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Why Terra Nullius? Anthropology and Property Law in Early Australia

Extract

The British treated Australia as terra nullius—as unowned land. Under British colonial law, aboriginal Australians had no property rights in the land, and colonization accordingly vested ownership of the entire continent in the British government. The doctrine of terra nullius remained the law in Australia throughout the colonial period, and indeed right up to 1992.

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1. Mabo v. Queensland, 175 CLR 1 (1992).

2. This account of British land policy in North America is at odds with some recent scholarship, such as Seed Patricia, American Pentimento: The Invention of Indians and the Pursuit of Riches (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2001), 1244; andArmitage David, The Ideological Origins of the British Empire (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), 97. I discuss British land policy in North America inBanner Stuart, How the Indians Lost Their Land (Harvard University Press, forthcoming).

3. Orange Claudia, The Treaty of Waitangi (Wellington: Allen & Unwin, 1987);Banner Stuart, “Conquest by Contract: Wealth Transfer and Land Market Structure in Colonial New Zealand,” Law and Society Review 34 (2000): 4796;Banner Stuart, “Two Properties, One Land: Law and Space in Nineteenth-Century New Zealand,” Law and Social Inquiry 24 (1999): 807–52.

4. Reynolds Henry, This Whispering in Our Hearts (St. Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin, 1998), 190.

5. See especially Reynolds Henry, The Law of the Land (Ringwood, Vic.: Penguin Books, 1987), a book to which I owe an enormous debt. The first question has not even been asked because previous authors have not recognized how different land policy in Australia was from land policy in North America and New Zealand. The second is raised implicitly throughout the work of Reynolds and Kercher (especially Reynolds), but because neither writer treats it explicitly, neither has any occasion to attempt an explicit answer.

6. Beaglehole J. C., ed., The Journals of Captain Cook on His Voyages of Discovery (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1955-1974), 1:514.

7. Bennett J. M. and Castles Alex C., eds., A Source Book of Australian Legal History (Sydney: The Law Book Company, 1979), 253–54 (emphasis added).

8. Brigham Clarence S., ed., British Royal Proclamations Relating to America 1603-1783 (1911; New York: Burt Franklin, 1964), 212–18; CO 5/65, p. 43, Public Record Office, Kew (hereafter PRO); Marete Borch, “Rethinking the Origins of Terra nullius,”Australian Historical Studies 117 (2001): 222–39.

9. Frost Alan, Convicts and Empire: A Naval Question 1776-1811 (Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1980), 32;King Jonathan, ed., “In the Beginning …”: The Story of the Creation of Australia from the Original Writings (South Melbourne: Macmillan, 1985), 76.

10. Beaglehole , ed., Journals of Captain James Cook, 1: 312;Beaglehole J. C., ed., The Endeavour Journal of Joseph Banks 1768-1771 (Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 1962), 2:122–23;Beaglehole , ed., Journals of Captain James Cook, 2:735;King , ed., “In the Beginning …,” 115.

11. English cases discussing the proposition include Geary v. Barecroft, 82 Eng. Rep. 1148 (K.B. 1667), and Holden v. Smallbrooke, 124 Eng. Rep. 1030 (C.P. 1668). See also Wood Thomas, An Institute of the Laws of England, 3d ed. (London: Richard Sare, 1724), 216. European theoretical treatments includeGrotius Hugo, The Law of War and Peace (1625), trans. Francis W. Kelsey (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1925), 202, andPufendorf Samuel, De Jure Naturae et Gentium (1688), trans. C. H. Oldfather and W. A. Oldfather (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1934), 2:569–73.

12. Raleigh Walter, “A Discourse of the Original and Fundamental Cause of Natural, Arbitrary, Necessary, and Unnatural War,” in The Works of Sir Walter Ralegh, Kt. (Oxford: University Press, 1829), 8:255; John Donne, “A Sermon Preached to the Honourable Company of the Virginian Plantation” (London: Thomas Jones, 1622), inThe Sermons of John Donne, ed. Potter George R. and Simpson Evelyn M. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1959), 4:274;Vattel Emerich de, The Law of Nations (1758), ed. Ingraham Edward D. (Philadelphia: T. & J. W. Johnson, 1853), 36.

13. Beaglehole , ed., Journals of Captain James Cook, 1:312, 396, 393, 2:735.

14. Lovejoy Arthur O. and Boas George, Primitivism and Related Ideas in Antiquity (1935) (New York: Octagon Books, 1965);Cole Thomas, Democritus and the Sources of Greek Anthropology ([Cleveland]: American Philological Association, 1967), 3638.

15. Cicero , De Officiis, trans. Walter Miller (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1947), 23;Seneca , Ad Lucilium Epistulae Morales, trans. Richard M. Gummere (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1920), 2:423. See alsoTibullus , Elegies, trans. Theodore C. Williams (Boston: Richard G. Badger, 1905), 2324;Ovid , Metamorphoses, trans. A. D. Melville (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986), 45;Hamilton Edith and Cairns Huntington, eds., The Collected Dialogues of Plato (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1961), 1037;McKeon Richard, ed., The Basic Works of Aristotle (New York: Random House, 1941), 1138.

16. The Geography of Strabo, trans. Horace Leonard Jones (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1917-1932), 3:207;Horace , The Complete Odes and Epodes with the Centennial Hymn, trans. W. G. Shepherd (Middlesex: Penguin Books, 1983), 155;Caesar Julius, The Gallic War, trans. H. J. Edwards (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1917), 347.

17. Justin , Epitome of the Philippic History of Pompeius Trogus, trans. J. C. Yardley (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1994), 27;Virgil , Georgics, trans. Smith Palmer Bovie (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1956), 10;Ovid , The Erotic Poems, trans. Peter Green (London: Penguin Books, 1982), 153.

18. Aquinas Thomas, Summa Theologica ([Cambridge, Eng.]: Blackfriars, 1964-), 37:13;Moffitt John F. and Sebastian Santiago, O Brave New People: The European Invention of the American Indian (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1996), 6975;Stein Peter, “The Four Stage Theory of the Development of Societies,” in The Character and Influence of the Roman Civil Law: Historical Essays (London: Hambledon Press, 1988), 395409;Smith Adam, Lectures on Jurisprudence (delivered 1760s), ed. Meek R. L., Raphael D. D., and Stein P. G. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1978), 459;Meek Ronald L., Social Science and the Ignoble Savage (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976);Blackstone William, Commentaries on the Laws of England (1765-1769), 9th ed. (London: W. Strahan et al., 1783), 2:7.

19. Vattel , The Law of Nations, 100.

20. Calloway Colin G., ed., Revolution and Confederation (1994), vol. 18ofEarly American Indian Documents: Treaties and Laws, 1607-1789, ed. Vaughan Alden T. (Washington: University Publications of America, 1979-), 452–53;Beaglehole , ed., Journals of Captain James Cook, 1:396;King , ed., “In the Beginning …,” 6061.

21. Beaglehole , ed., Journals of Captain James Cook, 1:312, 1:399;King , ed., “In the Beginning …,” 5556.

22. Carter Paul, The Road to Botany Bay: An Exploration of Landscape and History (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987);Historical Records of New South Wales (Sydney: Charles Potter, 1892-1901), 1(2):1;A Description of Botany Bay, on the East Side of New Holland (Lancaster: H. Walmsley, [1787]) (Sydney: National Library of Australia, 1983), 8.

23. Castles Alex C., An Australian Legal History (Sydney: Law Book Co., 1982), 23;Historical Records of New South Wales, 1(2):87; Alan Frost, “New South Wales as Terra nullius: The British Denial of Aboriginal Land Rights,”Historical Studies 19 (1981): 513–23;King Robert J., “Terra Australis: Terra Nullius aut Terra Aboriginium?Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society 72 (1986): 7591.

24. Kupperman Karen Ordahl, Indians and English: Facing Off in Early America (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2000);Dampier William, A New Voyage Round the World (London, 1697) (London: Argonaut Press, 1927), 312;Historical Records of New South Wales, 1(2):222, 2:744, 2:748;Beaglehole , ed., Journals of Captain Cook, 3:786;Historical Records of New South Wales, 2:796, 2:818; William Walker to Richard Watson, 5 Dec. 1821, Bonwick Transcripts, 52:1047, Mitchell Library, Sydney (hereafter ML);Caley George to Joseph Banks, 16 Feb. 1809, in George Caley, Reflections on the Colony of New South Wales, ed. Currey J. E. B. (Melbourne: Landsdowne Press, 1966), 177–78.

25. Historical Records of New South Wales, 2:663; Ann Gore to “My dear Mary Ann,” 29 Sept. 1837, inHeney Helen, ed., Dear Fanny: Women's Letters to and from New South Wales, 1788-1857 (Rushcutters Bay, NSW: Australian National University Press, 1985), 130; George Worgan to his brother, June 1788, C830, ML;[Lucett Edward,] Rovings in the Pacific, from 1837 to 1849 (London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1851), 1:56;Hunter John, An Historical Journal of the Transactions at Port Jackson and Norfolk Island (London: John Stockdale, 1793), 58.

26. James Campbell to Dr. Farr, 24 March 1791, Doc. 1174, ML. British men would overcome their squeamishness. By the 1840s the colonial government was concerned that there were too many “half-caste” children being born and that many of them quickly became victims of infanticide in Aboriginal communities. Report from the Committee on Immigration (Sydney: W. J. Row, 1841), 36;Westgarth William, A Report on the Condition, Capabilities, and Prospects of the Australian Aborigines (Melbourne: William Clarke, 1846), 15.

27. [Mudie Robert,] The Picture of Australia (London: Whittaker, Treacher, and Co., 1829), 228.

28. William Pascoe Crook to Joseph Hardcastle, 8 Nov. 1803, Bonwick Transcripts, 49:215, ML;Irvine Nance, ed., The Sirius Letters: The Complete Letters of Newton Fowell, Midshipman & Lieutenant Aboard the Sirius (Sydney: Fairfax Library, 1988), 90;A Voyage to New South Wales: The Journal of Lieutenant William Bradley RN of HMS Sirius 1786-1792 (Sydney: Trustees of the Public Library of New South Wales, 1969), 140;Hunter , An Historical Journal, 59-60; The Voyage of Governor Phillip to Botany Bay (London: John Stockdale, 1789), 106–7.

29. Flood Josephine, Archaeology of the Dreamtime, rev. ed. (Sydney: Collins, 1989), 229–45;Tench Watkin, A Narrative of the Expedition to Botany Bay (London, 1789), reprinted inTench Watkin, Sydney's First Four Years (Sydney: Angus and Robertson, 1961), 48;Mrs. Sinnett Percy, Hunters and Fishers: or, Sketches of Primitive Races in the Lands Beyond the Sea (London: Chapman and Hall, 1846), 41;Tuckey J. H., An Account of a Voyage to Establish a Colony at Port Philip in Bass's Strait, on the South Coast of New South Wales (London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, and Orme, 1805), 180.

30. Blackburn D. to Knight R., 19 March 1791, Ab 163, ML; Knight R. J. B. and Frost Alan, eds., The Journal of Daniel Paine, 1794-1797 (Sydney: Library of Australian History, 1983), 39;Tench Watkin, A Complete Account of the Settlement at Port Jackson (London, 1793), reprinted in Tench, Sydney's First Four Years, 281;M'Combie Thomas, Australian Sketches, 2d ed. (Melbourne: Gazette Office, 1847), 244; “Civilization of the Aborigines,” Arden's Sydney Magazine, Oct. 1843, 66;Henderson John, Observations on the Colonies of New South Wales and Van Diemen's Land (Calcutta: Baptist Mission Press, 1832), 152. See alsoLatham Robert Gordon, The Natural History of the Varieties of Man (London: John Van Voorst, 1850), 223.

31. A Few Words on the Aborigines of Australia,” New South Wales Magazine 1 (1843): 5859; Barron Field, “On the Aborigines of New Holland and Van Diemen's Land,” inField Barron, ed., Geographical Memoirs on New South Wales (London: John Murray, 1825), 202–4;Russell to Gipps George, 25 August 1840, British Parliamentary Papers: Colonies: Australia (Shannon: Irish University Press, 1968-), 8:73.

32. Holman James, Travels in China, New Zealand, New South Wales, Van Diemen's Land, Cape Horn, etc., etc., 2d ed. (London: George Routledge, 1840), 475;Flinders Matthew, Observations on the Coasts of Van Diemen's Land, on Bass's Strait and its Islands, and on Part of the Coasts of New South Wales (London: John Nicholas, 1801), 20;Dove T., “Moral and Social Characteristics of the Aborigines of Tasmania,” Tasmanian Journal of Natural Science 1 (1842): 249;Orton Joseph, Aborigines of Australia (London: Thoms, 1836), 3.

33. Robert Scott to his mother, 16 August 1801, Doc. 1109, ML; P[eter] Cunningham , Two Years in New South Wales (London: Henry Colburn, 1827), 2:46;[Betts T.,] An Account of the Colony of Van Diemen's Land (Calcutta: Baptist Mission Press, 1830), 95;Napier Charles James, Colonization; Particularly in Southern Australia (London: T. & W. Boone, 1835), 94;Dredge James, Brief Notices of the Aborigines of New South Wales (Geelong: James Harrison, 1845), 910.

34. Cunningham , Two Years in New South Wales, 2:46;Grant James, The Narrative of a Voyage of Discovery, Performed in His Majesty's Vessel The Lady Nelson (London: T. Egerton, 1803), 167;Collins David, An Account of the English Colony in New South Wales (London, 1798-1802) (Christchurch: Whitcombe and Tombs, 1910), 299.

35. Morgan Sharon, Land Settlement in Early Tasmania: Creating an Antipodean England (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992), 143–60; John C. Weaver, “Beyond the Fatal Shore: Pastoral Squatting and the Occupation of Australia, 1826 to 1852,” American Historical Review 101 (1996): 981-1007;Historical Records of New South Wales, 1(2):346, 2:769;Reynolds Henry, Fate of a Free People (Ringwood, Vic.: Penguin Books, 1995);Reynolds Henry, The Other Side of the Frontier: Aboriginal Resistance to the European Invasion of Australia (Ringwood, Vic.: Penguin Books, 1982);British Parliamentary Papers: Colonies: Australia, 3:199.

36. Kercher Bruce, Debt, Seduction and Other Disasters: The Birth of Civil Law in Convict New South Wales (Sydney: Federation Press, 1996), 85;Scott James, Remarks on a Passage to Botany Bay, 1787-1792 (Sydney: Trustees of the Public Library of New South Wales, 1963), 34;Breton H.W., Excursions in New South Wales, Western Australia, and Van Dieman's Land [sic] (London: Richard Bentley, 1833), 219.

37. Historical Records of Australia (Sydney: Library Committee of the Commonwealth Parliament, 1914-), series IV, 1:330. There may be earlier formal statements of terra nullius lurking in unpublished court records. Continuous law reporting did not begin in New South Wales until the 1860s.

38. Historical Records of Australia, series IV, 1:414.

39. Phillip to Nepean , 9 July 1788, Historical Records of New South Wales, 1(2):153. Phillip had anticipated that such would be the case.Frost Alan, Arthur Phillip 1738-1814: His Voyaging (Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1987), 144.

40. William Bradley, manuscript journal, 75 (4 Feb. 1788), A3631, ML; Butlin N. G., Economics and the Dreamtime: A Hypothetical History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), 139.

41. Hunter, An Historical Journal, 62. Hunter's book bears a publication date of 1793, but his observations are dated 1788.

42. Phillip to Sydney , 13 Feb. 1790, Historical Records of New South Wales, 1(2):309;Dawson Robert, The Present State of Australia, 2d ed. (London: Smith, Elder and Co., 1831), 63. For modern discussions of Aboriginal property systems in the first half of the nineteenth century, seeHiatt L. R., Arguments about Aborigines: Australia and the Evolution of Social Anthropology (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), 1335;Critchett Jan, A “Distant Field of Murder”: Western District Frontiers 1834-1848 (Carlton, Vic.: Melbourne University Press, 1990), 3751;Hallam Sylvia J., Fire and Hearth: A Study of Aboriginal Usage and European Usurpation in South-Western Australia (Canberra: Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies, 1979), 4143.

43. Collins , An Account of the English Colony, 327. The same story, probably copied from Collins, appears in a slightly later account published, probably pseudonymously, under the name of the pickpocketBarrington George, The History of New South Wales (London: M. Jones, 1802), 24.

44. Moore George Fletcher, Diary of Ten Years Eventful Life of an Early Settler in Western Australia (London: M. Walbrook, 1884), 259(diary entry for 26 March 1835);Clark Ian D., ed., The Journals of George Augustus Robinson, Chief Protector, Port Phillip Aboriginal Protectorate, 2d ed. (Ballarat, Victoria: Heritage Matters, 2000), 2:311(journal entry for 17 July 1841).

45. Karsten Peter, Between Law and Custom: “High” and “Low” Legal Cultures in the Lands of the British Diaspora—The United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, 1600-1900 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002), 256–61;King to Hobart , 20 Dec. 1804, Historical Records of Australia, series I, 5:166;Plomley N. J. B., ed., Friendly Mission: The Tasmania Journals and Papers of George Augustus Robinson, 1829-1834 (Kingsgrove, NSW: Tasmanian Historical Research Association, 1966), 88(journal entry for 23 Nov. 1829).

46. Portland to Hunter , 26 Feb. 1800, Historical Records of New South Wales, 4:58.

47. Baudin to King , 23 Dec. 1802, Historical Records of New South Wales, 5:830.

48. King to Bligh, n.d. 1807, Philip Gidley King Papers, C189, p. 273, ML.

49. Ritchie John, Lachlan Macquarie: A Biography (Carlton, Vic.: Melbourne University Press, 1986), 132; Proclamation, 10 Dec. 1814, Supreme Court: Miscellaneous Correspondence Relating to Aborigines, 5/1161, 1:16-17, State Records New South Wales, Sydney (hereafter SRNSW).

50. Sydney Gazette, 20 April 1827, 2; Australia: An Appeal to the World on Behalf of the Younger Branch of the Family of Shem (Sydney: Spilsbury and M'Eachern, 1839), ix; “New Holland,”South-Asian Register 2 (1828): 115.

51. Plomley , ed., Friendly Mission, 202–3;Threlkeld Lancelot E., Report of the Mission to the Aborigines at Lake Macquarie, New South Wales (Sydney: Herald Office, [1838]), 2;The Report of the Aborigines' Committee of the Meeting for Sufferings, Read at the Yearly Meeting 1840 (London: Harvey and Darton, 1840), 9.

52. Sydney Herald, 16 Feb. 1835, 2;Southern Australian, 8 May 1839, 3:4;Strzelecki Paul Edmund de, Physical Description of New South Wales and Van Diemen's Land (London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1845), 348n., 340;Dredge , Brief Notices, 14;[M'Combie Thomas,] Adventures of a Colonist (London: John & Daniel A. Darling, [1845]), 267. For similar doubts, seeWestmacott Arthur, “The ‘Australian Aborigines,’” Colonial Magazine and East India Review 21 (1851): 398;A Plea on Behalf of the Aboriginal Inhabitants of Victoria (Geelong: Advertiser Office, 1856), 56.

53. Bruce Kercher, “Native Title in the Shadows: The Origins of the Myth of Terra nullius in Early New South Wales Courts,” in Colonialism and the Modern World: Selected Studies, ed. Blue Gregory et al. (Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 2002), 100–19; Bruce Kercher, “The Recognition of Aboriginal Status and Laws in the Supreme Court of New South Wales under Forbes, CJ, 1824-1836,” inLand and Freedom: Law, Property Rights and the British Diaspora, ed. Buck A. R., McLaren John, and Wright Nancy E. (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2001), 83102.

54. R. v. Lowe (1827), in Decisions of the Superior Courts of New South Wales, 1788-1899, ed. Bruce Kercher, www.law.mq.edu.au/scnsw (visited 10 June 2002).

55. R. v. Jackey (1834); R. v. Lego'me (1835); R. v. Murrell (1836), all in Kercher, ed., Decisions. For a similar claim, with a more ambivalent judicial response, see R. v. Bonjon (1841), in Kercher, ed., Decisions.

56. Knaplund Paul, James Stephen and the British Colonial System 1813-1847 (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1953), 8384;British Parliamentary Papers: Anthropology: Aborigines (Shannon: Irish University Press, 1968-1969), 2:4, 5, 8283.

57. Grey to Torrens, 15 Dec. 1835, CO 13/3, p. 112, PRO; Julie Cassidy, “A Reappraisal of Aboriginal Land Policy in Colonial Australia: Imperial and Colonial Instruments and Legislation Recognising the Special Rights and Status of the Australian Aboriginals,” Journal of Legal History 10 (1989): 365–79.

58. Torrens to Grey, Dec. 1835, CO 13/3, p. 161, PRO; “First Annual Report of the Colonization Commissioners for South Australia,” 14 June 1836, British Parliamentary Papers: Colonies: Australia, 4:480; “Second Letter of Instructions by the Colonization Commissioners for South Australia to James Hurtle Fisher, Esq., Resident Commissioner in South Australia,” 8 Oct. 1836,British Parliamentary Papers: Colonies: Australia, 5:192. See also “Letter of Instructions by the Colonization Commissioners of South Australia to his Excellency Lieutenant-Colonel George Gawler, Resident Commissioner in South Australia,” 25 May 1838,British Parliamentary Papers: Colonies: Australia, 5:347.

59. Gawler to Russell, 1 August 1840, CO 13/16, p. 56, PRO. 60. C. P. Billot, John Batman: The Story of John Batman and the Founding of Melbourne (Melbourne: Hyland House, 1979), 79102;Campbell Alistair H., John Batman and the Aborigines (Malmsbury, Vic.: Kibble Books, [1987]), 8498. The treaties by which Batman believed he had purchased the land are published inBonwick James, John Batman: The Founder of Victoria, 2d ed. (Melbourne, 1868), ed. Sayers C. E. (Melbourne: Wren Publishing, 1973), 8487.

61. Enclosure in Mercer to Glenelg, 6 April 1836, Historical Records of Australia, series I, 18:389.

62. This is the opinion of the lawyer and MP William Burge, 16 Jan. 1836, reprinted in Westgarth William, Australia Felix (Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd, 1848), 394–97.

63. Grey to Mercer , 14 April 1836, Historical Records of Australia, series I, 18:390.

64. A. G. L. Shaw, “British Policy Towards the Australian Aborigines, 1830-1850,” Australian Historical Studies 25 (1992): 265–85;Bennett J. M., ed., Some Papers of Sir Francis Forbes (Sydney: Parliament of New South Wales, 1998), 228; R. v. Steele (1834), inKercher , ed., Decisions; Normanby to Gipps, 29 June 1839, CO 202/40, p. 127, PRO; Attorney-General v. Brown, 1 Legge 312 (1847); A. R. Buck, “‘Strangers in Their Own Land’: Capitalism, Dispossession and the Law,” inBuck A. R. et al., eds., Land and Freedom, 3956.

65. British Parliamentary Papers: Colonies: Australia, 2:147; Campbell to Burton, 22 June 1838, Supreme Court: Miscellaneous Correspondence Relating to Aborigines, 5/1161, 2:492, SRNSW;Hodgkinson Clement, Australia, from Port Macquarie to Moreton Bay (London: T. and W. Boone, 1845), 242;Haygarth Henry William, Reminiscences of Bush Life in Australia, During a Residence of Eight Years in the Interior (London, 1848) (London: John Murray, 1861), 107. See alsoBartlett Thomas, New Holland: Its Colonization, Productions & Resources (London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1843), 70.

66. Sydney Gazette, 19 August 1824, 4:1;Windeyer Richard, “On the Rights of the Aborigines of Australia” (ca. 1842), A1400, 32, ML; Southern Australian, 8 May 1839, 2:5; “The Aborigines of New Holland,”The Blossom 1 (1828): 4647;Sydney Herald, 5 December 1838, 2:1;Howitt Richard, Impressions of Australia Felix, During Four Years' Residence in that Colony (London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1845), 277;Kittle Samuel, A Concise History of the Colony and Natives of New South Wales (Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd, [1815]), 7.

67. Report from the Select Committee on the Aborigines and Protectorate (Sydney: W. W. Davies, 1849), 20;Parker Edward Stone, The Aborigines of Australia (Melbourne: Hugh M'Coll, 1854), 30;Butlin N. G., Forming a Colonial Economy, Australia 1810-1850 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994), 210–13.

68. Pridden William, Australia, Its History and Present Condition, 2d ed. (London: James Burns, 1845), 7273;Graham's Town Journal, 22 February 1844, CO 386/155, p. 164, PRO;Macquarie Lachlan, Journals of His Tours in New South Wales and Van Diemen's Land 1810-1822 (Sydney: Trustees of the Public Library of New South Wales, 1956), 160.

69. Reece R. H. W., Aborigines and Colonists: Aborigines and Colonial Society in New South Wales in the 1830s and 1840s (Sydney: Sydney University Press, 1974), 166–69.

70. Bannister Saxe, Humane Policy; or Justice to the Aborigines of New Settlements (London: Thomas and George Underwood, 1830), 51, 87. See alsoBannister Saxe, British Colonization and Coloured Tribes (London: William Ball, 1838), 277.

71. Report from the Committee on the Aborigines Question (Sydney: J. Spilsbury, 1838), 31, 33;Maconochie Alexander, Thoughts on Convict Management (Hobart: J. C. MacDougall, 1838), 192;Hodgson Christopher Pemberton, Reminiscences of Australia, with Hints on the Squatter's Life (London: W. N. Wright, 1846), 76;Report from the Select Committee on the Condition of the Aborigines (Sydney: W. W. Davies, 1845), 10.

72. Quoted in Reynolds Henry, An Indelible Stain? The Question of Genocide in Australia's History (Ringwood, Vic.: Viking, 2001), 99;Walker William to Watson Richard, 29 November 1821, Bonwick Transcripts, 52:1043–44, ML.

73. British Parliamentary Papers: Colonies: Australia, 2:211, 2:216–17.

74. Goodall Heather, Invasion to Embassy: Land in Aboriginal Politics in New South Wales, 1770-1992 (St. Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin, 1996), 4456; Macquarie to Bathurst, 24 February 1820 and 27 July 1822,British Parliamentary Papers: Colonies: Australia, 4:155 and 3:329; Proclamation, June 1838, Supreme Court: Miscellaneous Correspondence Relating to Aborigines, 5/1161, 2:495, SRNSW.

75. Kercher Cf. Bruce, An Unruly Child: A History of Law in Australia (St. Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin, 1995), 19.

76. Glenelg to Bourke , 13 April 1836, Historical Records of Australia, series I, 18:379;Grey to Mercer , 14 April 1836, Historical Records of Australia, series I, 18:390;South Australian Register, 1 August 1840, 5:1.

77. CO 1/63, pp. 119, 116, PRO; The Declaration of the Gentlemen, Merchants, and Inhabitants of Boston (Boston, 1689), in The Andros Tracts, ed. Whitmore W. H. (Boston: Prince Society, 1868-1874), 1:1516 (emphasis in the original).

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