, 377–78; Hall, Glanvill, xxxvi.

29. Kuttner, Stephan, “The Revival of Jurisprudence,” in Renaissance and Renewal in the Twelfth Century, ed. Benson, Robert L. and Constable, Giles (Cambridge, Mass., 1982), 310.

30. Richardson and Sayles, Law and Legislation, 106.

31. Hall, Glanvill, xxxiii.

32. Ibid., Prologue.

33. Stubbs, William, ed., Radulphi de Diceto opera historica, 2 vols. (Rolls Series 68, 1876), 1:434–35; translated in English Historical Documents, ed. Douglas, David C. and Greenaway, George W. (London, 1968), 2:481–82.

34. E.g., Hall, Glanvill 2.12.

35. Hall, Glanvill, Prologue. Compare with Johnson, Charles, ed., Dialogus de scaccario (London, 1950), 7577.

36. Hall, Glanvill 2.1, 2.19, 7.17.

37. Ibid., Prologue; grand assize, 2.7.

38. Ibid. 12.6–7.

39. Ibid. 14.1–2, treason and fraudulent concealment of treasure trove.

40. Ibid. 9.4; Johnson, Dialogus, 120.

41. Hall, Glanvill 2.1.

42. Ibid., Prologue.

43. Hyams, “Common Law and French Connection,” 80.

44. Hall, Glanvill, xxxiv–xxxv; Plucknett, Legal Literature, 31n.

45. E.g., Hall, Glanvill 10.1, 12.21.

46. Richardson and Sayles, Law and Legislation, 106.

47. I follow Plucknett. Legal Literature, 36; and Van Caenegem, Royal Writs, 354. Cf. Sutherland, Donald W., The Assize of Novel Disseizin (Oxford, 1975), 16, where he sees the whole work arranged according to essoins, since proprietary causes—treated first—allowed three essoins.

48. The categories sometimes break down; e.g., the discussion of defaults in Book 1 includes defaults of appellors (accusers) and accused in breaches of the king's peace, Hall, Glanvill 1.32. This should have gone in Book 14.

49. Ibid. 1.32, 6.10, 6.17, 7.3, 10.5, 11.3.

50. Ibid. 2.21; also 4.9, the problem of clerks who cannot be constrained to appear in court because they possess no lay fee to be seized.

51. Holt, J. C., “Feudal Society and the Family in Early Medieval England: IV. The Heiress and the Alien,” Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 5th sen, 35 (1985): 19.

52. Ibid., 8–26.

53. The thesis of Murray, Alexander, Reason and Society in the Middle Ages (Oxford, 1978).

54. Southern, “From Schools to University,” 1.

55. Baldwin, John W., “Studium et Regnum: The Penetration of University Personnel into French and English Administration at the Turn of the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries,” Revue des études Islamiques 44 (1976): 199211.

56. Clanchy, M. T., “Moderni in Medieval Education and Government in England,” Speculum 50 (1975): 679.

57. Map, Walter, De nugis curialium, ed. and trans. James, M. R., revised by Brooke, C. N. L. and Mynors, R. A. B. (Oxford, 1983), 1215; Ibid., 1.10, claimed that villeins' sons were going off to school “so that they may win great riches.”

58. Clanchy, “Moderni in Medieval Education,” 685.

59. Hall, Glanvill, De ratione introductis.

60. Ibid., Rationabilem causam ostendere, e.g. 10.10, 10.14.

61. Hall, Glanvill 14.1. See Hyams, Paul, “Trial by Ordeal: the Key to Proof in the Early Common Law,” in On the Laws and Customs of England, ed. Arnold, Morris S. et al. (Chapel Hill, N.C., 1981), 90126.

62. Hall, Glanvill 2.7.

63. Ibid. 10.17. See also 5.4–5, 6.11, 10.12, 10.15.

64. Woodbine, Glanvill, 187–88.

65. Plucknett, T. F. T., “The Relations between Roman Law and English Common Law Down to the Sixteenth Century,” University of Toronto Law Journal 3 (19391940): 33; Hall, Glanvill, xxxvii; Woodbine, Glanvill, 187–88; Sutherland, Novel Disseizin, 24, 27–28, nn. 2, 3.

66. Hall, Glanvill 6.1, 7.1. See Woodbine, Glanvill, 215.

67. Hall, Glanvill 14.1–2. See Helmholz, Richard, “The Early History of the Grand Jury and the Canon Law,” University of Chicago Law Review 50 (1983): 616.

68. Hall, Glanvill 2.19, 14.1.

69. Ibid., Book 10; Hall's discussion, xxxvi–xxxvii; Woodbine's notes, 206, 251. J. L. Barton, “The Study of Civil Law before 1380,” in Catto, Early Oxford Schools, 520, notes that Glanvill treats Roman law “as an ideal to which the English law upon the subject [of debt] is to be deemed to approximate.” Van Caenegem, Royal Writs, 380–82, finds that Book 10 is “remarkable for the purely formal, external indebtedness to Roman law.” Holdsworth, William S., A History of English Law, 3d ed., 12 vols. (London, 1932), 2:191–92, found the Roman law in Book 10 “very much on the surface.”

70. Van Caenegem, Royal Writs, 379–90.

71. For references, see Turner, Ralph V., “Roman Law in England before the Time of Bracton,” Journal of British Studies 7 (1975): 19.

72. Richardson and Sayles, Law and Legislation, 79; Van Caenegem, Royal Writs, 390.

73. E.g., the great debate over the relationship between the assize of novel disseizin and the Roman interdict Unde vi. For references, see Turner, “Roman Law before Bracton,” 16–18.

74. Plucknett, “Relations between Roman Law and English Common Law,” 32; idem, Legal Literature, 103.

75. Van Caenegem, Birth of Common Law, 38–41.

76. Milsom, Legal Framework; idem, Introduction, Pollock and Maitland, History of English Law.

77. Caenegem, Van, “L'histoire du droit et la chronologie. Réflexions sur la formation du ‘Common Law’ et la procédure romano-canonique,” in Etudes d'histoire du Droit canonique dédiées à Gabriel le Bras, 2 vols. (Paris, 1965), 2:1465; idem, Birth of Common Law, 92.

78. Rathbone, Eleanor, “Roman Law in the Anglo-Norman Realm,” Studia Gratiana 11 (1967): 263.

79. Turner, Ralph V., The English Judiciary in the Age of Glanvill and Bracton c. 1176–1139 (Cambridge, 1985), 19, 37.

80. Adam of Domerham, Historia de rebus gestis Glastoniensis, ed. Hearne, Thomas, 2 vols. (Oxford, 1727), 2:364. Once Hubert simply moved from the Exchequer to Westminster Abbey to hear a suit as papal judge-delegate, Cheney, C. R., Hubert Walter (London, 1967), 26.

81. Kuttner, and Rathbone, , “Ango-Norman Canonists,” 292–339; Cheney, Mary G., Bishop Roger of Worcester (Oxford, 1982), 197206. Several of them found posts on the Continent as lecturers, e.g., Gerard la Pucelle and Ricardus Anglicus.

82. E.g., Gilbert Foliot of Hereford and later London, Morey, Adrian and Brooke, C. N. L., Gilbert Foliot and his Letters (Cambridge, 1965), 63, 64, 68; John de Bohun of Salisbury, Ibid., 55–56; Baldwin of Canterbury, Smalley, Beryl, The Becket Conflict and the Schools (Oxford, 1972), 217; Seffrid II of Chichester, Mayr-Harting, Henry, “The Bishops of Chichester 1075–1207,” The Chichester Papers 40 (1963): 1415; Roger of Worcester, Cheney, Bishop Roger, Gilbert de Glanvill of Rochester, Kuttner and Rathbone “Anglo-Norman Canonists,” 289.

83. Cheney, C. R., From Becket to Langton (Manchester, 1956), 55; Barnes, Patricia M., “The Anesty Case,” in A Medieval Miscellany for Doris M. Stenton, ed. Barnes, P. M. and Slade, C. F. (Pipe Roll Society, n.s., 36, 1960), 7. See also Searle, Eleanor, ed., The Chronicle of Battle Abbey (Oxford, 1980), 324, where the abbot laments the lack of monks “knowledgeable in the law and the decretals” to advise in lawsuits.

84. See Turner, “Roman Law before Bracton,” 8.

85. John of Salisbury, Policraticus, ed. Webb, C. C. J., 2 vols. (Oxford, 1909), 7.20. Thomas Becket complained that Henry II was seeking support from sapientes Bononiae. Robertson, J. C., ed., Materials for the History of Thomas Becket, 7 vols. (Rolls Series 67, 18751885), 7:26, no. 538.

86. See Southern, “Master Vacarius,” 9–10, where he modifies these views. See also Stein, Peter, “Vacarius and the Civil Law,” in Church and Government in the Middle Ages, ed. Brooke, C. N. L. (Cambridge, 1976), 121–36.

87. Kuttner, Stephan, “Retractiones VIII,” in Gratian and the Schools of Law (London, 1983), 2627; Kuttner and Rathbone, “Anglo-Norman Canonists,” 286–88, 288n. See also Barton, “The Study of Civil Law,” 524.

88. Southern, “From Schools to University” 12–17.

89. Boyle, Leonard E., “Vacarius and the Beginnings of legal Studies at Oxford,” Viator 14 (1983): 107–31; J. L. Barton, “Canon Law before 1380,” in Catto, Early Oxford Schools, 531–64.

90. Hall, Glanviin. 7.15.

91. Ibid. 5.6; Hyams, Kings, Lords and Peasants, 176; idem, “Proof of Villein Status in the Common Law,” English Historical Review 86 (1974): 732–33.

92. Hall, Glanvill 2.12.

93. Clanchy, M. T., From Memory to Written Record: England 1066–1307 (Cambridge, Mass., 1979), 218–19; see also Turner, Ralph V., “The Miles Literatus in Twelfthand Thirteenth-Century England: How Rare a Phenomenon?American Historical Review 83 (1978): 929.

94. John of Salisbury, Metalogicon, ed. Webb, C. C. J. (Oxford, 1929), 1.24.

95. I borrow this phrase from M. B. Parkes, “Literacy of the Laity,” in The Medieval World, ed. Daiches, D. and Thorlby, A. (London, 1972), 555–77.

96. See Turner, “The Miles Literatus” 942–43.

97. Clanchy, From Memory to Written Record, 175–201 (chap. 7, “Literate and Illiterate”); Murray, Reason and Society, 263–70.

98. Crouch, David, The Beaumont Twins (Cambridge, 1986), 7. For other examples, see Turner, “The Miles Literatus,” 936.

99. Johnson, Dialogus, 5.

100. Turner, English Judiciary, 31–32.

101. Hyams, Paul, “Henry II and Ganelon,” Syracuse Scholar (Syracuse, N.Y. 1986), 2325.

102. Cam, Helen, “An East Anglian Shire-moot of Stephen's Reign,” English Historical Review 39 (1924): 936.

103. Hall, Glanvill, xliv–xlv. The laymen are W.B., i.e., William Basset or possibly William Briwerre, Hugh Bardolf, Osbert fitz Hervey, Glanvill, Richard de Lucy, and Robert of Wheatfield.

104. Clanchy, From Memory to Written Record, 214–20.

105. Palmer, Robert C., “The Origins of the Legal Profession in England,” Irish Jurist, n.s., 11 (1976): 126–35.

106. Searle, Chronicle of Battle Abbey, 214.

107. Bailiffs or stewards acted as their lords' attorneys, Leges Henrici primi, ed. Downer, L. J. (Oxford, 1972), 7, 7a, pp. 100101; Hall, Glanvill 11.1, 13.33; Johnson, Dialogus, 116–17.

108. Suggestion of Paul Hyams, review of Legal Framework of English Law, Milsom, S. F. C., English Historical Review 93 (1978): 860.

109. Brand, Paul, “The Origins of the English Legal Profession,” Law and History Review 5 (1987): 3137.

110. Hall, Glanvill, xxxi. See Richardson and Sayles, Law and Legislation, 105–6.

111. Laws of William I, B.L. MS Royal 14.C.ii, fols. 214v-223v; glossary of English law terms, Ibid., fol. 225; Glanvill, Ibid., fols. 226–274v; Assizes of the Forest, Ibid., fols. 274v–275; Assizes of Clarendon, Ibid., fols. 275–76. See also Chronica Rogeri de Hovedene, ed. William Stubbs, 4 vols. (Rolls Series 51, 1868–1871), 2:215–52.

112. Roger of Howden, B.L. MS Royal 14.C.ii, fol. 214v.

113. I owe this suggestion to J. C. Holt. See Barlow, Frank, “Roger of Howden,” English Historical Review 55 (1950): 308–11.

114. Pollock and Maitland, History of English Law 1:164–65; see also Dictionary of National Biography, s.n. “Glanville, Ranulf de”; Stenton, D. M., “England: Henry II,” in Contest of Empire and Papacy, vol. 5 of Cambridge Medieval History, ed. Tanner, J. R., Prévite-Orton, C. W., and Brooke, Z. N., 2d ed., 8 vols. (Cambridge, 19241936), 578–79.

115. Walter Map, De nugis curialium 1.10.

116. Russell, J. C., “Ranulf de Glanville,” Speculum 45 (1950): 6979. Falls, J. S., “Ranulf de Glanville's Formative Years c. 1120–79,” Mediaeval Studies 40 (1978): 315n, finds Russell's arguments “difficult to accept.”

117. The only evidence for his activity before c. 1160 is his name on some East Anglian charter witness-lists, Falls, “Glanville's Formative Years,” 318.

118. Barnes, “Anesty Case,” 13, 21; Brand, “Origins of the English Legal Profession,” 32.

119. De Principis instructione liber, ed. Warner, G. F., in Giraldi Cambrensis opera, 8 vols. (Rolls Series 21, 18611891), 8: 257–59.

120. Pollock and Maitland, History of English Law 1:164.

121. BryceLyon, “Glanvill, Ranulf de,” in Dictionary of the Middle Ages, ed. Strayer, Joseph R., lO vols. (New York, 1982—), 5:544–45. Holt's study of division of inheritance among daughters lends some support to Glanvill's authorship. Holt, “Feudal Society,” 19.

122. Pollock and Maitland, History of English Law 1:164. Maitland based his claim on Bracton's selection of the name “Hubertus Walteri” to use with his own name as examples. Maitland suggests that this was a subtle tribute by a later legal expert to a predecessor. Woodbine, G. E., ed., Bracton de Legibus et Consuetudinibus Angliae, trans. Thorne, S. E., 4 vols. (Cambridge, Mass., 19681977), 3:79, fol. 188b.

123. E.g., Holdsworth, History of English Law 2:189–90; Stenton, “England: Henry II,” 578, but she changed her mind; see idem, ed., Pleas before the King or his Justices, 1198–1212, 4 vols. (Selden Society 67–68, 83–84, 1948–66), 1:10; also Richardson and Sayles, Governance, 320 n. 2.

124. Roger of Howden, Chronica 4.12; Stubbs, William, ed., Gervase of Canterbury: Historical Works, 2 vols. (Rolls Series 72, 73, 18791880), 2:406.

125. Dugdale, William, Monasticon Anglicanum, 6 vols., rev. ed. (London, 1846), 6(2):899.

126. Constable, Giles, “An unpublished Letter by Abbot Hugh II of Reading concerning Archbishop Hubert Walter,” in Essays Presented to Bertie Wilkinson, ed. Sandquist, T. A. and Powicke, M. R. (Toronto, 1968), 1617.

127. Cheney, Hubert Walter, 22; Young, Charles R., Hubert Walter (Durham, N.C., 1968), 1617.

128. Butler, H. E., ed., The Chronicle of Jocelin of Brakelond (London, 1949), 84.

129. Giraldus Cambrensis, Opera (Rolls Series 3, 1863), ed. J. S. Brewer, 29–30, 254. See Young, Hubert Walter, 7–8, n. 10.

130. Opera 3:25; translation from Butler, H. E., ed. and trans., The Autobiography of Giraldus Cambrensis (London, 1937), 215.

131. Stenton, Pleas 3:lxix.

132. Butler, Chronicle of Jocelin of Brakelond, 33–34.

133. Cheney, Hubert Walter, 18; idem, “Hubert Walter and Bologna,” Bulletin of Medieval Canon Law, n.s., 2 (1972): 81–84. H. G. Richardson accepts Hubert's study in Bologna: Memoranda Roll 1 John (Pipe Roll Society, n.s., 21, 1943), lxii.

134. Hall, Glanvill, Prologue, 3.

135. Stenton, Pleas 1:10.

136. Ibid.: 9; Hall, Glanvill, 95–96.

137. Holt, “Feudal Society,” 19.

138. Hall, Glanvill, xxxii–xxxiii.

139. See Turner, English Judiciary, 93, 101, 104–5.

140. Russell, “Ranulf de Glanville,” 75–76.

141. Stenton, Pleas 3:lxxiv; the second date is 29 Nov., Ibid.: lxxv.

142. Luard, H. R., ed., Matthaei Parisiensis Chronica majora, 7 vols. (Rolls Series 57, 18721884), 2:558–59.

143. Hall, Glanvill, n. 2.

144. Stenton, Pleas 3:lv.

145. Recueil des actes de Henri II, ed. Delisle, Léopold and Berger, Elie, 3 vols. (Paris, 19091927), 1:531, 2:165, 197, 207–8, 229, 369, 369, 387, 413; Eyton, Robert W., Court, Household, and Itinerary of Henry II (London, 1878), 228, 230, 242, 243, 245, 246, 247, 269, 287; Calendar of Charter Rolls, 6 vols. (Public Record Office, 19031927), 3:405, 4:99, 131, 347, 5:110; Holt, J. C. and Mortimer, Richard, eds., Acta of Henry II and Richard I (List and Index Society, special series, 21, 1986), passim.

146. Senton, Pleas 3:lxi–lxxiv; Hall, Glanvill, 188n. Early Yorkshire Charters, ed. Clay, C. T., The Honour of Richmond, pt. 2 (Yorkshire Archaeological Society Record Series, extra series, 1936), 5:157, no. 263.

147. Stenton, Pleas, 3:lxvi–lxxvii.

148. I.e., out of 13 justices who served frequently in Henry's last decade and some 55 who served occasionally.

149. Emden, Alfred E., ed., Biographical Register of the University of Oxford, 3 vols. (Oxford, 19571959), 3:2192; Hunt, Richard W., “The Disputation of Peter of Cornwall against Symon the Jew,” in Studies in Medieval History presented to F. M. Powicke, ed. Hunt, R. W. et al. (Oxford, 1948), 143. For the dedication, B.L. MS Royal 7.C.xiv, fol. 7.

150. Searle, Chronicle of Battle Abbey, 326.

151. Canon of Exeter, Lincoln, and London. Emden, Biographical Register 3:2192; Neve, J. Le, Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1066–1300, ed. Greenway, Diana (London, 1968—); Lincoln (1977), 126; St. Paul's (1968), 47. For Godfrey's earliest date as archdeacon of Richmond, Clay, Honour of Richmond, pt. 1, 4: xxv, 117; also Nichols, John, The History and antiquities of the county of Leicestershire, 4 vols. (London, 17951815), 2:82, no. 14(5), Croxton Cartulary. For Derby, Morey, Adrian and Brooke, C. N. L., eds., The Letters and Charters of Gilbert Foliot (Cambridge, 1967), 322, no. 251.

152. Cheney, C. R. and Jones, Bridgett E. A., eds., Canterbury 1162–1190, vol. 3 of English Episcopal Acta (London, 1986), 33, nos. 52, 53; Searle, Chronicle of Battle Abbey, 268–70, 320–24.

153. Foster, C. W. and Major, Kathleen, eds., Registrum antiquissimum of the cathedral church of Lincoln (Lincoln Record Society, 29—, 1931—), 3:265, no. 923.

154. Fasti, Lincoln, 126; Morey, Adrian, Bartholomew of Exeter, Bishop and Canonist (Cambridge, 1937), 38, 103.

155. Cheney, Becket to Langton, 29.

156. Searle, Chronicle of Battle Abbey, 320–24.

157. Round, J. H., “The Heirs of Richard de Lucy,” The Genealogist, n. s., 15 (1906): 129–33; idem, “The Honour of Ongar,” Transactions of Essex Archaeological Society, n. s., 7 (1900): 142–52. See also Amt, Emilie M., “Richard de Lucy, Richard II's Justiciar,” Medieval Prosopography 9 (1988): 6187.

158. Victoria County History, Essex 4:160; Rotuli de dominabus (Pipe Roll Society 35, 1885), 40; Pipe Roll 2 Richard I (Pipe Roll Society, n. s., 1, 1925), 104; Pipe Roll 6 Richard I (Pipe Roll Society, n. s., 5, 1928), xxi, 24, 28; Curia Regis Rolls (Public Record Office, 1923—), 8:2526. For claims by descendants of Richard de Lucy's daughters, see this case and Maitland, F. W., ed., Bracton's Note Book (Cambridge, 1887), 3: no. 1764.

159. Stenton, Pleas 3: lv.

160. Turner, English Judiciary, 51. Godfrey's only colleague among the justices without multiple responsibilities was Robert of Wheatfield, a layman.

161. Pipe Roll 31 Henry II (Pipe Roll Society 34, 1913), 77; Pipe Roll 32 Henry II (Pipe Roll Society 36, 1914), 84; Pipe Roll 33 Henry II (Pipe Roll Society 37, 1915), 97. Stubbs, William, ed., Gesta Henrici secundi Benedicti Abbatis, 2 vols. (Rolls Series 49, 1867), 1:334, to Normandy in 1184 to treat with the French king and the Flemish count; Pipe Roll 32 Henry II, 179, for an unknown overseas distination.

162. The others among the seven cited are Robert of Wheatfield and Osbert fitz Hervey, Hall, Glanvill, xliv–xlv. Two judges, both relatives of Glanvill, were named Osbert fitz Hervey, one served 1191–1206, while another served occasionally in the 1180s. Mortimer, Richard, “The Family of Ranulf de Glanville,” Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research 54 (1981): 510.

163. Thorne, Bracton, preface and xiv, xxxv.

164. Southern, R. W, “A Note on the text of ‘Glanville’,” English Historical Review 65 (1950): 8384; Hall, Glanvill, xli, 4.3, 4.6, 5.3, 10.15, 12.8, 13.11, 13.15.

165. Turner, English Judiciary, 77–78.

166. Sutherland, Donald, “The Brotherhood and the Rivalry of English Lawyers in the General Eyre,” American Journal of Legal History 31 (1987): 3. Sutherland calls attention to the fraternal spirit among justices and their associates on the last general eyres, which must have had its beginnings with Glanvill and colleagues.

167. Pollock and Maitland, History of English Law 1:165.


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