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Authoritarian Leadership and Extra-Role Behaviors: A Role-Perception Perspective

  • Yan Zhang (a1) (a2) and Yun-Hui Xie (a3) (a4)
Abstract
ABSTRACT

Authoritarian leaders make unilateral decisions and prevail over subordinates. Such leadership, as a style of exercising formal authority and position power, may inhibit employees’ extra-role behaviors in the hierarchical role structure. We explore employees’ role perceptions to better understand how supervisors’ authoritarian leadership decreases extra-role behaviors (OCBs). Authoritarian behavior is expected to generate subordinate perceptions of role conflict, role ambiguity, and role overload, with consequent negative effects on OCB. Hypotheses are tested using data from 613 subordinate – supervisor dyads. Empirical results indicate that authoritarian leadership increases subordinate role conflict and overload which then decreases OCB. Authoritarian behavior also increases role ambiguity, but role ambiguity is not associated with OCB. The article concludes with research suggestions and practical implications.

摘要:

专制型领导人作单方面的决定并优先于下属。这样的领导力, 作为一种行使正式权威及权力地位的风格, 可能会抑制员工在等级角色结构中的角色外行为。我们探讨员工的角色感知, 以更好地认识监管者的专制领导力如何减小角色外行为 (OCBs) 。专制行为预计将产生下属对角色冲突、角色模糊和角色超载的看法, 随之带来对OCB的负面影响。使用613个下属–监管者对偶数据对假设进行了测试。实证结果表明专制型领导力增加下属的角色冲突和超载从而减少OCB。专制行为也增加角色模糊, 但角色模糊与OCB不相关。文章最后提出研究建议及实际启示。

अधिकारवादी नेता एकपक्षीय निर्णय लेते हैं और अपने अधीनस्थ कर्मचारियों पर हावी होते हैं. औपचारिक प्राधिकार व पदस्थ शक्ति के सन्दर्भ में ऐसी नेतृत्व शैली कर्मचारियों के भूमिका से इतर व्यवहारों को बाधित करती है. हमने कर्मचारियों की भूमिका अनुभूति पर अनुसंधान यह समझने के लिए किया है कि किस प्रकार परिवेक्षक का अधिकारवादी व्यवहार मातहतों के भूमिका-इतर व्यवहार को काम करता है. अधिकारवादी व्यवहार से अधीन कर्मचारियों में भूमिका संघर्ष, भूमिका द्वंद्व तथा भूमिका अतिभार होने का अनुमान है जिस से भूमिका इतर व्यवहार पर नकारात्मक प्रभाव होता है. इन अवधारणाओं को 613 परिवेक्षक-मातहत युग्म से प्राप्त आंकड़ों पर परखा गया है. परिणामों के अनुसार अधिकारवादी नेतृत्व मातहतों में भूमिका संघर्ष व अतिभार बढ़ाता है जिससे भूमिका इतर व्यवहार में ह्रास होता है. अधिकारवादी नेतृत्व से भूमिका दुविधा भी बढ़ती है लेकिन इस दुविधा का भूमिका इतर व्यवहार से सम्बन्ध नहीं है. शोध पत्र के अंत में शोध सुझाव व व्यावहारिक आशयों पर चर्चा कि गयी है.

Sumário:

Líderes autoritários tomam decisões unilaterais e prevalecem sobre os subordinados. Tal liderança, como um estilo de exercer autoridade formal e poder de posição, pode inibir os comportamentos extra-papéis dos empregados na estrutura hierárquica de papéis. Exploramos as percepções do papel dos funcionários para entender melhor como a liderança autoritária de supervisores diminui os comportamentos extra-papéis (OCBs). Espera-se que o comportamento autoritário gere percepções secundárias sobre o conflito de papéis, a ambiguidade de papéis e sobrecarga de papéis, com consequentes efeitos negativos sobre o OCB. As hipóteses são testadas usando dados de 613 díades subordinado-supervisor. Os resultados empíricos indicam que a liderança autoritária aumenta o conflito de papéis dos subordinados e a sobrecarrega, que por sua vez diminui a OCB. O comportamento autoritário também aumenta a ambiguidade do papel, mas a ambiguidade do papel não está associada ao OCB. O artigo conclui com sugestões de pesquisa e implicações práticas.

АННОТАЦИЯ:

Авторитарные лидеры принимают односторонние решения и доминируют над подчиненными. Такой тип руководства, который заключается в исполнении формальных полномочий и использовании должностной власти, может препятствовать моделям поведения, которые выходят за пределы роли сотрудников в иерархической структуре. Мы исследуем восприятие роли сотрудниками, чтобы лучше понять, как авторитарное руководство со стороны начальников сокращает вне-ролевые модели поведения. Авторитарное поведение, как предполагается, создает у сотрудников восприятие роли как полной конфликта, неоднозначности и перегрузки с последующим негативным воздействием на вне-ролевые модели поведения. Гипотезы были протестированы на основании данных, которые содержат примеры 613 взаимоотношений между подчиненными и начальниками. Эмпирические результаты указывают на то, что авторитарное руководство увеличивает ролевые конфликты и перегрузки у подчиненных, что впоследствии сокращает вне-ролевые модели поведения. Авторитарное поведение также повышает ролевую неоднозначность, которая, однако, не связана с вне-ролевыми моделями поведения. В заключение, делаются некоторые теоретические выводы, а также обсуждаются практические результаты.

RESUMEN:

Los líderes autoritarios toman decisiones unilaterales y prevalecen sobre sus subordinados. Este liderazgo, como un estilo de ejercer autoridad formal y posición de poder, puede inhibir los comportamientos de roles extra de los empleados en la jerarquía de estructura de roles. Exploramos las percepciones de los roles de los empleados para entender mejor como le liderazgo autoritario de los supervisores disminuye los comportamientos de roles extra (OCBs). Se espera que el comportamiento autoritario genere percepciones subordinadas del conflicto de roles, la ambigüedad de roles, y la sobrecarga de roles, con los consecuentes efectos negativos sobre los OCB. Las hipótesis se prueban usando datos de 613 diadas de subordinados-supervisores. Los resultados empíricos indican que el liderazgo autoritario aumenta el conflicto de roles y la sobrecarga que luego disminuye los OCB. El comportamiento autoritario también aumenta la ambigüedad de roles, pero la ambigüedad no se asociada con los OCB. Este artículo concluye con sugerencias para investigación e implicaciones prácticas.

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Corresponding author
Corresponding author: Yan Zhang (annyan.zhang@pku.edu.cn)
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