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    Ma, Jian Ma, Yueru Bai, Yong and Xia, Bing 2014. Study on the Technical Efficiency of Creative Human Capital in China by Three-Stage Data Envelopment Analysis Model. Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society, Vol. 2014, p. 1.

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  • Tetsuya Nakajima (a1) and Hideki Nakamura (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 23 November 2011

We clarify the different effects of elementary and higher education on human capital accumulation and inequality. The productivity of elementary education plays a significant role in the widening of inequality regardless of the existence of multiple steady states. When the productivity of elementary education is low, the poor cannot afford higher education in the long run because the demand for education by the rich makes the price of education too high for the poor. However, the effect of its productivity on the attainable education level is ambiguous. A rise in the productivity of higher education always increases the education level.

Corresponding author
Address correspondence to: Hideki Nakamura, Faculty of Economics, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi, Osaka 558-8585, Japan; e-mail:
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Roland Bénabou (2000) Unequal societies: Income distribution and the social conflict. American Economic Review 90, 96129.

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Michael Rothschild and Lawrence J. White (1995) The analytics of the pricing of higher education and other services in which the customers are inputs. Journal of Political Economy 103, 573586.

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Macroeconomic Dynamics
  • ISSN: 1365-1005
  • EISSN: 1469-8056
  • URL: /core/journals/macroeconomic-dynamics
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